|The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports|
Part I Descriptive Section
The Assessment of Education For All is taking place ten years after the World Conference on Education for All which was held in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990.
The preparation of the report on EFA was made possible by the Technical committee whose members were drawn from the relevant departments of the Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development, Ministry of Research and Technology and the Ministry of Home Affairs, National Heritage, Culture and Social Services.
The Government is most grateful to UNICEF for their financial and technical support in supporting the residential workshop that prepared and produced the final draft, between 25th July and 4th August 1999. Special thanks go to Dr. M. Bagayoko, Head of Education Unit, for his understanding and professional support throughout this exercise.
I also wish to extend my special gratitude to Dr. O. Abagi (consultant) for his professional input during the workshop and his guidance in the drafting of the final report.
As Chairman of the Technical Committee I wish to appreciate the efforts and contribution of Ms. S. W. Gichura, Mr. B. N. Gachanja, Mrs S. K. Kirea, Mrs R. C. Cheruiyot, Mrs F. A. Okwiri, Mr. A. N. Mwaura, Mr. S.D. Kachumbo, Mr. J. N. Kimani, Mrs A.K. Odawa, Mr. T. M. Katembu, Mrs P.M. Nyingi, Mr. E. Barasa, Mr. Gakungu, who worked round the clock in collecting the information and compiling the report. I also wish to thank Ms. H. Ngare, Ms. P. Shitambasi and Mrs. Joyce Mwangi who did commendable job as secretarial staff.
Finally I wish to thank UNESCO for their foresight and initiative towards the provision of Education For All, the NGOs, UN Agencies and all persons who have contributed in one way or another towards the achievement of EFA goals in Kenya since Jomtien.
E. M. KIUGU
KENYA NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR UNESCO.
ACK Anglican Church of Kenya
ASAL Arid and Semi Arid Lands
BOG Board of Governors
CBM Christoffel Blinden Mission
COTU Central Organisation Trade Union
DANIDADanish International Development Agency
DECDICs District Early Childhood Development Implementation Committee
DICECE District Centres for Early Childhood Education
DIT Directorate of Industrial Training
EARC Education Assessment Research Centre
EARS Education Assessment and Resource Services
ECCD Early Childhood Care and Development
EFA Education for All
EMS Education Media Service
FAWE Forum for African Women Educationalists
FKE Federation of Kenya Employees
GER Gross Enrolment Rates
GOK Government of Kenya
GTZ German Technical Co-operation
IGAs Income Generating Activities
IIEP Islamic Integrated Education Programme
IMF International Monetary Fund
JICA Japanese International Co-operation Agency
KCPE Kenya Certificate of Primary Education
KIE...Kenya Institute of Education
KISE...Kenya Institute of Special Education
M & E...Monitoring and Evaluation
OOS...Out of School
MOE &HRD Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development
MOE Ministry of Education
MPET Master Plan on Education and Training
MYWO Maendeleo Ya Wanawake Organisation
NACECE National Centre for Early Childhood Education
NAS Needs Assessment Survey
NESIS National Education Statistical Information Systems
NFE Non-Formal Education
NGOs Non-Governmental Organisation
NPs National Polytechnics
NTs National Training Strategy
PCEA The Presbyterian Church of East Africa
PRISM Primary Schools Management
PTAs Parents Teachers Association
PTTCs Primary Teachers Training Colleges
SAPS Structural Adjustment Programmes
SHIA Swedish Organisation of the Handicapped International Aid Foundation
SMASSE Strengthening Maths and Science in Secondary Education
SPRED Strengthening Primary Education
STEPS Strengthening of Education of Primary and Secondary SchoolProject
TEP Technical Education Programmes
TFGET Task Force on Gender and Education and Training
TSC Teachers Service Commission
UNESCO United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund
YMCA Young Men Christian Association
YWCA Young Womens Christian Association
1.0 The Goal of Education
The EFA 2000 Assessment Country Report notes that the provision of educational and training opportunities has been a standing objective of the Government of Kenya (GoK) since independence in 1963. Education has been considered by different stakeholders in the country as an important vehicle for socio-economic and political development. It is also now clear that when educational opportunities are opened to girls and women, such benefits are even greater. Education has, therefore, been seen as a fundamental strategy for human capital development and a crucial vehicle for enhancing the quality of life. However, as Kenya approaches the 21st century, the county is faced with new challenges of meeting the public demand for education and training both as a human right and as an essential investment in the strive to attain the status of a newly industrialised country. These challenges point to the need for the education sector to properly play its role of developing needed skilled human resource.
2.0 Commitment To EFA
The participation of GoK in the Jomtien Conference in 1990, and its subsequent endorsement of EFA Declaration, re-enforced the commitment Kenya has on the provision of education to its citizens. The events related to the development of education sector in the country following the Jomtien Conference exhibit how Kenya has tried to domesticate the EFA Declarations. The magnitude of Kenyas commitment is presented in this Report. It is noted that, two crucial events laid the foundation for domesticating EFA commitments in the country. These are i) National Conference on Education for All held in Kisumu in 1992, and ii) National Symposium on the Education of the Girl-Child held in Machakos in 1994.
