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Part two

  1. Proceeding Towards the Objectives.
  2. Efficiency of the Strategy of E.F.A.
  3. Main Problems Which Confront E.F.A.
  4. General Knowledge, Administration and abilities.

1. Proceeding Towards the Objectives.

  1. Early Childhood care and its development.

Table (1) indicator (1)- Gross enrolment ratio in childhood development programmes.

The number of infants enrobled in the nurseries for the year (1997/1998) reached (70585) males and females: (35865) males rating (50.8%) and (34720) females, rating (49.2%). The ratio of enrolment of the inhabitants of the inhabitants of the same age cohort (3-5) years in the nurseries was (68%) for both genders. Basrah Province achieved the highest rate: (10.4%)for both genders, while the lowest rate of enrolment was in Baghdad Province in general (1.4%),Diala, Anbar and Babil Provinces follow: 3.4%, 3.9% and 3.6% respectively. The gender parity index was(1) in favour of males accross the country.

Comparing the numerical statements between the beginning and the of the nineties decade:

From table(1) it is clear that the rate of the enrolled children in nurseries to the total children population of the same age group (3-5) years in the middle of the decade had increased slightly from what it was at its beginning,then decreased noticeably at its end. So while it was(8.2 %) in 1991/92 it increased to(6.8%) in 1997/1998. Figure(1) explains that .

Fig(1) Not Available

The rate of all children enrolled in nurseries to the total children population of the same age group (3-5) years.

These diagrams indicate that less than one tenth of the children population in this age group (3-4) years. Relish early childhood development programes.This rate is low when compared with that of the developed countries.yet,all is either close to or higher than that of some Arabic countries and developing countries inspite of the negative effects of the oppressive blockade imposed on drag,which outreached the educational system completely.

Table 2- Indication 2-Percentage of new entrants to grade one have attended some form of organized early childhood of development program during at least one year (or one encrolment period).

The number of new entrants to grade on in 1997/1998 was (566337) pupils (males and females); (302013) males rating (53.3%) and (264324)females rating (46.7%). The percentage of the entrants to grade one who attended the organized early childhood development program was (12.5%) for both genders throughout the country. The higheat rate was in Baghdad Province,(19.6%) for both genders, while Basrah Province comes next (16.4%) .

In the meantince it was lower in Diala and Missan Provinces ; (6.8%) and (6.4%) respectively. The parity index was (1.1) throughout the country .

Comparing the rates of enrolment 91/92,95/96 and at the end of the decade.

Table (2) indicates that the percentage of all new entrants to grade one who attended early childhood development program to the total new entrants to this grade in the middle of the decade bad dropped from what it bad been at its beginning, then dropped again noticeably at its end; for it was917.2%) in 91/92,dropped to (15.7%) in 95/96, and dropped again to (12.5%) at the end. Figure (2) explains that .

Fig(2) Not Available

Diagram of the rate of all new entrants to grade one who attended early childhood development program to the total entrants to this grade.

The reasons for the decline in these rates goes back to that the elementary education in drag is (obligatory) which means that all children of the official age cohort enroll in grade one, while enrolment in kindergartens is voluntary. Moreover the number of entrants to grade one had increased successively throughout the decade as clear in table(2) mean while the number of entrants to kindergartens had decreased remarkably at the end of the decade, as been clear from tables(1).

B – Primary Education.

Table 3- Indicators 3,4: Apparent (gross) and net intake rates in primary education.

The number of pupils, of all ages (5-10) enrolled in grade one in 1997/1998 was (566337) males and females of which (484793) were in the age of (5-6 years) (years of intake). So the rates entrants from all ages to school entrance age population was (111.6 %) for both genders (gross) while the net intake rate in primary education of age (5-6 years) to school entrance age population was (95.6 %). The highest intake rate (gross) was in Baghdad Province and Basrah Province next (119.6%,145.2%) respectively. The lowest intake rates (gross) were in Mathara and Babel (82.6%.84.5%) respectively .

