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Part I Descriptive Section

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The Assessment of Education For All is taking place ten years after the World Conference on Education for All which was held in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990.

The preparation of the report on EFA was made possible by the Technical committee whose members were drawn from the relevant departments of the Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development, Ministry of Research and Technology and the Ministry of Home Affairs, National Heritage, Culture and Social Services.

The Government is most grateful to UNICEF for their financial and technical support in supporting the residential workshop that prepared and produced the final draft, between 25th July and 4th August 1999. Special thanks go to Dr. M. Bagayoko, Head of Education Unit, for his understanding and professional support throughout this exercise.

I also wish to extend my special gratitude to Dr. O. Abagi (consultant) for his professional input during the workshop and his guidance in the drafting of the final report.

As Chairman of the Technical Committee I wish to appreciate the efforts and contribution of Ms. S. W. Gichura, Mr. B. N. Gachanja, Mrs S. K. Kirea, Mrs R. C. Cheruiyot, Mrs F. A. Okwiri, Mr. A. N. Mwaura, Mr. S.D. Kachumbo, Mr. J. N. Kimani, Mrs A.K. Odawa, Mr. T. M. Katembu, Mrs P.M. Nyingi, Mr. E. Barasa, Mr. Gakungu, who worked round the clock in collecting the information and compiling the report. I also wish to thank Ms. H. Ngare, Ms. P. Shitambasi and Mrs. Joyce Mwangi who did commendable job as secretarial staff.

Finally I wish to thank UNESCO for their foresight and initiative towards the provision of Education For All, the NGOs, UN Agencies and all persons who have contributed in one way or another towards the achievement of EFA goals in Kenya since Jomtien.

E. M. KIUGU
SECRETARY-GENERAL
KENYA NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR UNESCO.

ABBREVIATIONS

ACK…Anglican Church of Kenya

ASAL…Arid and Semi Arid Lands

BOG…Board of Governors

CBM…Christoffel Blinden Mission

COTU…Central Organisation Trade Union

DANIDADanish International Development Agency

DECDICs… District Early Childhood Development Implementation Committee

DICECE…District Centres for Early Childhood Education

DIT…Directorate of Industrial Training

EARC…Education Assessment Research Centre

EARS…Education Assessment and Resource Services

ECCD…Early Childhood Care and Development

EFA…Education for All

EMS…Education Media Service

FAWE…Forum for African Women Educationalists

FKE…Federation of Kenya Employees

GER …Gross Enrolment Rates

GOK…Government of Kenya

GTZ…German Technical Co-operation

IGAs…Income Generating Activities

 IIEP…Islamic Integrated Education Programme

IMF…International Monetary Fund

JICA…Japanese International Co-operation Agency

KCPE…Kenya Certificate of Primary Education

KIE...Kenya Institute of Education

KISE...Kenya Institute of Special Education

M & E...Monitoring and Evaluation

OOS...Out of School

 MOE &HRD…Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development

MOE…Ministry of Education

MPET…Master Plan on Education and Training

MYWO…Maendeleo Ya Wanawake Organisation

NACECE…National Centre for Early Childhood Education

NAS…Needs Assessment Survey

NESIS…National Education Statistical Information Systems

NFE…Non-Formal Education

NGOs…Non-Governmental Organisation

NPs…National Polytechnics

NTs…National Training Strategy

PCEA…The Presbyterian Church of East Africa

PRISM…Primary Schools Management

PTAs…Parents Teachers Association

PTTCs…Primary Teachers Training Colleges

SAPS…Structural Adjustment Programmes

SHIA…Swedish Organisation of the Handicapped International Aid Foundation

SMASSE…Strengthening Maths and Science in Secondary Education

SPRED…Strengthening Primary Education

STEPS…Strengthening of Education of Primary and Secondary SchoolProject

TEP…Technical Education Programmes

TFGET…Task Force on Gender and Education and Training

TSC…Teachers Service Commission

UNESCO…United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation

UNICEF…United Nations Children’s Fund

YMCA…Young Men Christian Association

YWCA…Young Women’s Christian Association

 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.0 The Goal of Education

The EFA 2000 Assessment Country Report notes that the provision of educational and training opportunities has been a standing objective of the Government of Kenya (GoK) since independence in 1963. Education has been considered by different stakeholders in the country as an important vehicle for socio-economic and political development. It is also now clear that when educational opportunities are opened to girls and women, such benefits are even greater. Education has, therefore, been seen as a fundamental strategy for human capital development and a crucial vehicle for enhancing the quality of life. However, as Kenya approaches the 21st century, the county is faced with new challenges of meeting the public demand for education and training both as a human right and as an essential investment in the strive to attain the status of a newly industrialised country. These challenges point to the need for the education sector to properly play its role of developing needed skilled human resource.

