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Through Private Institutions, coordinated by the Ministry of Manpower, various trainings were carried out all over Indonesia. Each year these institutions are capable to provide training for about 500,000 to 750,000 participants. Most of the participants who joined training are the job-seekers age between 17 and 35 years old.

Ministry of Manpower has provided also vocational training through BLK (Job Training Institution), At present the number of BLKs are 156 spread across the country, From 1990/1991 to 1997/1998 BLK has produced 873,650 trainees covering the following vocational skills: welding, electronics, computer, automotive mechanics, construction, engineering and automotive.

e) Apprenticeship Program

One of the efforts to decrease the number of unemployed is through the implementation of apprenticeship, The apprenticeship is aimed at providing the job-seekers with vocational skills enabling them to be self-employed or employed. Since 1989/1990 the Ministry of Education and Culture implemented apprenticeship programs in 27 provinces. The number of apprentices from 1989/1990 to 1998/1999 was 119,427 utilizing the fund available amounted to Rp 22,087,450,000,-. The following table shows the result, i.e the number of apprentices produced in each province.

From 1993/1994 to 1997/1998, the Ministry of Manpower produced 4,960 apprentices. The implementation of apprenticeship is conducted both by the Ministry of Manpower and the Ministry of Education and Culture always involving various kinds of industrial and business associations.

Table 2.19

Description of Apprenticeship Program Organized by MOEC by Province

Year 1989/1990 to 1997/1998

 No,

Province

Year

89/90

90/91

91/92

92/93

93/94

94/95

95/96

96/07

97/98

98/99

Total

1,

Aceh

25

20

100

290

899

1,335

1,440

435

435

200

5,179

2

North Sumatera

50

40

300

493

1,189

1,540

1,440

348

348

500

6,248

3

West Sumatera

25

20

200

406

928

1,189

1,080

261

261

300

4,670

4

Riau

15

20

100

203

551

725

720

174

174

100

2,782

5

Jambi

15

20

150

174

435

610

600

174

174

100

2,452

6

South Sumatera

25

20

100

290

725

1,020

960

261

261

200

3,862

7

Bengkulu

15

20

100

116

377

550

600

174

174

100

2,226

8

Lampung

25

20

100

116

377

1,078

720

261

261

200

3,158

9

DKI Jakarta

50

40

300

374

203

620

160

58

119

800

2,724

10

West Jawa

150

40

700

696

1,392

1,760

1,460

290

380

2,500

9,368

11

Central Jawa

125

70

700

1,044

1,682

2,060

1,380

290

400

1,600

9,351

12

D,I,Yogyakarta

50

30

300

145

203

740

275

58

96

200

2,097

13

East Jawa

125

40

700

1,073

2,059

2,420

1,860

290

1,106

2,500

12,173

14

Bali

25

20

100

232

609

2,100

945

261

471

200

4,963

15

NTB

25

20

80

174

609

957

1,080

348

348

200

3,841

16

NTT

25

20

80

348

1,305

1,220

1,960

464

464

200

6,086

17

East Timor

15

20

70

377

1,073

0

0

261

0

100

1,916

18

West Kalimantan

25

10

80

203

812

1,586

1,320

348

358

200

4,942

19

Central Kal,

15

40

80

174

348

342

480

174

174

100

1,927

20

South Kal,

25

30

80

290

986

860

1,320

261

261

625

4,738

21

East Kalimantan

15

20

80

174

609

783

840

174

184

100

2,979

22

North Sulawesi

25

20

100

203

464

638

600

174

174

200

2,598

23

Central Sulawesi

15

20

100

116

464

725

840

261

261

100

2,902

24

South Sulawesi

50

40

100

667

1,972

2,640

2,600

580

580

200

9,429

25

S,E, Sulawesi

15

20

100

116

464

1,092

960

348

348

100

3,563

26

Maluku

15

20

50

145

232

410

360

174

174

100

1,680

27

Irian Jaya

15

10

50

261

783

0

0

348

0

100

1,567

Total

1,000

710

5,000

8,900

21,750

29,000

26,000

7,250

7,986

11,825

119,421

Source: Directorate of Community Education.

