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2.Process

2.1:Budget

Indicator 7: Public current expenditure on primary education a) as a percentage of GNP; and b) per pupil, as a percentage of GNP per capita.

Indicator 8: Public expenditure on primary education as a percentage of total public expenditure on education.

1. Considering the large number of educational personnel and the geographical variety, the Ministry of Education as one of the most expanded ministries, is allocated a large budget.

The public current expenditure on education was Rials 973.6 billion in 1990; with an average growth of 32.3%, the amount increased to Rials 9,152 billion in 1998. In the years 1990 and 1998, this expenditure was 2.7% and 2.5% of the gross national product. (GNP)

Table 16: Current public expenditure on primary education as a percentage of GNP

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Percent

2.7

2.4

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.0

2.3

2.6

2.5

2.The total current public expenditure on primary education was Rials 409.4 billion in 1990, and with an average growth of 29% the amount increased to Rials 3146 billion in 1998. Public current expenditure per pupil on primary education as a percentage of GNP per capita, decreased from 6.4 % in 1990 to 6.2 % in 1998. The main reason for this drop has been the negative growth rate in the number of primary school pupils.

Table No. 17: Public current expenditure on education per pupil as percentage of GNP per capita.

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Percent

6.4

6.1

7.0

8.2

6.3

5.8

7.5

8.8

6.2

3. Despite the population growth from 53,663,445 in 1990 to 61,988,232 in 1998, the number of primary school students decreased with a growth rate of –1% from 9,369,646 in 1990, to 8,653,028 in 1998. This caused the public current expenditure on primary education as a percentage of total public current expenditure to drop from 42.1% in 1990 to 34.4% in 1998.

Table No 18: Expenditure on primary education as a percentage of public current expenditure on education.

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Percent

42.1

44.8

56.1

42.8

44.3

45.7

51.0

49.7

34.4

4. In addition to the public budget allocated to primary education, the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has considered legal and budgetary measures to formulate the program of Education for All. Some of the actions taken are as follows:

Allocating a special budget for the attraction and education of out-of-school children in the framework of Note 62 of the budget law of the second plan.

Utilization of the budgets allocated to Notes 8 and 16 of the emergency programs for primary education.

2.2: Teachers

- The total number of teachers in public primary schools was 2,982,99 in 1990. Due to the low rate of student’s population growth, the figure increased to 3,123,08 in 1998 without a considerable growth.

Table 19: The total number of primary school teachers for the years 1990, 1995 and 1998 by gender.

Year

1990

1995

1998

 

(MF)

298,299

291,886

312,308

 

(M)

140,498

133,509

143,610

 

(F)

157,801

158,377

168,698

Indicator 9: Percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications.

1. Strategies: For the purpose of increasing the number of primary school teachers holding academic qualifications, during the 1990s the government made use of the following strategies:

- Creating some suitable opportunities for further education of teachers, especially for those working in deprived areas, through establishing teacher training centers, in-service training centers and cooperation between the Ministry of Education and the open University of Iran in order to train the required manpower in various fields.

- Allocating special funds for holding knowledge promoting courses and short-term ones for teachers which lead to academic certificates.

- Devising policies regarding teachers’ mission to higher education encouraging them for further education.

2.Due to the priorities given by the government to teachers’ further education, the average rate of both male and female teachers holding academic certificates has had an ascending trend since 1990. The rate was 18% in 1990 but increased to 38.2% in 1998.

The percentage of female teachers having academic qualifications had an ascending trend during the 1990s. The percentage was 9.8% in 1990 which increased to 32% in 1998. The percentage of male teachers having the same qualifications increased from 27.1% in 1990 to 45.6% in 1998.

Table 20: Percentage of primary school teachers having academic qualifications (1990-1998).

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

(MF)

18.0

19.1

20.6

22.8

27.2

31.8

33.7

36.2

38.2

(M)

27.1

27.9

29.1

31.5

35.8

40.4

42.4

44.4

45.6

(F)

9.8

11.7

13.7

15.8

20.1

24.6

26.4

29.2

32.0

Source: Office for Coordination and Integration of the Plans, Ministry of Education

Figure No 8: The Primary school teachers having academic qualifications (1990-1998).

Source: Office for Coordination and Integration of the Plans, Ministry of Education

3. The causes for increased rate of teachers having academic qualifications can be listed as follows:

- Holding knowledge promoting courses for primary school teachers which lead to academic degree through the cooperation of the Ministry of Education and Islamic Azad University of Iran.