2.0 Commitment To EFA

The participation of GoK in the Jomtien Conference in 1990, and its subsequent endorsement of EFA Declaration, re-enforced the commitment Kenya has on the provision of education to its citizens. The events related to the development of education sector in the country following the Jomtien Conference exhibit how Kenya has tried to domesticate the EFA Declarations. The magnitude of Kenya’s commitment is presented in this Report. It is noted that, two crucial events laid the foundation for domesticating EFA commitments in the country. These are i) National Conference on Education for All held in Kisumu in 1992, and ii) National Symposium on the Education of the Girl-Child held in Machakos in 1994.

The main objectives of the two meetings were to:

analyse and recommend mechanism for co-ordination among government and other organisations and agencies;

recommend mechanisms for implementation of National EFA strategies;review the status of girl-child education;identify areas which need urgent attention; strategise on how to mainstream gender in education and training;gender sensitise education policy makers and managers, and develop a consensus on the rationale for mainstreaming gender equity in education;suggest mechanisms of translating the draft Plan of Action into a working government format.

EFA Assessment 2000 Country Report takes stock of Kenya’s commitments and challenges and uses them as a base for strategising for the provision of quality basic education as a basic need and right to all children in the country. The MoE&HRD Team while conducting EFA assessment took note of the outlined EFA goals and the various initiatives which the Government and other key partners (parents, communities, individual investors and donor agencies) have put in place in the last decade to increase educational opportunities and quality in the country. Following the General Guidelines For EFA 2000 Assessment, the review has critically examined and analysed the development and expansion of educational opportunities during this period. This analysis has covered basic education (ECCD, primary, and secondary levels). Besides, other support sub-sectors which target EFA goals have been analysed. These include: Non-formal Education, Adult Education, Special Education, and Technical and vocational Education. As noted in this Report, the challenges facing education in Kenya are very clear. This is because of two major events in the last ten years. One, the increased public demand for quality education; and two, poor economic growth rate which have negatively affected investment in education.

3.0 EDUCATION FOR ALL: ASSESSING THE BALANCE SHEET.

3.1 One of the main objective of EFA 2000 Assessment was to review the progress Kenya has made in achieving EFA goals and commitments agreed in Jomtien Conference in 1990. These commitments included:

The EFA 2000 assessment effort in Kenya has revealed that the past decade has witnessed a renewed GoK commitment to EFA goals. There has been

considerable expansion of educational opportunities during the period for both boys and girls. The Government and other partners, including parents and

communities, civil society, private investors, educationists and donors have intensified efforts to reverse the declining enrolments and improve on quality and relevance of education and training.

Besides, there is also a renewed call for greater partnership among the partners for the development of viable and sustainable plans, mobilisation of additional resources and efficient implementation of education programmes.

The Report indicates that the most notable positive progress has been in the following areas:

(i) The initiatives put in place for the expansion of early childhood education.

(ii) Programmes initiated and implemented for the reduction of adult illiteracy rate.

(iii) Various policies and programmes that have been put in place to develop non-formal education and other alternative and complementary approaches.

(iv)Teacher education programmes have worked well. For example, out of the total number of primary school teachers only 3.4% are untrained.

(v)Initiatives to build partnership in the provision of education among key partners, the communities, individual investors, religious organisations, civil society and external donors have given positive results.

(vi)Initiatives to address the internal efficiency in education, for example health and nutrition programmes, the Girl-Child projects, have increased retention of children in school, and has also reduced the gender gap between boys and girls.

(vii)Capacity building programmes for efficient and effective management of schools, for example PRISM, SPRED, and inservice course at Kenya Education Staff Institute (KESI) are bearing positive fruits.