7. Effectiveness of the EFA Strategy, Plan and Programs

One of the strategies of educational development in Indonesia (among three others) is maintaining equity and equality of educational opportunity , as a major theme of educational development, since the First Five Year Development of the nation (Repelita I) commenced in 1968/1969. One of the programs to expand educational opportunity was brought into being through a major program called INPRES SD (one of the national education programs under Presidential Decree) in 1973. This program tried to build the educational underpinnings (school building, teacher provision, school facilities and equipment), in such a way, so as to be capable in implementing the educational access across the country in a relatively short-term. The result was apparent; 10 years after in 1983, the Net Enrollment Rate (NER) of primary school was arrived at 85% level, allowed for another program to commence in 1984, namely 6 Year Compulsory Education for Primary School. The strategy had been steadily developed and implemented in a long-term period, as ten years later, when NER for primary and lower secondary school reached about 92% and 60%, the program was extended to 9 year Compulsory Basic Education Program in 1994, covering 6 years and 3 years for primary and lower secondary levels.

One of the implications in basic education expansion (from 6 to 9 years) is the provision of educational opportunities for about 6 million 7-15 years school-age population, which was planned to be completed in 15 years. There was a slight change earlier at the outset of the program, to cut down the period of completion to 10 years (instead of 15 years), aiming at the momentum of AFTA free market society which will be commenced in 2003. However, as the time goes, the economic crisis hits the heart of people’s will to educate their children at schools. The net enrollment ratio (NER) was slowing down especially for primary and lower secondary levels, almost exactly a year after the crisis (see section 9, Public Awareness). The Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) for primary schools was progressing to 95% in 1997, was then slightly decreased to 93,74% in 1998. As well, at lower secondary level, the NER was advancing to 56,03% in 1997, was scarcely decreased to 53% in 1998. The aiming bull of ten years completion targeted before turns to be a little too ambitious due to the bounded capacities of the people and the government.

There are at least two prominent aspects that need to be reviewed to improve the government strategies to carry through this program. First, as the implication of 9-Year Universal Basic Education program is to provide educational opportunities for about 6 million people, the limited capacities of the government for schooling provision should optimally be matched with the efforts of implementing Packet A (for primary school level) and Packet B (for lower secondary level) programs. There has to be priorities setting promulgated, so as Packet A and Packet B programs can optimally be devoted to contribute to Nine-Year Compulsory Basic Education program.

Second, the expansion of equity and equality of educational opportunities has not gone hand in hand with the quality improvement. The National Exam results (Ebtanas) for primary and lower secondary education are strengthening the premise of an extent to which quantity of educational opportunity is even largely emphasized than the quality improvement of education itself. Expansion and equality on one hand and improvement of quality on the other hand are two-folds in one alternative not two alternatives. It is not possible to choose expansion and equality of educational opportunities alone during the first phase and then having quality improvement at the next phase or otherwise. Both have to be carried out simultaneously and this is the main challenge of this policy.

8. Main problems encountered and anticipated

a. Expansion of early childhood care and developmental activities

1) Main problems

While all people try to make efforts to enhance the implementation of the program, economic crisis in Indonesia has a very serious impact towards the implementation of all programs including educational programs for children at early childhood.

Social impacts are experienced directly by the community, especially health care for children at early childhood is very hopeless and disappointing. The crisis influences people not to consume good quality food, especially poor people, because they are not able to buy both quality and quantity food. Besides, there is a decrease of health services which of course creates health and nutrition problems for society, especially for children and pregnant mothers (Budi Utomo, 1998).

Although the data was not available specifically, it was thought that until the end of 1998, four million babies under two years old have suffered malnutrition caused by the economic crisis. This total number will double if it is added with the number of other infants. This situation will delay the development of children’s intelligence as well as their quality as an impact of the lack of health care during childhood caused by the economic crisis Children cannot develop optimally because they do not get the fullfitment of their needs through caring at home (Utami Munandar, 1998).

In Indonesia, there are Play Groups, TPA or Kindergarten for children of pre-primary school, the data show that the percentage of children who have ever studied there are relatively small. By this economic situation, the need for food is more of priority than sending children to play group or kindergarten. In addition, school fees and other funding support for Play Group and Kindergarten are very expensive. Moreover, the quality of Play Group and Kindergarten are still low including the quality of teachers as well as teaching-learning processes. These are caused by the lack of funding support (ECD Study, Depdikbud 1997).