-Increasing the share of special funds for in-service training of teachers and holding further education courses by the Department of Manpower Training, Ministry of Education which lead to academic degree.

  1. Provision of the required manpower for the Ministry of Education from among those associate degree holders who have graduated from teacher training centers.
  2. Preventing the transfer of those primary school teachers who hold associate or bachelor degrees to other levels of education.
  3. Provision of facilities for further education of teachers including part- time or full time educational missions with full payment of their salaries.
  4. The considerable difference between the salaries of the teachers having high school diploma and those having academic qualifications, encouraged the former to acquire higher qualifications.

The high rate of male teachers having academic qualifications compared to females is due to women being busy in house keeping, taking care of children and lack of time for further education. In other words, men have more time, and their commitment towards family livilihood urges them to have further education.

4. Increasing rate of the number of primary school teachers having academic qualifications had a normal trend during the period 1990-1998, but the percentages were higher in 1995 and 1996, for the following reasons:

a) The number of primary school teachers who graduated from higher education centers was high during the years under study. The reason was that a circular was implemented in the school year 1990-91 which facilitated further education of teachers while being in service.

b) Preventing the transfer of primary school teachers having academic qualifications to teach at higher levels of education in the school years 1994-1995 and 1995-1996.

In all of the years under survey, the ratio of primary school teachers having academic qualifications to their total number was approximately 2%, 4% in 1994 and 1995 respectively as compared to the previous years.

5. Examining the situation of provinces during the 1990s shows that the percentage of male and female teachers having academic qualifications with some variations was higher in Kohkilooyeh and BoyerAhmad, Bushehr, Kermanshah, Khuzestan and Yazd provinces respectively and lower in the city of Tehran, Kerman, Hormozgan, Isfahan and Gilan provinces respectively.

6. The reasons for the high percentage of male and female teachers having academic qualification in the first group are as follows:

a) Recruiting larger number of teacher training center graduates from the school-year 1990 onward to such provinces.

b) Insufficiency of the number of primary school teachers in the aforesaid provinces in comparison with that of densely populated provinces country- wide. Transferring associate degree holders to densely populated provinces led to an increase in the number of teachers with academic qualifications.

C) Lack of employment opportunities to find additional jobs in the

provinces has given teachers more time to continue their education.

7. The reasons for the low percentage of teachers having academic qualification in the second group of provinces are as follows:

a) Reduction in the number of recruited teacher training center graduates from 1990 onward.

b) Reduction in the number of pupils in primary education and not providing these provinces with new teachers.

c) High number of teachers working at primary level, most of whom started working many years ago, holding associate degrees. Lack of allocation of new quota on the one hand and absence of motivation in teachers to continue their education, on the other hand.

d) Transferring teachers holding higher academic degrees to other education levels which causes the reduction in the number of teachers having academic qualification in primary education.

e) Sharp increase in the number of students in lower and upper secondary education that intensifies the need for associate and bachelor’s degree holders and as a result hinders allocation of these teachers to primary education. This increase is higher in affluent provinces, which enjoy more educational opportunities, than deprived ones.

8. Statistical studies show that teachers in rural areas do not have necessary and adequate facilities to continue their education, so providing them with distance education is essential.

Indicator 10: Percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards.

1.All of the primary school teachers are certified to teach. In fact every individual should do special teacher training courses before entering teaching profession. They should also participate in-service training courses for at least 200 hours.

Indicator 11: Pupil – teacher ratio.

1.In the period 1990-1999 you may notice some variations in pupil-teacher ratio in primary education.

The ratio was 31.4 in 1990 as compared to 27.1 in 1998.

The highest ratios belong to the years 1992 and 1995; figures being 32.1 and 32.4 respectively.

Table 21: Pupil/teacher ratio (1990-1998)

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

(MF)

31.4

30.1

32.1

31.9

31.9

32.4

31.2

30.0

27.1

Source: Office for Coordination and Integration of the Plans, Ministry of Education

Figure No 9: Pupil-teacher ratio in primary education during 90-98

Source: Office for Coordination and Integration of the Plans, Ministry of Education

2. Causes for variation in pupil-teacher ratios in the period 1990-1998 are as follows:

a) In 1992, owing to restriction of funds in the Ministry of Education and reduction in employment quota in primary education, the ministry postponed the employment of teacher training centers’ graduates to the subsequent years. Meanwhile, the conducting of some training courses for teachers of primary education started in 1990, leading to a higher certificate and some being transferred to higher levels of education. Due to the reduction in employment quota and transfer of some primary school teachers to other levels, the number of teaching staff in 1992 was not considerably higher than in the previous years. This is another factor affecting high pupil-teacher ratio.

b) In 1995, coinciding with the country’s second plan (1994-98), an order was issued by deputy minister of education entitled "Comprehensive Instruction for Manpower", according to which some new factors were determined for recruiting staff for primary education.