3.3 The critical review of how well Kenya has done in achieving EFA goals, indicate that despite the above achievements, unfortunately, a wide disparity has emerged between the goals agreed upon at Jomtien and actual domestication of those goals in Kenya. The Report notes that major issues have emerged which have made the achievement of EFA goals difficult. Among these are increased poverty levels, the implementation of structural adjustment programs, and the servicing of both domestic and international debt. The Assessment indicates that progress since Jomtien has been much slower than anticipated in relation to most of the major targets set for achieving EFA goals. Despite the fact that more educational opportunities have been created in the last decade, many eligible school age children - aged 6-13 (about 11%) are still out of school. This is more pronounced in the ASAL and Coastal areas. Current statistical data shows that in the last two years national gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary school level did increase from 86.4% in 1996 to 88.8% in 1998. However, the net enrolment rate (NER) -the

(vii)single most important indicator of progress towards the goal of UPE is estimated to be not more than 60%, although there is an urgent need for a systematic study on this. Although GER indicate a positive rise, it obscures the full extent of the challenges facing education. For example, of the many children who enrol in primary school in Kenya, girls in particular do not stay long enough to complete the cycle. The completion rate in the last five years at this level has remained at 46% mark and out of those who join form one, only about 84.5 (1998) complete secondary education.

3.4 The Process of Producing EFA 2000 Assessment Report.

3.4.1Structures for the Assessment.

The exercise was co-ordinated by the MOE&HRD and involved other Government Ministries that deal with education and training viz: The Ministry of Research and Technology (MRT) and the Ministry of Culture and Social Services (MCSS). The hierarchy for report production involved the following structures.

The National Steering Group.

The assessment is a collaborative effort requiring consultation amongst all Stakeholders in Education. The Group Membership therefore comprised of key Stakeholders in Education , Non-Governmental organisations , Private providers, Directors of Technical and Vocational Education, Director of Adult Education, MOE&HRD officials and is chaired by the Director of Education. It’s role was to advise the Technical Subgroup and to manage the whole process of EFA assessment.

Members of Senior Management.

This constitute all Senior managers in Education; Heads of Education Parastatals and is chaired by the Permanent Secretary incharge of Education. It formulates policy and approves programmes in the various sectors in Education. It is a standing committee whose role was to adopt the report as a true reflection of the countries achievement of EFA goals.

Technical Drafting Subgroup.

The group comprises membership from all the sub-sectors of the MOE&HRD viz: ECCD, Primary, Secondary, Non-Formal, Gender, Special Education, Teacher Education and Curriculum Development. The Department of Adult Education and the Ministry of Research and Technology was also represented . It’s role was to collect information through analysis of existing documents, draft the subsectoral drafts and compile the final assessment report.

This group is chaired by the Secretary General, Kenya National Commission for UNESCO.

3.4.2 Data Collection, Analysis and Write-up

The production of this report followed several stages.

The first stage was collection of relevant official documents and research based reports (See Reference Section) by the drafting team. These documents were analysed individually and subsequently in groups. The team came up with sub-sectoral papers following the guidelines provided by the EFA Forum Secretariat and also adopted the eighteen (18) Core EFA indicators.

During the second stage, the draft team organised for a residential writing workshop. With the assistance of a Kenyan Education & Gender Specialist, each paper was reviewed as to its content, analysis and relevance to EFA assessment. After a thorough review, the papers were finalised, and the first Draft of the Country Report put together.

The third stage involved sharing the Draft document with the Senior Education Managers of MoE & HRD. The document was circulated to the Senior managers and adequate time given for their reading. A meeting was organised where the Drafting Committee and the Senior Managers went through the document to build a common understanding and consensus. Comments made after this meeting were incorporated and a second draft made which was sent to the other stakeholders.

The fourth stage involved sharing the Draft document with stake holders, including Politicians, District Education Managers, Civil society, religious leaders, private investors and donor agencies. A workshop was organised where the document was reviewed. Feedback from various groups were incorporated and the final document produced and submitted to the EFA Forum Secretariat through UNESCO Regional office in Harare.

4.0 ORGANISATION OF THE REPORT.

The report is organised in Sections, following the Guidelines for EFA 2000 Assessment. Each of the chapters of this report presents sub-sector based analysis of efforts which have been made in Kenya to achieve EFA goals as developed in 1990 in Jomtien, Thailand. As part of the assessment, each sub-sector presents progress, situational analysis, challenges and prospects available for meeting EFA goals. The Sections are arranged as follows:

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 The Goal of Education In Kenya

The provision of educational opportunities has been a standing objective of the Government of Kenya (GoK) since independence in 1963 for it is considered by different stakeholders in the country as an important vehicle for self-advancement socio-economic and political development. It has also now become clear that when educational opportunities are opened to girls and women, such benefits are even greater. To achieve this,

Kenya’s guiding philosophy for education is the concern that every Kenyan has the inalienable right, no matter his or her socio-economic status to basic Education. (GoK, 1997:135).

