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Indicator 5: Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)

  1. The GER at primary level during the surveyed years was subject to some fluctuations. This ratio rose from 110.6% in 1990 to 113.3% in 1992 and then descended to reach 106.5% in 1998.

The GER among male pupils followed the same trend, increasing from 116.4% in 1990 to 117.7% in 1992 and then declining to 110.6% in 1998.

Table 8: GER (1990-1998), by gender

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

(MF)

110.6

111.1

113.3

113.0

112.1

108.9

107.0

106.9

107.2

(M)

116.4

116.0

117.7

117.0

116.2

113.2

111.3

111.1

110.6

(F)

104.4

106.0

108.7

108.8

107.7

104.5

102.5

102.6

103.8

Source: The office of coordination and integration of the plans

The GER of female pupils underwent some fluctuations too rising from 104.4% in 1990 to 108.8% in 1993 and then declining to 102.3% in 1998. The reasons for the increase and decrease in the GER at primary level during the years under survey are as follows:

  1. Reasons for the increase:
  2. As we know the GER can be calculated by dividing the number of pupils enrolled in primary education by the population figure of 6-10 year olds.

    The numerator of this fraction is obtained by adding two certain figures. The first figure is the number of new entrants to primary grade one and the second figure is the number of pupils between 6 to 17 years of age studying in primary grades two to five. Along with the reduction in the population of age group 6-10 years, there was a slight decline in the number of new entrants to primary grade one from 1990 onward. In return, the number of pupils in primary grades two to five, as a result of the increase in the number of pupils prior to 1990, rose sharply. Finally the difference between this decrease and increase led to a rise in the number of pupils in the years 1990 to 1993 in comparison to the previous year; as a result of which the numerator of the fraction increased too.

    But the denominator of the fraction which is the population of age group 6-10 year olds, in comparison to the previous year, underwent a decline. The GER which is calculated by dividing the number of pupils at primary level by the population figure of age group 6-10 year olds consequently increased.

  3. Reasons for the decrease:

The GER reduced from 1993 onward. The reason for this may be due to the decline in pupils’ population growth rate and as a result the reduction in new entrants primary level, as well as the changes in some of the rules of procedure regarding the examinations in order to facilitate the promotion rate and completion of primary level.

The GER for males and females increased from 1990 to 1993 and declined from 1993 onward. The reason for this fluctuation is as mentioned in the total intake rate.

The comparison between male GER with that of female shows that during the aforesaid period the male GER was constantly higher than that of female, the reasons being as follows:

  1. The prevailing culture particularly in rural areas regarding girls’ education.
  2. Cooperation and participation of girls in housekeeping and babysitting.
  3. Lack of female teachers in some areas and villages.
  4. Co-education in some of the rural classes
  5. Participation of girls in income generating activities for the family such as carpet weaving, handicrafts, etc.

It is noteworthy that every year a great deal of effort is made to increase the number of female entrants, the effect of which is evident as the GER increases.

Figure No 5: Gross Enrollment Ratio (1990-1998), by gender

Source: The office of coordination and integration of the plans

  1. The GER in the period 1990-1998 reveals that the highest ratios were in Kerman, Lorestan, Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari, Ardabil, Gilan, Hormozgan and Markazi, while the lowest were in Sistan and Baluchistan,West Azarbaijan, Yazd, Khorasan and Kurdestan provinces.

Sistan and Baluchestan had the lowest GER during all the years under survey.

2- The causes for high Gross Enrollment Ratio in the several provinces may be explained as follows:

A. Some of the education centers in the aforesaid provinces are coeducational.

B. Repetition rates are high in some education centers of the provinces.

  1. Population of the children who are not in the 6-10 year-old group is high which is the result of delay in enrollment, high number of repetition rate, temporary drop - out and re-enrollment.
  2. Reduction in the population of 6-10 year-old children.

3. The causes for low GER in Sistan & Baluchistan, West Azarbaijan, Khorasan and Kurdestan provices may be explained as follows:

Low GER in Sistan &Baluchistan, West Azarbaijan and Kurdestan was due to low intake rate of school-age children in the surveyed age group.