These are also known as "Manpower Indicators for Note 37, Second-five year Development Plan."

In accordance with this directive, some of the primary education staff were transferred to other levels of education resulting in additional increase in pupil-teacher ratio.

The transfer of primary education staff to higher levels of education , because of their further education and acquiring of higher qualifications, aggravated the case.

According to the new instructions issued by educational administrations, from 1995 onward, the transfer of teaching staff from primary level to a higher one was banned. It was also emphasized that the teachers who hold university degrees including a bachelor’s or associate degree in "teaching primary education" should merely work at this level. Meanwhile, the number of students at primary level is decreasing year by year and teacher training center graduates as well as those who act as teachers in the LMO are joining the ministry. Therefore, there has been a decrease in pupil-teacher ratio during the last three years. As it is shown in the following figure, pupil-teacher ratio decreased from 32.4% in 1995 to 27.1% in 1998.

3. Statistics related to the period 1990-1998 indicate that in some provinces the pupil-teacher ratios in the related years were among the least four. Provinces like Tehran, Qom, Khuzestan, Hormozgan, Kurdestan and Zanjan were among those which had the highest pupil-teacher ratios in primary education.

Provinces like Kohkiluyeh and Boyerahmad, Yazd, Kerman and Gilan were among those which had the lowest pupil-teacher ratios in primary education.

4. According to the surveys conducted, in densely populated provinces like Tehran and Qom educational spaces do not meet the students’ needs; thus resulting in overcrowded classrooms. The case is aggravated by the migrant- accepting situation of these provinces. In spite of availability of enough number of teachers, the limitation of educational spaces, in these provinces causes the pupil-teacher ratio to remain high.

5. Owing to several reasons including financial and cultural poverty, being located in border areas, improper geographical condition and deprivation in the region, the number of people employed, especially female was insufficient. On the other hand, due to economic and cultural poverty, population growth in these provinces has increasingly been high; in addition, restriction of funds for construction was another hindering factor which resulted in inappropriate number of educational spaces compared to the number of pupils’ growth rate.

In addition, these provinces had been suffering from shortage of teachers, prior to the first plan and recruitment of teachers to these areas, was merely based on the increase in the number of students according to their development share. Thus, the problem regarding the shortage of teachers in the previous years continues to remain, and along with other factors results in an increase in pupil-teacher ratio.

6. The causes of low pupil-teacher ratio in Kohkiluyeh and Boyerahmad, Yazd, Semnan, Kerman and Gilan may be explained as follows:

a)Yazd, Semnan and Gilan provinces

-Cultural development which results in a balanced population growth

- Suitable economic situation

- People and donors’ contribution to the construction of educational spaces

- Higher demand for employment as teachers

- Availability of sufficient number of staff from the previous years (i.e prior to the first plan.

-Dispatch of a number of teacher training center graduates to these provinces.

All of the above factors contributed to a decrease in pupil-teacher ratios.

  1. "Kohkiluyeh & Boyerahmad and Kerman provinces

In these two provinces, due to the vastness of the areas and scattered villages, the high proportion of rural population to that of urban one, classes are inevitably held with few students, resulting in low pupil-teacher ratio.

7. The practical strategies utilized to adjust the pupil-teacher ratio in the period 1990-1999:

-Providing more employment opportunities relevant to the needs, under the title of "Human resource adjustment policy"

-Partial increase of construction funds

-Dispatch of teacher training center graduates as official teachers to deprived provinces

-Conducting a series of extensive cultural activities and enhancing people’s awareness in connection with population growth

-Development of teacher training colleges in deprived provinces

-Participation of people in construction of educational spaces.

-Partial raise in bonus to teachers in rural areas which results in high motivation.

2.3: Efficiency

In order to evaluate internal efficiency which is of great importance to educational planners, it is essential to first determine the educational goals and set several indicators to measure these goals, so that it will be possible to specify the input and output of the system. For this reason, one of the primary steps in calculation of internal efficiency is to define "input" and "output" of the education system. In this study, "output" means the number of students who have successfully completed their primary education and "input" includes all the resources (teachers, buildings, facilities, textbooks, etc) involved in a school year. The amount of such resources depends not only on the number of pupils, but also it is directly proportional to the number of years that pupils spend in the education system. Therefore, to introduce the "input" of the education system an indicator is needed which, firstly considers the number of pupils in the system, and secondly includes the number of years each pupil stays in the education system. Based on these two pivots, in this report, the title "pupil –year" is chosen as the input of the education system.