In this regard Education should always seek to realise the six goals of Education which are:

Education must foster national unity;

Education must prepare and equip the youth with knowledge, skills and expertise to enable them to play an effective role in the life of the nation;

Education must serve the needs of national development;

Education must provide for the full development of talents and personality;

Education must promote social justice and morality, social obligations and responsibilities; and

Education must foster positive altitudes and consciousness towards other nations.

Education has, therefore, been seen as a fundamental strategy for human capital development and a crucial vehicle for enhancing the quality of life. Over the last 37 years, the Government, households, communities and the private investors have striven to enhance the development of education in the country. Such investment has been in line with the philosophy spelt out in the Sessional Paper No. 10 on African Socialism and Its Application to Planning in Kenya (GoK, 1965). The efforts of various players in investing in this sector have been guided by the various policy documents such as National Development Plans and Sessional papers (in particular Sessional Paper Nos. 10, 6, 1 and 2 of 1965, 1988, 1992 and 1996) respectively.

As Kenya approaches the 21st century, the county is faced with new challenges of meeting greater public demand for quality education and training both as a human right and as an essential investment in the strife to attain the status of a newly industrialised country. These challenges point to the need for the education sector to properly play its role of developing a highly skilled human resource base.

The development of education in Kenya has been marked by various changes and challenges, and so is the impact the sector has had on national development. Over the last 30 years, the education sector has undergone major transformations with more than ten reviews by special commissions and working parties established by the Government. These include, the 1964 Ominde Commission, the 1979 Gachathi Report, the 1981 Presidential Working Party on the Establishment of the Second Public University, and the 1988 Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the Next Decade. The reviews have been necessitated by the quest to address the pertinent issues of access, relevance, quality and efficiency of the education system in the country.

Since 1985, Kenya has followed the 8-4-4 system of education (8 years of primary education, 4 years secondary and 4 years university education for a basic degree). Early child-hood education and adult education are also features in this system of education, although not formally presented in the education structure. Under the 8-4-4 system, the objectives of primary schooling include providing learning opportunities which enables pupils to acquire basic knowledge and skills for the world of work in the context of economic and human resource needs of the nation. Although there has been considerable investment and participation in the 8-4-4 system of education, it has featured prominently in the national political and academic discourse. The debate has centred on its relevance, efficiency, and cost to both the parents and the government.

In the last decade, the increased public demand for education and training has stretched the Government budget to the sector. The Government has therefore intensified partnerships and collaboration with other partners, including parents and communities, individual investors, civil society and donors in the financing of education and training.

1.2 GoK Commitment to EFA

The participation of GoK in the Jomtien conference in 1990, and its subsequent endorsement of EFA Declaration, re-enforced the commitment Kenya has on the provision of education to its citizens. The GoK, was also a signatory to the 1990 World Declaration on Education for All, whose Article 1 states that every person - child, youth and adult - shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs. The six key goals identified at Jomtien were:

the expansion of early childhood care and development;

universal access to and completion of primary education by the year 2000;

a reduction of adult illiteracy rates to one half of the 1990s levels by 2000, with an emphasis on female literacy;

improved learning achievement; based on the attainment of defined levels of performance;

expansion of basic education and training for adults and youths;

improved dissemination of knowledge, skills, and values required for sustainable development.

The events related to the development of education sector in the country following Jomtien conference exhibit how Kenya has tried to domesticate the EFA Declarations. The magnitude of Kenya’s commitment is presented in this report. But, some events are worth mentioning upfront as part of domesticating EFA commitments.

(a) National Conference on Education for All. As a strategy of domesticating EFA goals, the GoK, organised a national conference in 1992 in Kisumu. Several partners representing policy makers, politicians, NGOs, scholars, community leaders and donor agencies participated actively in this consultative and planning meeting. Several pertinent issues were discussed agreed upon, and work plan developed. The specific objectives of the meeting were to:

(i) Analyse and recommend mechanism for co-ordination among government and other organisations and agencies;

(ii) Recommend mechanisms for implementation of National EFA strategies, and

(iii) Suggest mechanisms of translating the draft Plan of Action into a working government format.

(b) National Symposium on the Education of the Girl-Child, 1994. This symposium focused on the Girl-child. Again, through participatory approach, recommendations were made and work plans developed. The specific objectives of the symposium were to:

(i) Review the status of girl-child education.