2) Problems anticipated

a) Program of ECD is enhanced and improved focusing on poor families

The improvement can be done through several efforts such as to educate children from early childhood through some alternative approaches, such as:

  1. Give direct service to the children or the institution responsible for giving service to the children.
  2. Enhance the participation of society through program of society by training cadres.
  3. Enhance the awareness of society about the importance of the program.
  4. Develop working network in the society that can support the implementation of the development program of early childhood.

Other forms are giving service to infants through Non-Governmental Organizations. The effect of improving the nutrition of infants by the economic situation of the family due to the economic crisis nowadays, there has been conducted service program for infants through organization/non-government foundation and international institutions as follows.

    1. Providing additional food to infants in poor areas (IDT) to improve the nutritional status of infants and to enhance the awareness of parents and society are done by YKAI foundation (Yayasan Kesejahteraan Anak Indonesia).
    2. Competition on the welfare of Indonesian infants in 1998. Participants were around 144,161 babies. The objective of this program is to enhance the awareness of society through self-government for the development and guidance of children done by YKAI.
    3. Improve Health Service for Mother and Children.
    4. Through funding support from Japanese government, there will be a project for improving health service for mothers and children in North Sulawesi. The objective of this project is to improve the quality of human resources in rural areas.
    5. Improvement of infants’ nutritional quality
    6. Through a program of Social Safety Net (JPS) for health of 243,000 infants and babies in East Java province, health and nutritional quality will be improved and 14,000 babies are categorized as malnourished.

b) Some activities in education to support health and nutrition.

(1) Establishment of Kindergarten

In 1993-1998 period, Indonesia has established Kindergarten throughout all districts in Indonesia. Public Kindergartens that become models have been established and given facilities and funding support.

(2) Quality improvement of Kindergarten Teachers

In 1994, a program of Diploma (D2) for kindergarten teachers was opened at three Teacher Training Institutions (IKIP). This kind of program is also conducted by Open University to give kindergarten teachers a chance to improve their profession,

(3) Efforts to improve TK, TPA and Play Group through research

A research will be conducted to know the ability of 0-6 year old children and alternative teaching methods for them. This activity is done based on the problems found in developing countries in relation to high rate of repeaters and drop-outs especially in rural areas. Action research is also done by higher education in Indonesia to support government in preparing the curriculum for Play Group. World Bank will give funding support to do research for basic policy development and for counseling program for early childhood such as to study: (1) the situation of early childhood development (0 to 6 years); (2) the various rules and laws related to guidance and education for early childhood; and (3) the various programs related to nutrition, health and education of children.

(4) Curriculum Revision for Kindergarten

Kindergarten curriculum will be analyzed and improved in order to anticipate assumption that students of Kindergarten get too many instructional materials (overloaded curiculum).

b, Problems in Basic Education

 The problems encountered in basic education could be grouped into the following components:

  1. Lack of accommodation for SLTP students especially in poor areas, rural areas, remote areas, inland and borders.
  2. High repetition and drop-outs among SD and SLTP students.
  3. The low level of achievement in final examination (NEM) as one of the quality indicators in education and the existing weaknesses in organizing the final exam (EBTANAS) as well as the collection of valid and reliable data on NEM.
  4. Low participation of community in supporting Nine Year Basic Education due to geography, economy, and local socio-cultural aspects of the concerned community.
  5. Lack of coordination and communication of those involved in Coordinating Team of Nine Year Basic Education in solving problems on program implementation of the primary and lower secondary school which caused internal inefficiency.
  6. Lack of access to the data supporting the recent policy due to the late production process of raw data so that the data presented might not describe the real condition and situation of the program. For example, the data of teacher qualification on Part II point 7 only describes qualified teachers at secondary level rather than that of higher levels which should actually become the new policy of the Government.

c. Problems in Learning Achievement

The main problem detected is the production process of data on NEM. It is assumed that data on NEM processed by the Center of Examination of Balitbang Dikbud will be considered reliable and valid. However, this is not true since data submitted by the province has been manipulated and deviated in some ways. So that there will be bias in data analyses.

d. Problems in Illiteracy Eradication

  1. Lack of continued support of community and NGOs in empowering and motivating adult literacy learners.
  2. The different data on the number of illiteracy collected caused lack of accuracy in data analyses.

e, Problems of Training in Essential Skills

There is disparity between job-seekers and job opportunities due to the existing disparity between the skills acquired and the required skills. The problem will persist if equality, relevancy and quality of education are not continuously promoted. The enhancement of equal educational opportunities and quality of basic education will improve the structure of workforce in Indonesia, which in turn will increase economic growth of the country and create new job opportunities.

f. Conclusion.