The causes for low intake rate of the school age children in these provinces was due to the following factors:

  1. Insufficient number of female teachers in some districts (especially in the villages of the relevant provinces)
  2. Co-educational classes in some districts
  3. False and profitable occupations.
  4. Children’s partnership in income generating activities.
  5. Despite the fact that continuous efforts were made to increase the GER in these provinces, they are figure is still low when compared to the other provinces.
  1. The reason for low GER in Yazd province was due to the low repetition rate, timely enrollment of new entrants and low number of pupils who are not in the 6-10 Year-old age group.

All these factors resulted in the low number of primary school pupils as compared with the total population of 6-10 year old age group.

Thus, on one hand it resulted in a high NIR and on the other, a low GER.

Indicator 6: Net Enrollment Ratio (NER)

1. During the current decade (1990-99), the NER had and increasing trend. That is, the ratio increased from 92 2% in 1990 to 97% in 1998. During the same period, NER for females showed the same trend . The ratio increased from 88.4% in 1990 to 95.3% in 1998.

A similar trend was noticed for males too . The ratio increased from 95.9% in 1990 to 98.5% in 1998.

Table 9: Total NER at primary level (1990-1998), by gender

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

(MF)

92.2

94.6

97.2

99.2

99.2

97.3

96.2

96.7

97.0

(M)

95.9

97.5

99.6

100

100

99.7

98.6

99.0

98.5

(F)

88.4

91.6

94.6

97.0

96.9

94.8

93.7

94.3

95.3

Source: The office of coordination and integration of the plans

Figure No 6: Total NER an primary level (1990-1998), by gender

Source: The office of coordination and integration of the plans

  1. The causes for such an increase in the NER during the period 1990-1998 at national level may be listed as follows:

A. An increase in intake rate of 6-year- old children

B. Establishment of primary education classes in most of the villages with a minimum number of 7 pupils and active attendance of the Ministry of Education in the related villages

C. Guiding the pupils living in sparsely populated villages to the neighboring ones or their migration to the central villages / districts.

D. Policy making in urban-based transfer of manpower in order to recruit local people to teach in rural and disadvantaged areas

E. Making use of female teachers by admitting local people when selecting Teacher Training Course applicants

F. Establishment of multi- grade classes (the classes in which pupils of different grades may participate) in sparsely populated villages

G. Enhancing people’s awareness of their children’s education

H. Gradual closure of co-educational classes and establishment of separate ones.

I. Fair distribution of the facilities and resources among various educational districts and taking measures to provide equal educational opportunities for pupils.

J. Implementation of "free nutrition" plan in disadvantaged areas.

K. Provision of free educational services in disadvantaged areas including stationery and textbooks.

L. Implementation of the plan on recognition and enrollment of out-of- school children in a number of disadvantaged provinces (Note 62, Second Development Plan Act).

M. Establishment of lower secondary schools and creating necessary motivation among primary school pupils to continue their education in secondary level

-It is noteworthy that the NER had an increasing trend along with the 6- year-old children’s intake rate. Hence, owing to the enrollment of 6-10 year-old children, the extent of increase in NER was more than the intake rate of the 6-year olds.

-Important note: Statistics, figures and indicators related to the period 1991-95, indicated in the relevant tables are estimate and different from the actual performances in the country’s provinces.

Table 10: Children 6-10 Years of Age Not Enrolled in Schools

1997

Province

Urban

Rural

total

 

