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Part I: Descriptive Section

Introduction.

From ancient times Iraq was know as Mesopotamia, and was the cradle of the first civilization know to man; wherein arose the sumerian, Accadian, Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations. Iraq had a great significance since the dawn of Islam in its regions the Arabic Islamic civilization flourishes especially during the time of the Abbassites; and Baghdad remained the lighthouse of civilization, culture and ingenuity for throughout the ages bound for by seekers of education from all places attracting men of thought and literature from all around the world.

Contemporary Iraq witnesses a wide progress in varimes fields of life that included the educational sector which acquires a special attention because of its role in the process of the cultural structure of the society. For it witnessed great developments and achievements that consist a part of the many big achievements accomplished by the states in different economical, social, educational and cultural aspects of life. The constitution of Iraq asserted free education throughout its different levels; elementary, secondary and university, and obligatory elementary education and commitment to the eradication of illiteracy. Iraq also witnessed productive activity and intense efforts to evolve the educational process to conform with the movement of educational innovation in the world.

And through the persistent efforts, the primary education witnessed development in its different levels through benefiting from the modern practices and trends, included its plans, study books, methods of assessment and examinations, the programmers of priming and training teachers; consolidating the relationship between education, labour and production, benefiting from educational technologies and implementing sports, artistic and recreational activities accompanying the program.

It is no doubt that the circumstances through which the country passed as a result of the long term war imposed on it since the year 1980 and what followed of plotting actuated by a thirty days destructive attack and a page of perfidy and a treason directed at the infra-structure of the country, especially in the field of education and its institutions, and an oppressive blockade that touched every trivial and significant even that left its passive imprints for several years, prevented the primary school from gelling its normal position in the educational sanctum, yet the procession did not stop nor did efforts slacken to make the school to be characterized by the modern standards of improvement and to apply the most modern education concepts and methods.

This report seeks all statements and information concerning education for all and explains two important objects:

    1. The evolution in the directions, indicators and achievements in elementary education, especially in the decade of the nineties.
    2. Aspects of discrepancies in providing primary education between the two genders and according to geographical branch divisions \ administrative (the provinces). This report forms a suitable perception of the primary education, which is in connection with the primary education which forms the main component of basic education and center of focus to assess education for all the year 2000, as shown in the eighteen indicators and conclusion of some qualitative studies that are in relation to the factuality of primary education.

The Education Scale And Definitions.

The educational scale extends across four learning levels, which are:

    1. Pre-school education (nurseries).

The learning period is two years (kindergarten and preliminary, in which infants of age cohort (4-5 yrs) are accepted

B. Elementary learning stage:

Its period is six years and covers the age from (6-11 yrs). It is a compulsory stage for all infants of the mentioned age group. The basic education system had been implemented from the beginning of the nineties to comprise nine years of study.

C. Secondary education stage:

It follows the elementary stage and precedes the university stage for a six-year period. It covers the age between (12&17 yrs). It comes in two phases:

    1. Intermediate education, for three year (12-14). It is complementary to what the pupil learns in the elementary stage and supplies him with broader information of what he learned in language and general culture.
    2. Preparatory education; also for three years (15-17). Its role is to prepare for higher education (university) and occupational life. This is a specialization where studies (academic) in sciences and arts after the fourth secondary year. The general preparatory education branches into two which are the scientific and elee literary. There is another type of preparatory branch which covers the years of age (15-17). It includes vocational and applied studies in the kinds of industrial, agricultural an commercial education, where the student is prepared for the vocation and the university education in the industrial, agricultural and commercial domains.

D. Priming teachers:

There are institutions for training teachers where intermediate stage leaves are accepted to be trained as teachers for the elementary stage. The period of study is five years after the intermediate stage. Also there are teacher-training institutes where preparatory education leavers accepted to be trained as teachers for the elementary stage in which the period of study is two years, most of which could be tuned into colleges for teachers of university level with four years studying period.

E. University stage:

The period of study ranges between (3&6) years, and includes the age from (18 yrs) and onwards. The students receive their university education in the different universities and colleges in the filed of literature, art, medicine, engineering and others. Also there are instructions that prepare its students in different professions for a two years studying period after the preparation phase, to which is added the tertiary studies which prepares its students to attain the Master and Doctorate degrees.