(ii) Identify areas which need urgent attention.

(iii) Strategise on how to mainstream gender in education and training.

  • (iv) Gender sensitise education policy makers and managers, and develop a consensus on the rationale for mainstreaming gender equity in education.
  • Policy analysis and research undertakings in the country indicate that, although there has been considerable investment and expansion of educational opportunities in the last decade, the following issues have emerged as major challenges for the achievement of EFA goals (for details refer to Sections on Progress and Effectiveness of EFA Strategies).
  • (a) The rising cost of education and how to finance the sector, thus expand educational opportunities to all eligible children;

    (b) Mismatch between formal learning and job opportunities in the labour market.

    (c) Inefficiency in the school system, including high wastage due to high drop-outs and repetition; and decline in the quality of education.

    (d) Regional and gender disparities in participation in education.

    (e) Need to sustain morale among educational managers, teachers and support staff;

    (f) Impact of increased poverty on the education sector;

    (g) Impact of HIV/AIDS on education sector;

    (h) Monitoring learning achievement to improve the quality and relevance of education and training;

    (i) How to make education cope with liberalisation, globalisation in general, and technological advancement in particular.

    Recognising the above challenges, the Government has already put in place various strategies with an aim of developing education and making it accessible to all eligible children in the country. The initiatives include:

    1. The production of the Master Plan on Education and Training, 1997-2010 (GoK, 1998).

    2. The establishment of the Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya by the Government in 1998.

    3. The production of National Poverty Eradication Plan, 1999-2015, and the creation of Poverty Eradication Commission.

    Review shows, some basic lessons have been learned from the Governments commitment in the development of education. First, as part of long-standing concerns to combat ignorance, disease and poverty, every child, regardless of gender and socio-economic status, has the right to access basic education. Second, the Government, through partnership, has an obligation to provide the opportunity to all Kenyans to access quality education and acquire relevant life skills for socio-economic and political development of the individuals and the country as a whole. Third, achieving EFA goals requires co-ordinated investment of huge resources in education. However, with economic hardship Kenya has faced in the last decade due to various internal and external factors, including implementation of SAPs, poor economic growth, repaying international debt, inefficient systems, among others, achieving EFA goals has been elusive. It is however important to note that initiatives to support alternative and complementary education and training programmes have been put in place, and the Government is collaborating actively with other partners in this venture.

    This EFA Assessment Report takes stock of foregoing commitments and challenges and uses them as a base for strategising for the provision of quality basic education as a basic need and right to all children in the country. The MoE Team while conducting EFA assessment took note of the outlined EFA goals and the various initiatives which the Government and other key partners (parents, communities, individual investors and donor agencies) have put in place in the last decade to increase quality educational opportunities. Following the General Guidelines For EFA 2000 Assessment, the review has critically examined and analysed the development and expansion of educational opportunities during this period. This analysis has covered basic education (ECCD, primary, and secondary levels). Besides, other support sub-sectors which target EFA goals have been analysed. These include: Non-Formal Education, Adult Education, Special Education, and Technical and Vocational Education. As noted earlier this report, the challenges facing education in Kenya are very clear. This is because of two major events in the last ten years. One, the increased public demand for quality education; and two, poor economic growth-rate which have negatively affected investment in education.

    2.0 NATIONAL EFA GOALS AND TARGETS

    Following the 1990 World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, 1990), the

    Government, in partnership with other partners set up mechanisms and structures to

    accelerate the domestication of Jomtien EFA commitments; and drew work plans for

    implementation and monitoring of progress towards the achievement of EFA goals.

    Through a consultation process, different stakeholders, including policy makers, administrators, politicians, civil society representatives of professional bodies and educationists were brought together in a National Conference on Education For All held in Kisumu in 1992. In 1994, another meeting, the National Symposium on Education of the Girl-Child was convened in Machakos, bringing together different stakeholders. The main objective of the two meetings were:

    (i) To analyse and recommend mechanisms for co-ordination among government and other organisations and agencies;

    (ii) Discuss and document factors that impact on girls and boys participation in education;

    (iii) Sensitise service policy makers and managers on the rationale for mainstreaming gender equity in education;

    (iv) To recommend mechanisms for implementing National EFA strategies; and

    (v) To suggest mechanisms of translating the draft Plan of Action into a working government format.

    2.1 Goals/Targets and Strategies.

    Taking cognisance of existing policy frameworks and statements (for example Sessional Paper No., 6, 1988) and the achievement in education, the national conferences set up goals and targets for EFA.