%

%

%

Azarbaijan East

1.5

5.2

3.5

Azarbaijan West

2.9

14.1

8.8

Ardabil

1.1

5.8

3.4

Esfahan

1.4

1.8

1.6

Ilam

1.3

1.7

1.5

Bushehr

0

1.5

0.8

Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari

0.8

6.6

3.8

Khorasan

0.8

4.4

2.6

Khuzestan

1.7

14.8

9.1

Zanjan

1.2

6.5

4

Semnan

0

2.6

1.2

Sistan & Baluchestan

6.1

18

11.9

Tehran

0

1.2

0.2

Fars

1.4

3.6

2.6

Qazvin

1.8

1.7

1.7

Qom

0.9

3.5

2.1

Kordestan

1.2

7.1

4.1

Kerman

1.3

6

3.8

Kermanshah

1.9

9

5.5

Kahkiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad

1.4

5.9

3.7

Golstan

0.4

5.1

2.9

Gilan

1.5

0.9

1.2

Lorestan

1.1

9

5.3

Mazandaran

0.9

0.9

0.9

Markazi

0.4

2.6

1.4

Hormozgan

3.2

5

4.1

Hamadan

0.8

2.1

1.4

Yazd

0.4

3.4

1.8

IRAN

1.4

5.7

3.5

3. The causes for low NER in some provinces are as follows :

  1. A. Making use of children’s workforce in agriculture , animal husbandry , housekeeping, carpet weaving , handicraft and so on.
  2. B. Scattered and sparsely populated villages which usually results in the number of pupils in primary education classes being less than seven, thus preventing holding of classes for school-age children.
  3. C. The special culture of some families in rural and nomadic areas and their reluctance to their children’s education.
  4. D. Poverty-stricken families, especially in some rural areas and the inability of some parents to afford their children’s educational expenses .
  5. E. Holding co-educational classes in some rural areas which hinders the enrollment of some female pupils.
  1. Generally, reviewing the status of NER in primary education in the last 10 years, reveals that the obstacles and limitations of enrollment ratio have been removed year, by year resulting in higher Net Enrollment Ratios.

Net Enrollment Ratios in disadvantaged provinces, especially Hormozgan , Kerman, Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari, Lorestan, Kohkiluyeh & Boyerahmad has been considerably high and in some of the years , the provinces were deemed successful .

If the same situation continues, it is expected that the NER in most of the provinces will reach a desirable level in the Third Five- Year Development Plan.

Meanwhile, due to the reduction of population growth rate during the recent years, the number of pupils at the primary level showed a corresponding decrease. It is expected that in the coming years, with more manpower and space, the country will register an increase in the intake rate of 6- year-old children and Net Enrolment Ratios of children aged 6-10 years.

Main Problems of Primary Education

  1. Inadequacy and lack of flexibility in the contents and methods of teaching resulting in absence of creativity, order, responsibility, respect for others, and group activity.
  2. Economic poverty preventing parents from supporting incidental expenses of education for their children and its effects on registering for primary education.
  3. Lack of obligation for parents to send their 6-10 year-old children to school due to weak regulations regarding child labor.
  4. The great size of the section considering the number of students, employees, educational regions and unlimited centralization in management and decision making
  5. Lack of clarity in the country’s development pattern as a result of lack of harmony between educational courses in secondary education and job market
  6. Rapid universal changes in production and scientific development, hence general knowledge and use of new educational methods, is creating a gap in the quality of education and methods, equipment between the country and abroad.

Special Education

1.The first step for special education of children in Iran was taken more than seventy years ago. The first efforts were made voluntarily in the education of the visually challenged then, the deaf and the mentally challenged children in non-governmental sector.

After establishment formation of an office called "The office for special education of children and students" in the Ministry of Education in 1959, the official activity of this sector started in the special education schools.

  1. In line with the commitments made by the Jomtien Conference on "Education for All" particularly for the disabled, and upon ratification of a law in the Islamic Consultative Assembly (majlis or Parliament), the Special Education Organization was established in 1993 which is affiliated to the Ministry of Education. This organization brought more disabled children and students under its supervision.
  2. The objectives of the Special Education Organization are as under:
  1. Designing an educational, fostering and rehabilitation system through which the mental and physical disabilities of disabled children and students are compensated thus enabling them to achieve proper social and economic status suitable for their particular situation, upon completion of the required courses.
  2. Changing and modifying the special education according to the latest global methods and the needs of the children and students in relation with the particular situation of the society in which they live.
  3. Educating different groups of children and students in need of special education, considering the particular needs of each group in pre-primary, primary, lower and upper secondary with special emphasis on vocational education and making efforts to enroll all children and students having special needs.
  4. Assisting in the prevention of pre - natal, natal and post - natal mental and physical disabilities through raising public awareness on the factors causing disabilities and characteristics of these children.