PART ONE

  1. OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION FOR ALL.
  2. STRATEGY OF THE PERFOMANCE OF EDUCATION FOR ALL.
  3. PROCESS FOR FASHIONING RESOLUTION AND ADMINISTRATION.
  4. BASIC ACTIVITIES OF EDUCATION FOR ALL.
  5. MEANS OF COOPERATION IN EDUCATION FOR ALL.
  6. INVESTMENT IN BASIC EDUCATION.

1- Objectives of Education For All:

    1. The suggested aims given in the frame work of Education For All:

1- Expanding the domain of care and development activities specific to early childhood including the imbrications of the family and the local society, especially that which is related to poor, disadvantaged and disable children.

2- Generalizing the enrolment in and completion of primary education (or whatever higher levels are considered basic) by the year 2000.

3- Improving the education outcome so that a certain percentage of convenient age group (e.g. 80%of fourteen years) could attain or surpass a certain level of necessary instructional achievement.

4- Decreasing the rate of illiteracy among the elders (each country defines the adequate age group) so that, for example, it drops by the year 2000 to half its level in 1990, with sufficient assertion on eradication of wasmen’s illiteracy, so as to bring about a noticeable decrease in present difference between males and females rates of illiteracy.

5- Expansion in providing basic education and training in other basic skills which youth and adults need, on condition to what change it incurs to conduct, and to the results of its effects in the fields of health, labour and productivity

    1. Individual and family acquirement of knowledge, skills and values needed for better life and sound persistent development, which all educational channels permit including public information media and other types of modern and traditional connections and social work, provided that the efficiency is evaluated according to the degree of change in behavior.

B- In Iraq, the inclusive objective that leads the general aims of all learning levels stated the following:

To bring up a comprehensive generation, believing in god, loving his country, believing in his Arabic nation and its aims vocation; unity, liberty and socialism, acknowledging scientific thinking, armored by science and moral, employing work and self-instruction, having the will of struggle, capable of confronting crucial challenges, comprehensive of the facts of cultural development, open to human mind in a frame of contemporary genuineness. General aims derived from this objective, by which the educational system runs, distributed onto twelve fields, are:

Human, religious, patriotic, national, democratic, socialist, scientific, occupational, force and construction, gennity and innovation, humanity and lifelong education.

In the light of there general aims for education, the primary education aims were formulated, headed by a general aim from which projected branch aims that included specific domains related to physical or movement, mind, spiritual, patriotic, national, humanistic and social, and behavioral dimensions.

These aims came to be inclusive and adequate to the requirements of education for all, through comprising the sources of Arabic Islamic culture and concentrating on crucial and civilizational challenges in addition to fulfilling the needs of those who are learning in the primary school and the requirement for their growth.

2- Strategy Of The Performance Of Education For All.

The strategy of education for all in Iraq is built upon principals and foundations drawn out of the society’s, religions, patriotic and human characteristics, of which the most important is that man is a supreme value or that education is social process affected by time and place, or that it assumes its principles from the society’s conviction, needs and available human and materialistic capacities.

Iraq this frame the state assures the following:

    1. The right for free education through its different levels and to all citizens.
    2. To render the elementary education obligatory.
    3. Communication to eradicate illiteracy and to provide equal opportunities.
    4. To disseminate education with all its branches and connect it in a planned way the development aims.
    5. To found education on principles which guarantee a wholly developed man educationally and culturally, believing in the unity of his nation and the perpetuity of its mission, full of optimism, struggle and solidarity through the principle the democracy of education.
    6. To labour on providing opportunities of education for all citizens, males and females without differentiation or siding to gender, nationality or religion.
    7. To encourage distinction and ingenuity within all intellectual, scientific and artistic activities.
    8. To give special attention and remarkable priority to the inhabitants of the rural and for areas and to females.
    9. To overcome economic and social impediments and to facilitate the enrolment of the educated in the cultural institutions.
    10. To persist in reinforcing the role of education in perpetuating understanding, cooperation and peace on the international level.
    11. To respect man’s rights and his political freedom.
    12. To emphasize on inspiring from the Arabic Nation’s past from what it has of authenticity and it’s present for what it has of possibilities and its future for what it comprises from aspirations, in the scope of work for human right, democracy, peace and international comprehension.

In light of the above fundamental introductions to the strategy of education for all, new trends appeared within the educational policy; the most prominent are:

1- Tending the qualitative aspects of the scholastic programmes according to educational and scientific research methods in the fields of instructional methods and aiding meas.