    The specific goals/targets and strategies for specific sectors are summarised in the schema below:

      SUB-SECTOR GOALS/TARGETS STRATEGIES
    ECCD
    • Raising enrollment rates for both boys and girls from 35% in 1990 to 50% by the year 2000.
    • Reducing the number of un-trained teachers to 50% by the year 2000.
    • Reviewing the curriculum with a view to harmonising the existing school and lower primary school curricular.
    • Increase public awareness on ECCD.
    • Increase the Institutional and Professional capacity of NACECE and DICECE to improve the quality of ECCD.
    • Development of more curriculum support materials in languages of catchment areas.
    • Enhance community sensitisation.
    • Strengthen the private sector participation in the delivery of ECCD services.
    • Conduct specialised research in developmental issues of children.
    PRIMARY
    • Achieve Universal Primary Education (UPE) for both Boys and girls by the year 2000.
    • Increase internal efficiency.
    • Improve quality and relevance.
    • Improve management.
    • Enhance gender equity.
    • Strengthening integration of special education into mainstream formal education.
    • Allowing girls to go back to school after delivery.
    • Strengthening the school feeding programme.
    • Starting mobile schools in ASAL regions.
    • Establishment of Gender and NFE units at headquarters.
    • Provision of textbooks to primary schools.
    • Strengthening Inspectorate with a view to improving the quality of services offered.
    • Strengthening Teacher Advisory Centres (TACs).
    • Construction of TTCs by Government, Religious organisations and other private investors (providers) to train teachers.
    • Devolving curriculum development and implementation to teachers at the grassroots.
    • Mounting of regular inservice and refresher courses for teachers.
    • Rationalising the cost production, procurement and delivery of instructional materials.
    • Rationalising the cost of primary education.
    • Strengthening capacity of school committees and PTAs to manage schools.
    SECONDARY
    • Raise access to secondary school by increasing Gross Enrollment Rate from 29.4% in 1990 to 70% by the year 2010.
    • Improve quality of human resource development by making secondary education part of Basic Education.
    • To improve the quality and relevance of secondary education through curriculum review and teacher training.
    • Strengthen the overall management capacity of School Heads and School Board of Governors.
    • Reduce gender and regional disparities in enrolment.
    • Encouraging partnership between the Government and other partners interested in development of education such as the communities, religious organisations, donor agencies, etc.
    • Expansion of existing secondary schools to increase enrollment.
    • Strengthening of bursary scheme as a way of addressing issues related to poverty alleviation.
    • Enhancing school feeding programme. This will improve nutrition and health status of students especially those in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) and Pockets of Poverty.
    • Allow teenagers mothers (girls) to go back to school after delivery.
    • Increase participation by reducing gender and regional disparities.
    VOC-TECH. EDUCATION & TRAINING

     

     Goals
    • Provide increased training opportunities for the

    Increasing number of school leavers to enable them be self-supporting.

    • Provide practical education and training skills which are responsive and relevant to Kenyan's Agricultural, Industrial, Commercial and Economic needs.
    • Provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary to enhance the pace of this nation’s development.
    • Encourage self-employment while at the same time producing skilled artisans, craftsman, technicians and technologist for both Formal and Informal Sectors at the ratio of one technologist to five technicians to thirty craftsman/artisans (1:5:30).

    Targets.

    • Reduce youth and adults without survival skills by aiming to produce 125,000 personnel at artisan, craft and technician level for the industrialisation process and for the total economy. Emphasis had seriously been laid to take care of about 53% of primary school leavers who fail to gain admission in secondary schools and secondary school dropout.
    • Harmonise and rationalise curricula, examinations and certificate offered by numerous training institutions in the country (MTTAT/DIT – October 1992).
    • Enhance women participants in Voc-Tech Education and Training through sensitisation process.
    • Create linkages between training programme in the various institution and the world of work to minimise the gap between training and job performance through the inclusion of industrial attachment component in the curriculum (Project Paper on 8.4.4 education system Technical Education component of 1984).