The apparent (gross) parity index for the tow genders was (0.9) and for the net intake rate was also (0.9) throughout the country.

Comparing the two averages, gross and net, of intake in primary education between the beginning and the end of the decade.

Table (3) indicates that the gross rates of all new entrants to grade on to the total school entrance age population in the middle of decade had increased noticeably from what it was its beginning, then increased slightly at its end, as was (95/96), then increased to (111.6%) in 97/98. Figure 3 explains that.

Table (3) also indicates to that the net rate of all new entrants to grade one to the total school entrance age population in the middle of the decade had increased noticeably from what it was at its beg inning, then dropped slightly at its end as it was (87.2%) in 1991/92, it increased to (98%0 in 95/96 then decreased to 95.6 in 96/98 .

fig (3) Not Available

Diagram of the ratio of all new entrants to grade one to the total school entrance age population.

Table 4.Ludicators 5,6 gross and net enrolment ratios in primary education:

The number of pupils of all ages enrolled in the primary education phase was (3029386) males and females of which (1677963) males, rate 55.4% and (1351421) females, rating 44.6% while the number of pupils of official primary education age (6-11 years) was (2738975) males and females, of which (1493772) were males rating (54.5%) and (1245203) were females rating (45.5%), the ratio of entrants of all ages to the official school entrance age population to primary education was (103%) (gross), and the ratio of the entrants of the primary education age to the official school entrance age population to primary education was (93.1%)(net). The gross enrolment rates were high in Baghdad and Basrah Province (134.4%, 119.4%) respectively, and low in Mathma and Karbala Provinces (70.9%, 75.3%0) respectively. And as for the net rates, the same above mentioned provinces achieved accordingly high and low rates. The gender parity index was (0.9) for gross intake and (10.7) for net intake.

Comparing the thee years 91/92,95/96,96/98.

It is clear from table (4) that the gross ratio of all entrants to primary education to official school entrance age population in the middle of the decade had dropped from what it had been its beginning. Then increased very slightly at its end, for as it was (104.4%0 in 1991/92, it dropped to (101.9%) in 1995/96 then increased to (103%) in 97/98. figure (4) explains that.

It is also clear from table (4) that the net ratio of all entrants to primary education to the total official school entrance age population at the middle of the decade had increased very slightly from what it was at its beginning, then increased slightly again at its end for it was (92%) in 1991/1992, increased to (92.8%) in 1995/1996, then increased again to (93.1%) in 1997/1998, figure (4) explains that.

fig (4) Not Available

Diagram of the ratio of all entrants to primary one to the total official school entrance age population to primary education.

Table 5- Indication7,8- Public expenditure on primary education as percentage of the gross National Product and as percentage of the total expenditure on primary education per pupil as percentage of gross National Product per capita.

In 1996 public expenditure on primary education amounted to 7928858834 dinars, when public expenditure on all levels of the general education was 1648114000 dinars, that is (48%) . The public expenditure on primary education is expected to reach 1180167034 dinars in the year 2000 , and on all levels of public education 27320822766 dinars for the same year.

Table 6- Indicators9,10-Percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications, and percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards.

The number of primary school teachers who have academic qualifications amounted to (29981) (males and females) (in 1997/1998) and the number of primary school teachers who are certified to teach to (111956) (males and females)that is (21.1%) & 78.9%) respectively. The highest rates of primary school teachers who have academic qualifications wase in Baghdad and Basrah Provinces (27.3% &24.2%).respectively , and the lowest were in Mathna and Salahulddeen Provinces (12.5% &13.9%) . respectively . But as for the rates of primary school teachers who are certified to teach, they were high in Nathna and Salahulddeen Provinces (87.5% &86.1%) respectively and low in Baghdad and Basrah Provinces(72.7% &75.8%) respectively .The gender parity index for the two indicators (9&10) (1.0&0.9) respectively throughout the country .

Comparing the percentages of primary school teachers having academic qualifications and who are certified to teach during the decade of the nineties.