2- Proceeding in executing the great national convictional campaign to learn and understand the Holy Koran.

3- Proceeding in executing the obligatory education law of the elementary stage implementing the principle of educational equal opportunities in the direction to generalize the basic education in a later stage.

4- Executing the long, intermediate and short educational plans for the elementary term during the years (1995-2006)

5- To pay special attention to rural education and the disadvantaged, especially in rural and popular areas, and disseminate education among girls, elders and youth.

6- To orient special care for slow-learning infants by means of expanding in providing special classes for them annexed to the elementary schools.

7- To benefit from educational technologies, and information and communication media to evolve the educational process with its different aspects in the elementary schools, and employ it widely in self training and instruction programmes.

8- To establish programmes which guarantee development of scientific tendency and scientific skills, sponsor the distinguished and talented students, and generalize scientific comprehension and introducing it into the educational programmes.

9- To establish programmes that guarantee developing administrational administrative work methods in primary education employing scientific investigation, the use of modern technical methods, and establish incentive systems for those who are working in the administrative and educational sectors.

10- To continue to develop assessment methods and examination according to modern trends.

11- to continue to develop the educational guidance system, by what guarantees well orientation of children and solve their problems according to scientific, cultural and psychological methods.

3- The Process Of Fashioning The Resolution And Administration:

The Ministry of Education bears the responsibility in directing the educational system, and directly supervises general education through all its levels: (Kindergarten, elementary education, secondary education, vocational training and teachers training) and takes the decisions specific to the policy of the Ministry of Education, whether it is for short or long term, through the Minister of Education who relies on the results of conferences and recommendations of specialized educational seminars and symposiums and drivers survey, in taking his decisions.

But as for the higher education, it is directed by the Ministry Of Higher Education And Scientific Research. Also several other technologies direct vocational training centers at skilled-labourers level, such as the Ministries of, Labour and Social Affairs, Industry And Military Industrialization, Health, Transport And Communications, And Petroleum.

According to decree number 34 of the year 1998, of the Ministry of Education, the structural system of the Ministry is composed of the Minister’s Office, the offices of the under secretaries, and the legislative division. The Minister includes (18) general directorates which in turn include many branch directorates or divisions Centrally Wise the Ministry of Education includes the following general directorates:

The G.D. for educational planning.

The G.D. for elementary and basic education and nurseries.

The G.D. for secondary education.

The G.D. for physical education.

The G.D. for administrative and financial affaires.

The G.D. for programmes.

The G.D. for inspection and educational supervision.

The G.D. for assessment.

The G.D. for the production of educational materials.

The G.D. for the culture relations.

The G.D. for teachers training.

The G.D. for vocation training.

The G.D. for computers.

The G.D. for educational technologies.

The educational training and development institute.

The G.D. for Kurdish study.

The educational researches and studies.

The G.D. for evening and private education.

There are also some supreme committees and boards such as the supreme committee for the development of programmes, media and examinations, the permanent committee for the general examinations, and the supreme board of the scouts and girl guides.

There are also local general directorates for education in the provinces; they are 11 in number and include many technical and administrative divisions corresponding to the general directorates in the main office of the Ministry and to their branches, where every general directorate is in charge of education in the province without the university education, from the point of executing and monitoring educational plans, providing the educational schemes, supervising the school in the different educational levels, and preparing the necessary school buildings.

The higher education is directed by the Ministry of Higher Education And Scientific research. Though, the universities have its self-independence in most technical and administrative aspects.

Here after is an explanation to structural system of the Ministry Of Education showing the main directorates and the services the Ministry assumes:

4- The Activities of Education For All.

Education Legislation.

    The educational legislation aimed to secure the state’s supervision of the educational policy, and to organize and finance the different types of programmes of Education for All, to direct it to comply with the educational philosophy and the aims of such a kind of education through enacting laws, regulations and instructions that had tackled the educational process aspects, of which, those indicating to disseminate free education throughout all its levels and significance, obligation of elementary phase, grunting vocational allotments, transport allowances for the instructional, administrative and supervising personnel, defining regulations for children’s conduct and perseverance, organizing the work of different school committees and the activities accompanying the programmes, and regulating the assessment methods and the general and school examinations... etc.