In principle, lack of access to production of data which is useful, accurate, and on time, has been the main problem to be solved in order to facilitate the decision-making process and the accuracy in educational planning. The coordination among the concerned ministries/agencies is one of the key factors in solving this problem.

9. Public awareness, political will and national capacities

The fast development in the provision of learning opportunities in basic education has been clearly the bigger growing needs of the past development, up until the midst of 1997, at which Indonesia experienced the intricacy of economic and monetary crises since then. After the handover of the government from (the former) President Soeharto to President Habibie on May 21st 1998, the impact of the crisis on education was then apparent on the decline pitch of net enrollment ratio for both primary and lower secondary school in 1998, and the transition rate from primary to lower secondary education at the same period. The progressing level of Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) for primary schools was advancing up to 92.3% in 1990, 93.4% in 1994, continuously progressed to around 95% in 1997, but then slightly decreased to the level of 93.74% in 1998. At lower secondary level, the NER was 39.24% in 1990, significantly increased to 56.03% in 1997, but then scarcely went down to about 53% in 1998. Similarly, the pattern of uncertainty occurred in the transition index from primary school to lower secondary schools. It was 60.32% in 1990, then significantly increased to 71.3% in 1995, but then undiscernibly declined to 70.9% in 1998.

Keeping in mind that due to the economic crisis, the resources available for the implementation of universal basic education are limited, the role of the community and parents for the completion of 9-year basic education program is becoming primarily important. In the Education law No.2/1989 it is distinctively defined that provision and operation of educational resources are subject of tripartite government-community-parent responsibilities. Despite in the normal condition, up until the late 1997, public awareness to educate their children was considerably high (as indicated by NER progress for both PS and LSS in 1990-1998); but the economic crisis has a very significant impact in decaying people’s view on education.

As the growing importance of education shifted, people confronted with the fact that education can easily be downgraded to secondary need, as the other primary needs (e,g, foods, clothing) which will serve family survival should be taken care of in the very first place. It leads to the fact that many students are dropped-out as indicated by decrement of NER, and increment of drop-out rate. Within this magnitude, public awareness to help others to maintain their family member/s stay at schools is a growing need that has to be enhanced. National Foster Parents Movement (known as GNOTA in Indonesian acronym) is one among some organized activities in the country, as the realization of the public awareness to alleviate drop-outs among disadvantaged families.

Adjacent to it, is a national program called Social Safety Net--an inter-ministerial program coordinated by the Minister Coordinator for People’s Welfare and Eradication of Poverty--initiated in 1998. The program is intended to help about more than 80 million people who are economically, due to the economic crisis, disadvantaged. In education sector, a program called "Aku Anak Sekolah" ("I am a School Kid") was initiated, socialized and maintained, along with the dispersal of scholarship for primary and lower secondary school students. Abreast of it, a program namely "block grant program" was initiated at the same period, aiming at strengthening primary and junior secondary school capacities for school activities in a form of financial supports.

In order to support the program of compulsory 9-year basic education, out-of-school education has also a very important role to play. In addition to elimination of illiteracy, it also provides an education equivalent to primary and lower secondary school, namely Packet A and Packet B. Therefore, school and out-of school education are mutually supportive in aiming at providing a 9-year basic education opportunity.

10. General Assessment

This sub-chapter discusses general assessment of the following aspects, i,e, early childhood development, basic education (primary and lower secondary school, which include Madrasah Ibtidaiyah-Islamic primary school-and Madrasah Tsanawiyah-Islamic lower secondary school), literacy program and training in essential skillls.

a. Early Childhood Development

Participation rate for student of 2-4 years is only 0.2 percent in Indonesia, much lower than the average of 41 percent in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (OECD Report, 1997), the uneven school distribution still exist seen from inter-provincial level and urban-rural aspect, and most pre-school teachers do not satisfy minimal competencies for pre-school teacher, however in the last few years, pre-school education program has made a reasonable progress in terms of number, quality, or type of pre-school education programs.