It is clear from table (6) that the ratio of all primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications to all the primary school teachers at the middle of the decade had increased noticeably from what it had been at its beginning, then decreased very slightly at the end of it; for as was (13.6%) in 91/92, it increased to (22.6%) in 95/96 then decreased to (21.0%) in 97/98. Figure (5) explains that .

It is also clear that the ratio of all the primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to the national standards to all the primary school teachers in the middle of the decade had decreased noticeably from what it was its beginning, then increased slightly at its end; for it was (86.4%) in 91/92, decreased to (77.4%) in 95/96, then increased to (78.9%) in 97/98. Figure (5) explains that.

That was the result of the continuous efforts exerted to raise the scientific and professional educational domains in the aim of maintaining the national standards.

Fig (5) Not Available

Teacher who are certified to teach according to national slandards.

Teachers having the required acceding qualifications.

Table 7 – Indication 11- Pupil- teacher ratio.

The number of entrants to the primary stage amounted to (3029386) pupils-males and females while the teachers number was (141935) males and females: This the pupil teacher ratio is (21) for the whole country. While it was high in Nineava Province (31), it was low in Qadissia, Wassit and Missan Provinces (16).

Comparing the ratios during the decade of the nineties.

Table (7) shows that the distribution of the number of pupils (in average) to every teacher (male or female) had decreased a little at the middle and the end of the decade from what it had been at its beginning. This member decreased from (24) at the beginning of the decade to (20) in its middle, then increased slightly at its end. This is a positive trend in the primary education procession towards providing the opportunities of interactivity between the children and their teachers. Figure (6) explains that:

Fig(6) Not Available

Diagram of the teachers share of the pupils.

The reason for that, as it is clear from table (7) goes to the increase in the number of the teachers (males or females) in the middle of the decade. This number increased from (120063) (males or females) at the beginning of the decade to (145455) in its middle with an increase rate of (21.2%); but this number decreased to (141935) teachers at its end at the rate of (2.4%) which lead to a slight increase in the share of the teacher from the students at the end of the decade.

It is worth to indicate that the primary education system in Iraq is (co-educational), for there is no separate share of female pupils for the female teacher nor a separate share of male pupils for the male teacher, and only the general average is taken into consideration.

Table 8- indication 12 – Repetition rate primary education to class.

The highest repetition rate for the primary level in 1997/1998 was in grade five (26.3%) males and (19%) females (for the whole country). But as to provinces, the highest rate of repetition in grade five was in (Mathna, Nineava and Basrah Provinces (32.3%, 29.7%&20.6%) respectively for males, and (23.3%, 22.7%&23%) respectively for males while Salahulddeen got the lowest rates of repetition (18.1% females and 12.9% for females) for the mentioned grade.

The gender parity index for the rates of repetition was (0.7) that is, the repetition rates among the males were higher than those among the females, for the average rates of repetition in grades one to five were (17%&12.1%) for males and females respectively.

For comparison

It is clear from table (8) that the mean average of repetition rates in grades (1-5) had decreased in the middle of the decade from what it was at beginning, then decreased slightly at it end, the mean average was (20.1%) in 91/92, decreased to 17.6% in 95/96, then decreased to (17%) in 97/98. Fig (7) explains that:

Fig (7) Not Available

Diagram of the average repetition rate in grades (1-5)

PROVINCES

NUNBER OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS

IN 1997/98

Nineava

923

Salahuldden

632

Tamim

563

Diala

678

Rassafah/1

346

Rassafah/2

327

Karkh/1

385

Karkh/2

322

Anbar

608

Babil

433

Karbala

256

Najaf

311

Qadissia

397

Mathna

230

Thigar

620

Wasset

446

Missan

331

Basrah

525

TOTAL

8333

Table 9- Indicators 13,14,Survival rate up to grade five and the coefficient of efficiency:

The survival rate up to grade five 1997/1998 was (720) male pupils and (769) female pupils for the country’s level. Meanwhile, the coefficient of efficiency up to grave five was 90.2% for males and 95.7% for females, and as for the primary phase as a whole, the coefficient of efficiency was 82 for the males and 87 for the females. For the province level, the highest survival rate up to grade five was in Salahulddeen Province, where it was (842) male pupils and (866) female pupils. The lowest rate was in Babil Province where it was (641) male pupils and (787) female pupils. The highest efficiency rate for the primary level was in Salahulddeen Province. 96 for males and 98 for females, and the lowest coefficient of efficiency was in Babil Province 73 for males but for the females it was high 89.