    Lately many regulations which contribute in developing education for all were issued, the foremost was the regulation of the parents and teachers councils. In addition to amending some laws, regulations and instructions, where the law of the schools of the talented, the examinations rule, teachers training centers and fine arts rule, the educational television rules and the scouts.

Means and Technologies of Education.

he ministry of Education laboured on developing and diversifying the teaching methods and using modern technologies which help build the integrated personality of the student according to what the nature of all study activities requires, and by which guarantees the compliance with the principle of individual discrepancies among the students and utilize the educational innovations to prompt their interest and comprehension of knowledge and let them acquire the various tendencies and skills, and acquaint them with the components of their natural an social environment, to benefit of it in reinforcing their personalities, to augment self confidence, impart to them the good thinking habits and train them on critical deduction, in regard that they are the care of the educational process.

Resorting to several means had accompanied this evolution, the foremost were; the preparation of the series of questions and tests, reinforcing instruction systems by educational and laboratory means and educational technologies, preparation of teachers guide-books to help them to develop their teaching styles, to encourage the students to utilize the method of solving problems, preparing simplified researches and reports and individual and collective projects, publicizing the method of discussion and the exchange of opinions providing chances for student visits to projects of production and industry, in addition to reutilize the broadcasting and television programmes, recorded tapes, pictorials, maps and other technical and educational means to bring close the subjects of study and lint it to their practical life.

Non Formal Education.

To pay interest in school and non-school education as an integrated part of the net of cultural educational and directing institutions in society, though field of lifetime education and by benefiting from the chances that the society affords through all its formal and non-formal educational institutions, to achieve the aims that are related to the continuation of learning, training and board base of formal study.

The non-formal education, most of which is centered in the education channels which is parallel to formal education, depends upon the following variables and factors:

1- following up the technical development and establish new channels for education to enable the society to face this challenge.

2- fulfilling the needs of social life and conduct patterns with what innovation that requires in mental and cultural aspects another achievement of cultural growth in the society through evolving the cultural and social institutions and renovelling their methods in education and enlightenment.

3- Imparting flexibility to the educational system and the formal education.

4- Expansion in the fields of vocational training and organizing it in successive specializing courses.

5- Developing the systems of public communication and recruiting it in services and programmes of education, training, and culture.

Within this frame, non-formal education channels could be defined as follows:

The study in school for adolescents is for four year during which the pupils learn the primary education program. Muir programmes are characterized by the theoretical and scientific trait so that it prepares them for the practical life and to continue their study through the following levels.

Other media share in the non-formal education the most important are:

The television, the radio, the press, public libraries, the cultural and religious center, The professional syndicate, clubs, cinemas, theaters, the specialized associations and institution of women’s education and health and nutrition education, self teaching and training centers, and the educational media.

Priming teachers and in-service training.

The Ministry of Education worked on developing the priming of teachers by what insures following up the economical, social and cultural changes which requests the teacher to play his various roles with adequacy and potency that conform with the society’s requisites. Concentration on educational rehabilitation had been done through the establishment of the educational personnel in all its types and by raising the standard of their skills and qualifications to enable them to perform the job efficiently through training centers, this field witnessed the following developments:

    1. The alteration of the central teachers training centers into colleges for teachers, as of the academies year 1992/1993.
    2. Opening branches specialized in Islamic education in the teachers training centers and the specialized colleges.
    3. Developing the practical education programs in the teachers training centers and providing the necessities for its efficacy.

Also, the Ministry took care of service training programs to develop the teachers qualifications and to train them on guarantee the achievement of the efficiency of the educational system, as the opportunities of training for teachers had been reinforced and their experiences and information of what comes anew in the various educational and practical fields had increased. The following are the most prominent of what had been achieved in this field.

Table (A)

Activities of training teachers, instructors, supervisors, educational specialists and the educational administration employees during the two years 1994/1995.

It is important to mention that several measures were taken to improve the moral status of the teacher and raise his financial standard.

The Learning Programs

The process of preparing and modernizing the learning programs is considered to be of educational process priorities aiming to achieve the full growth of the student and follow up the social, economical and scientific changes, the technology in modern societies, the process of preparing it depends, on the philosophy of education, its general and particular and as the academie books and the teachers manuals are composed in that view. The supreme committee for the development of programs, methods and examinations is considered the responsible authority for establishing, modifying and evolving the programs, approving the scholastic books and teachers manuals. The committee includes a number of the general directors and technicians of the Ministry, and specialists in the various learning subjects, form the teachers of the Iraq universities. The application of the programs and learning plans. Table (B) includes the learning plan utilized in elementary education.