     

    • Need assessment studies by National Industrial Training Council in collaboration with the Federation of Kenya Employers in 1995 to:
    • Identify training needs in the labour markets.
    • Establish institutional capacities of various training centres to provide quality training.
    • Establish a curriculum harmonisation committee which recognises KNEC (Kenya National Examinations Council) as the only examination body mandated for the administration of post-primary and post-secondary technical and business examination other than universities.
    • Increase training opportunities through:
    • Expansion and maximise the utilisation of all technical and vocational training institutions.
    • Institutions organising short courses on a fee paying basis during the evenings and holidays for Jua Kali artisans and other categories of regular employees who wish to improve their skills and knowledge.
    • Introduction of modular (flexible curriculum) approach within the Technical Education programme.
    • Provide a variety of courses with reasonable flexibility to allow for horizontal and vertical mobility in terms of training linkages and relation to the world of work.
    • Review technical education programmes to meet the needs of the changing technology.
    • Inservice teachers on the application of the new and reviewed technical training programmes, the development of instructional materials and upgrading their skills competence through enhanced industrial attachments.
    • Establish sustainable revenue income generating activities through entreprenuership, development unit and production units in pilot institutions.
    • Develop scheme of service for technical teachers to enhance their motivation.
    • Involvement of women in entrepreneurship through Government initiative towards improvement of girl/women participation in Voc-Tech education and training.
    SPECIAL EDUCATION
    • Provision of skills and attitudes aimed.
    • Identification, assessment and provision of early intervention for correction and rehabilitation.
    • Promotion of integration of the handicapped into formal education and training.
    • Promotion of awareness on the needs of the disabled and the methods of alleviating the effects of various disabilities.
    • Promotion of measures to prevent impairment in order to limit incidences of disability.
    • Development of appropriate vocational instructional materials.
    • Capacity building of teachers and their skills competencies.
    • Creating awareness.
    • Raising access and participation.
    • Improving relevance and quality.
    • Improving resource mobilisation.
    GIRL-CHILD
    • Policy guidelines on girls education.
    • Negative social-cultural practices including genital mutilation and early marriage.
    • Drop-out due to pregnancy.
    • Influence of curriculum and curriculum material.
    • Classroom situations that are not girl friendly.
    • General negative attitude towards girls education.
    • Poverty.
    • Carrying out needs assessment and gender responsive research and collection of gender desegregated data.
    • Establishing a Gender Unit in the Inspectorate within the Ministry of Education.
    • Reviewing curriculum and curriculum materials to make them gender sensitive.
    • Formulation of a National Taskforce on gender and education.
    • Carrying out gender sensitisation of all the stakeholders.
    • Addressing socio-cultural and social-economic factors which influence negatively girls education in order to enhance their enrollment, retention and completion rates.
    • Making learning environment girl and boy friendly.
    NON-FORMAL Goals.
    • Increase access and participation.
    • Reduce regional and gender disparities in education.
    • Provide survival skills.
    • Improve quality of education.

    Targets.

    • Provide alternative education to out of school children and youth.
    • Provide relevant curriculum.
    • Advocacy.
    • Development of curriculum support materials.
    • Strengthening NFE centres.
    • Develop gender responsive curricula for alternative approaches for children OOS and youth.
    • Mobilise communities around NFE centres for active participation in management of NFE centres.
    • Advocate for NFE and other alternative and complementary approaches among policy makers.
    • Address capacity building of NFE and other alternative approaches for Managers, Communities and PTAs.
    ADULT EDUCATION Goals.
    • Provide literacy and adult education for youths and adult s who miss out of the formal education programmes.
    • Provide survival skills.
    • Promote individual development and self-fulfillment.
    • Foster and promote national unity through promotion of Kiswahili language.
    • Bridge the illiteracy gap between men and women.

    Targets.

    • Raise the national literacy levels from 60% to 80% from 1990 - 2000 respectively.
    • Increase the average literacy levels for women by 20% of the 1990 levels of the 47% in 1988 CBS Rural Literacy Survey.
    • Establish post literacy programmes.
    • Review the policy on Adult and Contravening education.
    • Carry out a needs assessment survey.
    • Reviewing the existing education policy in order to harmonise the roles of Board of Adult Education and other agencies in the provision of Adult Education.
    • Reviewing the curriculum for both post-literacy and continuing education to enhance literacy, entreprenuership education and linkage with formal system.
    • Carrying out literacy surveys and assessment of learning needs.
    • Inservicing of adult education, teachers and community workers to improve communication, pedagogical and counselling skills.
    • Inservicing of supervisors and evaluators of adult education programmes.
    • Strengthening advocacy for all areas of Adult Education programme with emphasis on women/girls e.g. continuous, celebration of international literacy day for Adult Continuing Education in the country.
    TEACHER EDUCATION

     

     Goals
    • To provide professional qualified teachers.
    • To maintain quality and relevance.