The gender party index of the survival rate up grade five was (1.1) while the efficient of efficiency up to grade five the gender parity index was (1.1) and for the coefficient of efficiency for the primary level was (1) for the whole country.

C- Educational acquisition and outputs

Table 10- Indicators 15,Percentage of pupils who succeeded in grade four at least and passed the examinations in reading, writing and mathematics.

The number of pupils in grade four who passed the examinations in reading, writing mathematics and other subjects, included this level was (475080) males and females for the country level, of then (272060) were males at a rate of (57.3%) and (203020) were females, at a rate of (42.7%). The number of the pupils from grade four who succeeded and achieved (A.C.S.) was (336065) for the whole country of then (190331) were males at a rate of (56.6%) and (145734) females at a rate of (43.4%), and at the province level Anbar and Wassit Provinces achieved the highest rates of success in grade four which were (92.1%&91%) consecutively and for both genders. While the lowest rates were in Tamim and Babil Provinces Which were (61.9%, 62.9) consecutively and for both genders.

The gender parity index for the pupils who achieve the passing grades in the results of the examinations the subjects of column 3,4,5, was (1) for the whole country.

Comparing between selected year from the nineties decade:

Table (9) indicates that grade four pupils master the basic learning abilities at the beginning middle and the end of the decade. But the rate of the pupils who passed grade four in the middle of the decade had decreased slightly from what it was at the beginning these increased slightly towards its end. It was (71.8%) in 1991/92, decreased to (67.7%) in 95/96 then increased to (70.7) in 1997/98. Figure (8) explains that.

Fig (8) Not Available

Diagram of the percentage of pupils who passed grade 4

D – Literacy among elders .

Table 11- statistic for eradication of illiteracy for 1997 are not available because results of 1997 cercus did not appear.

Indicators are available for 1987 which are shown in table 11 indicators 16,17&18.

Table (11) shows that percentage of those who can read and write was (27.4%) for both genders from (10) years and above for the whole country of which(20.2%) for males (34.5%) for females, the gender parity index was (1.7) for the whole country.

2 – The strategy efficiency of E.F.A.

The most prominent indicators which appeared in the educational innovation trends which comply with the new outcomes of education are:

    1. The integration of education with
    2. development throughout all their aspects and the coherence between education and the society’s objectives.

    3. The productive characteristic in education
    4. and emphasis of labour value.

    5. Renovelling studies programmes, means , and
    6. technical media, and associating the programme to the environment and society.

    7. Proceeding in priming teachers for the

primary education level through university standard and increasing opportunities of their in-service training.

In view of these trends, the Ministry of

Education proceeded through its specific annual conferences and designated scientific senunars to translate these trends into projects aiming to renovate and modernize primary education, based on firm scientific grounds, estimate its results and develop what is suitable.

Among the most prominent educational renovelling and modernizing projects which the Ministry proceeds to accomplish and develop are:

There divisions were annexed to primary schools as workshops so that children practice the various scientific activities.

introducing it in some primary schools programmes regarding it as a subject and means in education and learning.

effect in the aim of merging the two levels of primary and intermediate education in one level of nine years period.

Primary schools into effect, which aims at teaching reading and writing to beginners with the natural law of the infant’s apprehension.

3- Problems which confront E.F.A.