Table (B)

The learning plan for elementary stage.

The subject

Grade

1

Grade 2

Grade

3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Islamic Education

4

4

4

4

4

4

Arabic language & calligraphy

11

11

11

11

7

7

English Language

-

-

-

-

4

4

Mathematics

6

6

6

6

5

5

Civics

-

-

-

3

1

1

History

-

-

-

-

2

2

Geography

-

-

-

-

2

2

Ethics & Social Education

1

1

1

1

-

-

Science

4

4

4

3

3

3

Agriculture Education

-

-

-

1

1

1

Technical Education

2

2

2

2

1

1

Physical Education

3

3

3

2

2

2

Singing & Music

1

1

1

1

1

1

Family Education

-

-

-

-

1

1

TOTAL

32

32

32

34

34

34

Remarks:

First: The binary double schools comprise the above learning plan.

Second: The agriculture education in the rural schools is in two periods for science in grades four, five & six.

Third: Christian religion is taught for two periods in schools where the majority of its students are Christians.

Fourth: the students practice the activities and the efficacies in the manual, technical and athletics workshops according to a special schedule to be arranged for this purpose beyond the regular hours as a non-class activity.

4. The Basic Activities of Education For All:

Efforts are continued to evolve the programme of education for all to provide a series of effective educational services which participate in thriving this sort of education and achieve their aims. These services comprise many aspects, the most prominat are:

A- The Big National faith Compaign For The Teaching And Understanding The Holy Koran:

Persistence in executing the big national faith compaign for the teaching and understanding the Holy Koran, for this compaign derives its principles and doctrines from the Holy Koran and the Sunna (of the prophet) which reflect the oral Islamic values and with what participates in the new building up the society, so that the compaign covers up all the classes starting from grade one and ending in preparatory class six.

The Ministry of education had laid out a plan for the teaching and understanding the Holy Koran that included the following aims:

B- The Education Supervision :

The education supervision conducts the development of the educational process through-out all its various aspects as it tends all the supervisory functions as to class visits, educational conferences and instructional seminars, and training in compliance with the needs of the teachers and the effectual school administrations. The total number of the supervisors is /OH/. They supervise education in kindergartens and elementary stage.

C- Education Guidance:

A supreme committee for educational guidance and professional orientation in the Ministry’s office takes charge of educational guidance, from which secondary comittees for the provinces ensue, in addition to consoltory committee dedicated to the purpose of giving technical advice to the guide. The educational guidance aims to get over the instructional and psychological problems which the children face at school and to help them to verify educational progress and acquire the methods of interactivity in life.

D-Educational Television:

The educational television aims at promoting new educational experiences and reinforcing educational propensities through telecasting systematic educational and cultural programs produced and introduced by specialized scientific committees. The use of educational television in the country started in 1997 and expanded to cover the various educational fields in the different studying levels.

E- Educational Media:

Educational Media aim to reinforce the school book by what the program’s terms dictate through reliefs, transparencies, illustration panels, educational slides, and diagrams in accordance with instructional procedures. The Ministry strives to ensure, develop and diversify the educational media and the scientific and linguistic laboratories for the schools and sustain the stations of their production in the provinces by meas of supplying and improving its equipments and cover what the schools need from it.

F- School Libraries:

The Ministry strives to promote the school libraries as well as the experiment of the general library which includes the educational technologies and instructional media along with the resources and books in a number of schools, as an introduction to enlarge it gradually. The number of school libraries reach 6594.

G- School and General Examinations:

The school and general examinations are employed to assess the degree of achievement of the educational goals among the students. Assessment methods and examinations are subjected to periodical revision by a technical specialized committee which undertakes the duty of developing the examination methods. School examinations are characterized by the continuity of evaluating the students performance as the Ministry implies at the end of the sixth year of the elementary education and has a rate of 50% while the other equivalent presented is allocated to the school examinations during the scholastic year for the sixth elementary class and entitles the graduates to join the secondary stage (Intermediate education)

H- School Activities

These activities include the various efficacies accompanying the schedule such as the cultural, scientific, athletic, scouting, artistic, musical, theatrical, and school trips activities besides of its covering the creative trend of the students, and its participation in the artistic, scientific and scouting activities and arts exhibitions, on both levels: Arabic and International.