     Targets

    • Reduction of the number of untrained teachers in ECCD from 70% to 50%.
    • Increase the number of trained teachers in primary schools and to reduce the untrained teachers from 30% in 1991 to a lower percentage.
    • Increase the number of trained teachers in secondary schools and to reduce the number of untrained teachers from 37% in 1990 to a lower percentage.
    • To realise an acceptable teacher-pupil ratio.
    • Increasing the number of fully fledged DICECEs.
    • Mounting inservice courses for the teachers already in service.
    • Increasing the number of trainers.
    • Training of primary school teachers.
    • Realisation of acceptable teacher pupil ratio.
    CURRICULUM
    • To ensure that the curriculum is relevant to the needs of the learners.
    • To develop all curriculum for national education and training programmes and to ensure proper co-ordination and harmonisation in the related areas;
    • To improve access and retention for marginal groups.
    • To improve effectiveness of educational and vocational programmes.
    • To carry out surveys before new programmes are introduced into the curriculum.
    • To develop a policy that addresses itself to the use of the 3rd channel for the realisation of EFA goals.
    • To develop the 3rd channel as an alternative approach to offer education to those not within the formal education system, to enhance the achievement of EFA objectives.
    • To engender the curriculum.
    • A task force to be commissioned to work on a National Policy for governing the establishment and use of the 3rd channel to facilitate the provision of EFA activities.
    • To develop curriculum and support materials for the disadvantaged groups i.e. girl-child, non-formal education, HIV AIDs.
    • Expand the Special Education division at KIE to cater for other impairments not initially catered for e.g. gifted and talented, learners with emotional and behavioral problems and learners with communication disorders.
    • Review curriculum from time to time, so as to make it more responsive to the needs of the society.
    • Conducting research and evaluation with a view to identifying the problems that hinder access of education to Education for All.

    With the national EFA goals, targets and strategies having been agreed upon by various stakeholders, the actual implementation, decision-making and management were to be a shared responsibility. The government, as expected, was also to play the role of creating for enabling environment.

    3.0 DECISION-MAKING, MANAGEMENT AND CO-OPERATION FOR EFA

    The Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development (MOE&HRD)

    administers and manages all EFA programmes in partnership with other Government Ministries, communities, NGOs, donor agencies, religious organisations and other stakeholders. The Director of Education is responsible for all education programmes. (see schema below)

    Primary Division
    • ECCD
    • Primary Education
    • Non-Formal Education
    • Girl-Child Education
    • Special Education
    • Teacher Education
    • Curricula
    Secondary Division
    • Secondary Education
    • Special Education
    • Teachers Education
    • Curricula

               Inspectorate Division

      • ECCD
      • Primary Education
      • Secondary Education
      • Special Education
      • Non-Formal Education
      • Girl-Child and Gender
      • Teachers Education
      • Curricula

     

    Adult Education and Vocational and Technical Training programmes are based in the Ministry of Home Affairs, National Heritage and Culture and Social Services and the Ministry of Research and Technology respectively. The Departments/organisations which manage and administer these programmes are as follows:

    Adult Education

    (a) The Board of Adult Education

    (b) Department of Adult Education

    (c) The National Task Force Committee for Post-School Literacy.

             Vocational and Training

     (a) Department of Technical and

    Vocation Education and Training

    (b) Directorate of Industrial Training

    The Government emphasises the policy of partnership in provision of education services. There is a strong and continuous partnership with communities, NGOs, religious organisations, donor agencies and private individual investors. The main partners and the programmes which they support are as follows:

    TABLE 1: PARTNERS IN EDUCATION PROGRAMMES

     PROGRAMME/PROJECTS PARTNERS
    ECCD
    • Action Aid
    • CARE Kenya
    • Catholic Relief Services
    • Aga Khan Foundation
    • World Bank
    • UNICEF
    NON-FORMAL
    • Undugu Society of Kenya
    • Action Aid Kenya
    • Plan International
    • Christian Children’s Fund
    • Mukuru Promotion Centre
    • UNICEF
    PRIMARY EDUCATION
    • DFID
    • GTZ
    • World Bank
    SECONDARY EDUCATION
    • JICA
    GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION
    • UNICEF
    • CARE - Kenya
    ADULT EDUCATION
    • Action Aid - Kenya
    • Plan International
    • GTZ


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