As a result of the imposition of the blockade on our country Iraq in the year 1990 and the out-break of the attack in 1991 and what followed of destructive deeds, the deprivation from the simplest necessary requirements, and inactivation of the comprehension memorandum, the educational institutions suffered from sizable impacts, specified in international reports, resulting in a human catastrophy which injurs the people of Iraq and affects, in special, the quality of educational programmes, activities, and output within many fields directly and indirectly and in both sides; quantitative and qualitative.

  1. Quantitative damage:
  1. In the fields of school buildings plans:

School

Situation

Number of Pupils

Alrrihab Primary

G.D. Rassafah 2

2156

Algawmiah Primary

G.D. Rassafah 2

2024

Alakramin Primary

G.D. Babil

3858

Ezz-elarab Primary

G.D. Babil

3371

  1. In the field of educational requirements:
  2. A severe defficiency occurred in providing the educational process requirements, for the need still exists to provide:

    2,000,000(Trips. )

    750,000(Books of school library.)

    500,000(Units of educational meas (apparatus and materials need to be imported).

    62,000,000(School copy books.)

    18,000,000(Examination copybooks.)

    26,000,000(Copies of school books.)

    150,000,000(Pencils.)

    23,000,000(Sharpeners.)

    5,000,000(Rulers.)

    500,000(Geometry.)

    15(Chalk factories.)

    15,000(Computer units.)

  3. In the field of production:
  4. Production in the Ministry’s press plants and factory had stopped. The annual loss is estimated to be (1,950,092,560) one billion nine hundred fifty eight million ninety two thousand five hundred and sixty dinars.

  5. In the field of executing the educational development plan:

Phase

Number planned to be enrolled 1998/1999

Real number enrolled 1998/1999

Kindergarten

116,435

73,569

Primary

3,552,381

3,174,459

Secondary

1,946,148

1,134,672

Vocational

141,463

75,196

TOTAL

5,756,643

4,457,896

1,298,567 pupils and students from the expected plan did not enrol in 98/99 at rate of (22.6%).

Phase

Number planned to be enrolled 1996/1997

Real number enrolled 1996/1997

Kindergarten

710

596

Primary

8,760

8,300

Secondary

2,821

2,729

Vocational

276

264

TOTAL

12,567

11,889

678 new schools planned were not established.

Pupils and students dropouts.

Year

Primary

Intermediate

Preparatory

Vocational

Teacher training

TOTAL

89/90

59,673

33,577

2,442

2,014

132

97,838

91/92

93,750

48,605

2,221

3,077

132

147,785

92/93

67,706

52,731

4,085

2,722

124

127,368

93/94

71,705

49,374

3,803

2,313

142

127,337

94/95

86,412

58,465

4,079

2,337

191

151,484

95/96

89,531

53,056

1,089

2,150

1,640

149,870

96/97

75,217

51,125

5,316

2,228

237

134,123

97/98

72,598

33,390

3,645

1,919

509

112,061

Table (12) the entire total of children called in Kindergarten for the year 1997/1998 – 2005/2006.

years

Average enrolment per 1000 of population.Kindergartens 

Males Females Total Mal es Females Total Males Females Total Number of Kindergarten Average Number of Kindergarten Ave-rage  
97/98 651208 613263 1264471 35865 34720 70585 65 69 68 566 125 1840 38  
98/99 666902 628613 1295515 65533 58212 123745 98 93 96 760 163 3246 38  
99/2000 683361 643665 1327026 68277 60994 129271 100 95 97 788 164 3494 37  
2000/2001 699817 663040 1362857 71150 63825 134975 102 96 99 821 164 3712 36  
2001/2002 719800 678196 1397996 74356 66822 141178 103 99 101 857 165 4067 35  
2002/2003 739513 696184 1435697 77715 70046 147761 105 101 103 896 165 4551 32  
2003/2004 757760 714488 1472248 78101 75515 153616 103 105 104 959 160 4859 32  
2004/2005 777759 733138 1510897 84817 76954 161771 109 105 107 995 163 5324 30  
2005/2006 795470 751517 1546987 88370 80763 169133 111 107 109 1062 160 5862 29  


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