One pupil- year indicates all the resources spent to support one pupil in a school for one year, and two pupil- years indicate all the resources required to support one pupil in a school for two years or two pupils in a school for one year. In this study the internal efficiency of primary education is calculated using the educational flow- rates (promotion, repetition or drop- out rates), and indicators such as the wastage ratio, the survival ratio, and the average length of study per graduate, which are explained below.

    1. Educational Flow - Rates
    2. 1.1: The flow - rates throughout the period 1990-1998 indicate a steady growth in the promotion rate and a steady decline in repetition and drop-out rates in such a way that the promotion rates showed 84%, 89.1%, 93.5%, 87.6% and 81.8% in 1990 for grades one to five respectively. The rates increased to 89.9%, 94%, 96.2%, 94.6% and 97.3% in 1997. The repetition rates of the same grades also declined from 12.2%, 8.8%, 5.6%, 9.9% and 13.6% in 1990 to 7.8%, 5.3%, 3.3%, 4% and 2% in 1997. The drop - out rates of the same grades also declined from 3.8%, 2.2%, 0.8%, 2.5% and 4.6% in 1990 to 2.3%, 0.7%, 0.3%, 1.5% and 0.7% in 1997.

      The study of the rates in 1996 indicates that the repetition and drop- out rates were higher among the first and fifth graders, and lower among the middle graders. Moreover, in 1997 the highest share of drop- outs belonged to the first graders and were basically related to the pupils’ entering a new educational environment (schools, teachers), and specially their mental and physical characteristics being bilingual, and shortage of educational facilities for the expansion of pre-school activities. Therefore, the repetition and drop- out rates of first graders can be reduced by making use of new scientific methods to adapt pupils with the new environment, and providing pre-school educational facilities particularly in the bilingual areas, and so forth.

      Until 1996, no significant change in the repetition and drop- out rates was noticed among the fifth graders. But in 1997 there was a sharp decrease in these rates. The main reasons for achieving such improvement in the promotion rate and decrease in drop- out and repetition rates were the omission of the nationwide final exam for this grade, the change of promotion criteria and using the advantage of not having to repeat the same grade because of failing in only a single subject. Nationwide final exams had proven to increase stress and anxiety among pupils. On the other hand, pupils’ unfamiliarity with the type of questions and especially the difficult

      nature of such questions increased the drop- out and repetition rates in the years before 1996.

    3. Survival Rate
    4. This rate indicates the ability of the educational system to sustain preserve pupils. Statistics indicate that the survival rate for every 1000 pupils who entered the primary schools increased from 829 in 1990 to 940 in 1997. In other words, in 1990 there was a drop-out rate of 171 per 1000 pupils while in 1997 this figure decreased to 60 per 1000 pupils among whom 25 pupils (more than 40%) were first graders. This means that 40% of drop-outs in the primary education occurred in the first grade.

      On the other hand, based on the survival rate graphs, in addition to the growth of the total survival rate, there was even a growth in the survival rate without repetition and a decrease in the one with repetition in such a way that the survival rate without repetition for males and females grew from 50% in 1990 to 75% in 1997, and also, the survival rate with repetition decreased from 33% to 19%, and drop-out rate decreased from 17% to 6% within the same period.

      Comparing the survival rate of females and males in 1990 showed that up to grade 5 the rate was higher among males than that of females but in the graduate rate from primary school indicates that 83% of the females and 82% of the males remain in the system. These figures grew to 93% for females and 94% for males in 1997. In general, the primary school survival rate among males is higher than that of females, but according to the conducted studies, in the lower secondary school the case becomes reversed, (i.e. the survival rate among females is higher than that of males.

      Since drop-outs before the fifth grade result in an increase in the rate of illiteracy, the survival rate of the fourth grade can be considered as a criterion to increase or decrease the rate of literacy in society. In this way, those who drop out before the fourth grade gradually forget what they have already learned and they will be assumed to be illiterate. In 1990 almost 92% of the pupils enrolled in grade one could enter the fourth grade while in 1997 the rate increased to 96%. In other words in 1990 the rate of drop- outs up to the fourth grade was 8% while in 1994 this rate declined to 4%. Therefore, the developing countries must pay special attention to the survival rate up to the fourth grade, and by using all the existing scientific methods, they must try to increase the survival rate and reduce the drop - outs in this grade.