I- Special Education:

It covers individual attention to pupils of slow learning and educational difficulties in the aim to develop their personalities and abilities to match the normal, by opening special classe annexed to some elementary schools in all the provinces of the country, and providing it with the appropriate equipment and materials such as furniture, educational means and necessary examinations; which are responding gradually. The number of classes, starting from grade one up to grade 4, had reached (383) encompassing (3360) pupils with (463) teacher.

J-School Health:

School health aims at elevating the level of education and knowledge, to offer the basic health services to infants to protect them from diseases, and to improve health conditions in school environment, to bring up healthy citizens capable of bearing the responsibility of the society in cooperation with the Ministry of Health- by running periodical( medical) examinations for children to discover the sick cases at its beginning or to prevent it early.

5- Cooperation In Education For All.

The educational field in the country witnessed a persistent work and increasing effort to streng then the international cooperation in the field of education for all for the Ministry of Education sought after implementing educational, cultural and scientific cooperation with the similar educational institutions in the Arabic countries and the world and with the related Arabic and international organizations, and by participating in educational seminars, meetings and conferences held by: UNESCO. The Islamic Organization for Education, Science and Culture- The Arab Organization for Education, Science and Culture- The Arab Organization for Education, Culture and Science, UNICEF, and the other international organizations in touch with the educational organizations in touch with the educational process.

Table (C)

The learning plan for the intermediate phase.

The Subject

Class One

Class Two

Class Three

Islamic Education

3

3

3

Arabic Language

6

6

6

English Language

6

5

5

History

2

2

2

Geography

2

2

2

Civics

1

1

1

Mathematics

5

5

5

Algebra

-

-

3

Geometry

-

-

2

General Science

4

-

-

Chemistry

-

2

2

Physics

-

2

2

Biology

-

2

-

Man and Health

-

-

2

Technical Education

2

1

1

Athletics & Military Training

2

2

2

TOTAL

33

33

33

Family Education for girls

 

1

1

1

TOTAL

34

34

34

Remarks:

First: The binary double schools comprise the above learning plan.

Second: The evening school comprise the learning plan eliminating the periods of athletics and military training.

Third: The students practice the scientific activities of the vocational training divisions in the schools that are included in experiment for two periods a week.

Fourth: the students practice the scientific, educational, social, practical, and that which is related to the laboratories, the efficacies of literature, art, sport, youth activities, agricultural and industrial activities. There activities are practiced according to a schedule to be arranged for arranged for this purpose after the regular hours as a non-class activity.

The Ministry also advocated to benefit from the renewing and modernizing trends that were reported in the educational documents and the experiences of the nations especially what is related to the regulation of the information, technology, schemes, assessment and priming and training teachers.

The period which preceded the blockade on our country recorded distinct indications in the participation of Iraq in many educational and scientific activities and the various fields of cooperation. Iraq also shared in supporting the organizations which was manifested inpaying his commitments in advance and participating in meeting its financial deficit especially UNESCO and his obvious participations in reinforcing The Regional Office For Educational Planning and its administration in the Arabic Countries, and supporting in building in building its headquarters which now became UNESCO Regional Office For Education in the Arabic countries, in addition to:

Due to the oppressive blockade on our country, many organizations participated in projects and programmes to support the educational process, the most proncinent of those international organizations was UNICEF in addition to various international aid organizations, through establishing strategies and joint agreements to be signed by the government of Iraq and those organizations.

Among the projects adopted by UNICEF since 1994 were the formal and non-formal education, for exemple.

    1. The non-formal education project for girls.
    2. The teachers training project.
    3. The project of rehabilitating the schools infrastructure (reconditioning the schools and educational media accessories).
    4. The project of the educational information administrative system (the educational planning).
    5. Restoration of the chalk factory and the press of the Ministry.
    6. The open educational college project (distance education).
    7. The English language development project.
    8. The Education For All project for the year 2000.

6- Investment in Education For All:

A- Financing E.F.A.:

E.F.A. in Iraq is financed by the state on two levels: Pre-university education level, and it includes: The Kindergarten, primary, secondary, vocational and teachers training. The second level includes the technical education for after the secondary, university and higher education; this falls in two categories:

The first: free: financed by the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific Research.