Special education pupils

1.Year by year, the Special Education Organization managed to enroll more students during the 1990s. In 1991, 31158 students were under supervision of the organization, and the figure rose to 59,367 in 1998.

Table 11: Increasing trend of the pupils with special needs enrolled in primary level by gender (1980-1998)

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

(MF)

31,158

36,778

40,617

44,109

50,262

54,938

58,071

63,459

59,367

(M)

19,545

22,969

25,084

26,846

30,917

33,598

35,627

39,099

36,464

(F)

11,613

13,809

15,533

17,263

19,345

21,340

22,444

24,360

22,903

Source: The office of coordination and integration of the plans

  1. Special education teachers: The number of teachers in special primary education was 4,713 in 1990 which due to the increase in the number of pupils, rose to 8,134 in 1998. The number of teachers having academic qualifications rose from 50.6% in 1990 to 81.7% in 1997.
  2. Table 12: The number of teachers in the Special Education Organization by their academic qualifications

     

    Number of Special Education Organization teachers

    With

     

    Year

    Total

    With academic

    High school

    Up to high

    Academic

     

     

    Qualification

    Diploma

    School diploma

    Qualification

    1990

    4713

    2387

    2275

    51

    50.6

     

    1991

    5415

    2958

    2395

    62

    54.6

     

    1992

    5759

    3314

    2407

    38

    57.5

     

    1993

    5813

    3418

    2353

    42

    58.7

     

    1994

    6810

    4580

    2180

    50

    67.2

     

    1995

    6975

    5040

    1894

    41

    72.2

     

    1996

    7092

    5485

    1581

    26

    77.3

     

    1997

    7521

    6019

    1479

    23

    80

     

    1998

    8134

    6647

    1453

    34

    81.7

     

    Source: Special Education organization

    Figure No 7: Percentage of teachers in the Special Education Organization having academic qualifications

    Source: Special Education organization

  3. Some of the students with special needs study along with normal students in regular schools. They are under supervision of itinerant teachers who are selected by the Special Education Organization.

But some of the students who have more disabilities study through following seven groups in special education schools:

  1. Visually challenged and semi-visually challenged students.

B. Deaf and semi-deaf students.

  1. Mentally challenged students.
  2. Students having behavioral disorders.
  3. Students having multi-disabilities.
  4. Students having motor and physical disabilities
  5. Students having learning disabilities.

Table 13: Students with different disabilities, by gender (1990-1998)

 

 

Visually challenged

multi

Motor and

With behavioral

deaf and

mentally

Year

 

And semi – visually

Disabled

Physically

Disorders

semi deaf

Challenged

 

 

Challenged

 

Disabled

 

 

 

 

(M+F)

1192

394

8494

21078

1990

(M)

710

354

4800

13681

 

(F)

482

40

3694

7397

 

(M+F)

1351

538

752

466

9511

24160

1991

(M)

774

408

491

372

5403

15521

 

(F)

577

130

261

94

4108

8639

 

(M+F)

1472

3558

366

629

9712

24880

1992

(M)

837

2346

249

516

5518

15618

 

(F)

635

1212

117

113

4194

9262

 

(M+F)

1485

3336

691

567

10205

27825

1993

(M)

859

2186

480

455

5742

17124

 

(F)

626

1150

211

112

4463

10701

 

(M+F)

1634

2156

1066

927

11314

33164

1994

(M)

934

1418

686

670

6308

20901

 

(F)

700

738

380

257

5006

12263

 

(M+F)

1681

2219

581

507

11483

38467

1995

(M)

1033

1405

345

414

6418

23983

 

(F)

648

814

236

93

5065

14484

 

(M+F)

1663

2720

576

249

11264

41599

1996

(M)

984

1721

341

211

6226

26144

 

(F)

679

999

235

38

5038

15455

 

(M+F)

1759

3470

685

372

11350

45823

1997

(M)

1018

2207

432

274

6336

28832

 