    5. Wastage ratio
    6. One of the important indicators to measure the internal efficiency of the education system is calculating the wastage ratio. To do so, it is necessary to introduce the two ratios of real input to out put and ideal input to output. The real ratio is obtained by dividing the pupil-year expenditure (in all the primary grades per 1000 entrants) by the number of the output (the sum of the graduates of the 1000 pupil-group throughout different years):

      * The real input - output ratio = pupil – year/ the number of graduates

      and the ideal ratio of the education system:

      * The ideal input – output ratio = 5*1000/1000=5

      The wastage ratio is calculated by dividing the real input-output ratio by the ideal input-output ratio. Due to the high repetition and drop- out rates of education systems, the real input-output ratio is often higher than that of the ideal one. Therefore the wastage ratio is always higher than one. The more this ratio approaches one, the more satisfaction results from the internal efficiency of the education system.

      The wastage ratio indicates an improvement in the condition of all the provinces, particularly in the capital. But in Sistan & Baluchistan province the wastage ratio is even higher than the rural areas, which demands special attention to this province. Among the urban areas, the provinces of Tehran, Mazandaran, and Semnan enjoy efficiency and suffer the least wastage ratio.

      The chart indicating the comparison of the wastage ratios by gender throughout the period 1990-1997 shows that this ratio declined from 1.25 (for both sexes) in 1990 to 1.08 in 1997. In other words, if we assume that the expenditure per capita (for 5 school- years) is 100,000 Rials, then this education system spent 125,000 Rials per graduate in 1990, which declined to 108,000 in 1997. To put it simply, in this hypothetical system, there was an extra expenditure of 25,000 Rials per pupil in 1990 which declined to 8000 Rials per pupil in 1997, signifying a reduction of the wastage ratio to one-third its basic value in 1990, thus indicating a growth in the internal efficiency of the system.

      In comparison, the female wastage ratio was smaller than that of male in urban areas. In rural areas, however, the case is quite the opposite.

      In the third chart the wastage ratio has been presented by gender and residence in the rural or urban areas. It indicates that the rural areas had the highest fluctuations and, on the contrary in urban areas, the female wastage ratio was more than that of male while in rural areas this ratio was almost the same for both sexes. The ratio declined from 1.43 in 1990 to 1.18 in 1997 and the gender disparity was very small. In urban areas the ratio declined from 1.14 in 1990 to 1.03 in 1997.

      On the whole, the ratio was reduced from 1.25 to 1.08 indicating the efficiency of the education system in urban areas. It also shows that the wastage of resources in rural areas was 6 times higher than that of urban areas.

      The comparison of the wastage ratio between males and females indicates that in urban areas this rate for females was always more than that of males. In rural areas, however, it always underwent some fluctuations, and was almost the same for male and female. The wastage ratio in rural areas declined from 1.43 in 1990 to 1.18 in 1997. The gender disparity was very small. This ratio in the urban areas decreased from 1.14 in 1990 to 1.03 in 1997.

      Therefore, the resources wastage ratio in rural areas was about 6 times higher than that of urban areas.

    7. Average length of study per graduate

This indicator basically shows the average number of years each graduate of the primary education spends to accomplish the course. To compute this, the number of graduates is multiplied by the number of years they studied. Then the sum of the results is divided by the total number of the graduates. The average length of study per graduate decreased from 5.49 in 1990 to 5.23 in 1997. The rate was lower in urban areas than of rural ones, and also lower in the case of males than females.

According to this study, in urban areas, in 1990 it took a girl 5.29 years to graduate while in 1997 it took a girl 5.09 years to do so. In rural areas the number of years within the same period declined from 5.55 to 5.27 years.

Examining the average length of study per graduate in different provinces indicates the following:

  1. In 1990 the lowest average length of study in general was more than 5.2 years, that is there was an extra expenditure for 0.2 of year per graduate in the primary level. In 1997 this ratio declined to almost zero in such a way that the average length of study per graduate in Tehran, Semnan, Mazandaran and Yazd provinces reached five years.

2. The females in rural areas of Hormozgan, Ardebil and Kohgilooyeh & BoyerAhmad provinces had the highest average length of study per graduate among the provinces in the country.

3.The average length of study of urban and rural areas for both sexes declined in all the provinces. In other words the efficiency of the education system improved from 1990 to 1997.The average female length of study in comparison to that of males was closer to 5.2 years in some provinces. Also the average female length of study in different provinces became more homogeneous.



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