Two kinds of efforts have been done so the pre-school education is improving and widely known by society. Firstly, efforts that have been implemented through Non-Governmental Organizations include: (1) new approaches to take good care of early childhood and (2) better service to the early childhood by Non-Governmental Organizations, for example: (1) food supplement for children under 5 years; (2) competition for healthy child; and (3) better service for mothers and children. Secondly, efforts that have been done through educational program, such as: (1) expansion of pre-school education; (2) the quality improvement of pre-school teachers; and (3) research and study in the specific areas of early childhood development.

b. Basic Education

In the first four years since "Compulsory Basic Education" had been set up in 1994, the participation rate has increased significantly for both primary and lower secondary schools. However, perhaps due to the monetary crisis, in 1998 the participation rate has decreased.

Unlike the participation rate, intake rate for both primary and lower secondary schools is slowly but continuously increasing, however, at lower secondary school the intake rate is a little bit more fluctuated though still continuously increasing.

In general, repetition rate for primary school is continuously decreasing for the last ten years. In the same period, repetition rate at lower secondary school tends to decrease though in 1993 it went up significantly then decrease drastically three years afterwards.

Survival rate for primary school is the only educational indicator, which fluctuated unpredictably (especially private primary schools) though there is a tendency that it is going up slightly. Unlike survival rate for primary school, survival rate for lower secondary school is going up smoothly for the last ten years.

In general coefficient of efficiency for primary school is continuously increasing for the last ten years. In the same period, coefficient of efficiency for lower secondary schools has the same pattern as that of primary schools.

In general teacher qualification at lower secondary school is continuously improved for the last ten years except in 1996. In the same period, teacher qualification for primary schools has the same pattern as that of primary schools though in the less moderate fashion.

c. Learning Achievement and Outcomes

If the average NEM of lower secondary school students from each province were correlated to the existence of monetary crisis and assuming that NEMs are valid and reliable in terms of its process as well as its product then seven provinces were survived even more. Sulawesi and Maluku were able to take advantage of the monetary crisis while the remaining provinces had difficulties to overcome the problem of monetary crisis.

The promotion rate for primary school grade four in the last eight years tends to increase, however there was a decrease in 1997/98, this decline looked more drastic in the time of crisis. Repetition rate from 1989/90 to 1996/97 tends to consistently decrease nationally but starting from 1997/98 the number of repeaters tends to increase though it tends to decrease afterwards.

Different from the pattern of promotion rate (which tends to increase) and repetition rates (which tends to decrease), drop-out rate showed the tendency for fluctuation from 1989/1990 to 1999/2000.

d. Literacy Program

Despite some problems faced by the Indonesian people, especially monetary crisis since the midst of 1997, literacy program shows significant improvement. Good coordination among Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Religious Affairs, Ministry of Education and Culture, and Ministry of Defense has made significant contribution to the success of literacy program. This coordination is realized through a program called "OBAMA" ("Operasi Bakti Manunggal Aksara") where Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Religious Affairs are responsible for the optimalization of educational resources (educational facilities and manpower). Ministry of Defense is responsible for the availability of facilitators, while Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for technical implementation of the program.

As long as the equivalent to Primary School is concerned, one of the development of literacy program is at the outset the Packet A equivalent to SD in 1994, where the graduate of this packet is allowed to continue studying at the higher level of education, through formal or out-of-school channel. A tutor association has been established for the tutors in order that they can improve their knowledge and skills while they also assist the learners to learn.

Similar to Packet A, the graduate of packet B is also allowed to continue studying to Upper Secondary School.

e. Training in Essential Skills

Training in essential skills is implemented through four means: vocational secondary schools, non-governmental program, vocational training, and apprenticeships.

For the quality improvement of vocational secondary school graduates the dual system has been applied in vocational secondary schools. Almost all vocational secondary schools have implemented the dual system.

One of the successes of training in essential skills is the standardization of the nine programs (Secretary, Hotel, Computer, Electronics, Mechanic Automotive, Accountancy, "Tata Boga"-Food Preparation, "Tata Busana"-Fashion Design, and "Tata Kecantikan"-Beauty Expert) for improving the program quality especially in the areas of technical, social, and learning competencies.


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