(F)

741

1263

253

98

5014

16991

 

(M+F)

1797

3063

635

228

11211

42433

1998

(M)

1067

1914

405

161

6234

26683

 

(F)

730

1149

230

67

4977

15750

Source: Special Education organization

Refugees’ education

  1. Iran hosts the largest refugee population in the world. At its peak in April 1991, the total refugee population reached 4.1 million. Following the Persian Gulf war and the consequent civil war inside Iraq around 1.4 million refugees mainly from northern Iraq, streamed into Iran within a week bringing unimaginable suffering. The Iranian authorities responded in an exemplary manner, providing fast and effective assistance with only limited help from the international community.

At present Iran continues to have the largest number of refugees globally. In 1997 the total refugee population stood at 2.1 million, consisting mainly of 1.5 million Afghans and over half a million Iraqis.

As a consequence of Iran’s liberal approach to refugees only about 4% live in camps and most are scattered in cities and villages throughout the country, many finding casual employment.

Refugee children in Iran are comprised of a large and growing population. Of the approximately 2.1 million Afghan and Iraqi refugees currently in the country, almost half are estimated to be children under the age of 15, the majority of whom were born and brought up in Iran. Although Iranian law requires all children to be recorded at birth, not many of them are in fact registered.

This is because few refugee marriages are registered, mainly for lack of proper identification documents. This makes it difficult for the children to attend Iranian schools although many older children have attended adult literacy courses.

The health and educational needs of refugee children are a matter of priority and have been tackled effectively by the Iranian government and the UNHCR.

The Ministry of Education shoulders the responsibility for the education of all Afghan and Iraqi pupils/students. most of whom enjoy the same educational facilities as Iranian pupils/students and are studying along with them in state-supervised schools.

The number of Afghan refugee pupils was 84,651 in 1990. This number rose to 1,13,196 in 1998.

Table 14: The number of Afghan pupils studying at Iranian schools from 1991 to 1998

Country)

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

TOTAL (MF)

84651

90477

85721

71402

79921

87285

107347

113195

Male (M)

56870

46333

38427

43331

47986

46973

51918

Female (F)

33607

39388

32975

36590

39299

60374

61277

Source: Bureau of International scientific cooperation

The number of Iraqi refugee pupils in 1990 with an ascending trend rose to 17,512 in 1998.

Table 15: The number of Iraqi pupils studying at Iranian schools from 1991 to 1998

Country)

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

TOTAL (MF)

14200

15235

16991

16723

18160

23484

20624

17512

Male (M)

….

8468

9778

9607

10300

12817

9577

8093

Female (F)

….

6767

7213

7116

7860

10667

11047

9419

Source: Bureau of International scientific cooperation

  1. Refugee pupils/students residing in camps:
  2. The Ministry of Education has set up 28 schools at camps in which Iraqis and Afghans are residing. These camps are located in provinces of West Azarbaijan , Bushehr, Kermanshah, Lorestan, Fars, Kerman, Kurdestan, Khuzestan, Sistan and Baluchistan, Markazi, Semnan and Zanjan in which 14,000 Afghan and Iraqi pupils / students were studying in 1998.

    79 % of pupils / students are Iraqis and 21 % are Afghans and more than 600 male and female principals and teachers are responsible for their education.

  3. Medical examination of refugee pupils/students:

The Ministry of Education in partnership with UNHCR, and in order to:

  1. monitor camp residing refugee pupils /students
  2. identify the pupils/students in need of health and medical services;and
  3. prevent the spread of contagious and infectious diseases in the camps,

has prepared and implemented a plan of regular health and medical examinations of refugee pupils/students. This plan includes immunization and general examining of refugee pupils/students.

  1. Funding resources

Most of the funding resources for education of refugee /students are provided by the Ministry of Education. For instance, only in the school-year 1998, the government spent 165 billion Rials for the education of 2,00,222 Iraqi and Afghan pupils/students at the three levels of primary, lower and upper secondary. Of course in the past three years the UNHCR and some NGOs have become active in this regard and paid for part of the educational expenses.



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