The second: includes the private university education financed by professional and private societies and organizations.

The rates of expenditure from the budget of education for the two academic years 1993/1994-1994/1995 had been as follows:

Table (D)

   

1993/1994

1994/1995

1

Kindergaten

2.2%

2.8%

2

Primary Education

64.3%

64.0%

3

Secondary Education

27.6%

27.9%

4

Vocational training

5.9%

5.3%

B- School Buildings:

The number of buildings dedicated to primary schools throughout all the provinces in the country for year 79/80 were (9460); (9053) were government buildings and (407) rented. The number decreased during the following period till it reached (7572) buildings in the academic year 97/98 where (7419) were government buildings and (153) rented.

The number of appropriate buildings in the academic year 79/80 was (4119) in the rate of (43.5%) of the total and decreased during 97/98 till it reached (3052) appropriate buildings rating (40.3%) of the total building in the year 97/98. The reason for this decrease is due to the damages that occur to the buildings and scantiness of financial funds allotted to maintain the school buildings during the former years.

The number of schools that utilize the school building reached (7422) single schools (1559) dual schools and (479) ternary schools of the percentage (78.5%), (16.5%) and (5.0%) respectively.

Their number in the academic year 97/98 a reached (6284) single schools, rating (83%), (1231)binary schools, rating (16.3%) and (57) ternary schools, rating (0.7%). An increase in the rate of the schools that are independent in its buildings is noticed where is the tendency to unfold the duality in addition to merging the administrations of identical schools and the optimal use of the buildings, and to what the national compaign for buildings schools had imparted during the years 1988-1991: Table (E).

Table (E)

Years

Number of school buildings

Reference

 

Attendance

Gover-

nmental

Rented

Fit

Needs repair

Unfit

Single

Binary

Ter-nary&More

79/80

9460

9053

407

4119

2990

2351

7422

1559

479

84/85

8630

8378

252

4334

3200

1096

6998

1337

295

89/90

8092

7981

111

3334

4012

746

7256

799

37

97/98

7572

7419

153

3052

3981

539

6284

1231

57

C-School books and stationary:

The ministry of Education supplies the schoolbooks: (50%) new books an (50%) used. The ministry had resorted to this procedure due to the circumstances impose by the oppressive blockade and the impairment of the production capacity of the presses in the country as a result of the attack. The ministry also performed an interchange among the schools to rescue their actual needs of books, so that each child gets his learning items before the beginning of the scholastic year, providing enough stationary to suffice all the various types of scholastic activities.

D- Eradication of Illiteracy Campaigns

To secure educational opportunities for the age cohorts who did have chance to learn an extended conference called the Baghdad Conference for the Eradication of Illiteracy, was held in 1976, in which Arabic and international educational organizations and institutions and the personalities well-known in this had participated, which designated the basis and executive measures for a project of a comprehensive national campaign for the eradication of the illiteracy. All the capacities of the state: its ministries, establishments and organizations were exploited to bring this human project to success. The project had been put into effect in 1/12/1978 after decreeing the law of the comprehension national campaign obligatory eradication of illiteracy N# 92 for the year 1976.

By this legislation and what legislations and laws preceded it, the desired educational progress for young and elders was attained in rural and urban areas for the different ages, especially 15 years and above for males and females. Subsequent to this giant project, other separate campaigns were carried out to eradicate illiteracy of some groups which the comprehensive campaign to reinforce the basic skills in reading, writing and arithmetic, for these groups and others did not cover, and in response to the enforcement of the oppressive blockade upon our perseverant country and the impacts it left on educational institutions directly and indirectly and execution of the aims of the middle of the decade (1995), a formal educational project (not regular) was approved between the Ministry of Education and UNICEF in cooperation with the general union for women in Iraq during the two years 1994/1995. The aim of the project was to teach (7000) girls reading, writing, arithmetic, the necessary knowledge of health and social conditions, and basic living skill such swing. The project concentrated on attracting the girls who dropped out of schools during the first four years of the elementary level of the age (10-14) years. The activities of the projects plan included the following:

Evening study classes for girls had been arranged all over the provinces of the country, which reached (297) classes in 1994, while the studies given in those classes reached (7768), this number exceeded the projected aim. Iraq 1995 two courses were employed during the summer vacation where the number of studies was (4245) in the first course and (3077) in the second.


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