The main objectives of the two meetings were to:
analyse and recommend mechanism for co-ordination among government and other organisations and agencies;
recommend mechanisms for implementation of National EFA strategies;review the status of girl-child education;identify areas which need urgent attention; strategise on how to mainstream gender in education and training;gender sensitise education policy makers and managers, and develop a consensus on the rationale for mainstreaming gender equity in education;suggest mechanisms of translating the draft Plan of Action into a working government format.
EFA Assessment 2000 Country Report takes stock of Kenyas commitments and challenges and uses them as a base for strategising for the provision of quality basic education as a basic need and right to all children in the country. The MoE&HRD Team while conducting EFA assessment took note of the outlined EFA goals and the various initiatives which the Government and other key partners (parents, communities, individual investors and donor agencies) have put in place in the last decade to increase educational opportunities and quality in the country. Following the General Guidelines For EFA 2000 Assessment, the review has critically examined and analysed the development and expansion of educational opportunities during this period. This analysis has covered basic education (ECCD, primary, and secondary levels). Besides, other support sub-sectors which target EFA goals have been analysed. These include: Non-formal Education, Adult Education, Special Education, and Technical and vocational Education. As noted in this Report, the challenges facing education in Kenya are very clear. This is because of two major events in the last ten years. One, the increased public demand for quality education; and two, poor economic growth rate which have negatively affected investment in education.
3.0 EDUCATION FOR ALL: ASSESSING THE BALANCE SHEET.
3.1 One of the main objective of EFA 2000 Assessment was to review the progress Kenya has made in achieving EFA goals and commitments agreed in Jomtien Conference in 1990. These commitments included:
The EFA 2000 assessment effort in Kenya has revealed that the past decade has witnessed a renewed GoK commitment to EFA goals. There has been
considerable expansion of educational opportunities during the period for both boys and girls. The Government and other partners, including parents and
communities, civil society, private investors, educationists and donors have intensified efforts to reverse the declining enrolments and improve on quality and relevance of education and training.
Besides, there is also a renewed call for greater partnership among the partners for the development of viable and sustainable plans, mobilisation of additional resources and efficient implementation of education programmes.
The Report indicates that the most notable positive progress has been in the following areas:
(i) The initiatives put in place for the expansion of early childhood education.
(ii) Programmes initiated and implemented for the reduction of adult illiteracy rate.
(iii) Various policies and programmes that have been put in place to develop non-formal education and other alternative and complementary approaches.
(iv)Teacher education programmes have worked well. For example, out of the total number of primary school teachers only 3.4% are untrained.
(v)Initiatives to build partnership in the provision of education among key partners, the communities, individual investors, religious organisations, civil society and external donors have given positive results.
(vi)Initiatives to address the internal efficiency in education, for example health and nutrition programmes, the Girl-Child projects, have increased retention of children in school, and has also reduced the gender gap between boys and girls.
(vii)Capacity building programmes for efficient and effective management of schools, for example PRISM, SPRED, and inservice course at Kenya Education Staff Institute (KESI) are bearing positive fruits.
3.3 The critical review of how well Kenya has done in achieving EFA goals, indicate that despite the above achievements, unfortunately, a wide disparity has emerged between the goals agreed upon at Jomtien and actual domestication of those goals in Kenya. The Report notes that major issues have emerged which have made the achievement of EFA goals difficult. Among these are increased poverty levels, the implementation of structural adjustment programs, and the servicing of both domestic and international debt. The Assessment indicates that progress since Jomtien has been much slower than anticipated in relation to most of the major targets set for achieving EFA goals. Despite the fact that more educational opportunities have been created in the last decade, many eligible school age children - aged 6-13 (about 11%) are still out of school. This is more pronounced in the ASAL and Coastal areas. Current statistical data shows that in the last two years national gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary school level did increase from 86.4% in 1996 to 88.8% in 1998. However, the net enrolment rate (NER) -the
(vii)single most important indicator of progress towards the goal of UPE is estimated to be not more than 60%, although there is an urgent need for a systematic study on this. Although GER indicate a positive rise, it obscures the full extent of the challenges facing education. For example, of the many children who enrol in primary school in Kenya, girls in particular do not stay long enough to complete the cycle. The completion rate in the last five years at this level has remained at 46% mark and out of those who join form one, only about 84.5 (1998) complete secondary education.
3.4 The Process of Producing EFA 2000 Assessment Report.
3.4.1Structures for the Assessment.
The exercise was co-ordinated by the MOE&HRD and involved other Government Ministries that deal with education and training viz: The Ministry of Research and Technology (MRT) and the Ministry of Culture and Social Services (MCSS). The hierarchy for report production involved the following structures.
The National Steering Group.
The assessment is a collaborative effort requiring consultation amongst all Stakeholders in Education. The Group Membership therefore comprised of key Stakeholders in Education , Non-Governmental organisations , Private providers, Directors of Technical and Vocational Education, Director of Adult Education, MOE&HRD officials and is chaired by the Director of Education. Its role was to advise the Technical Subgroup and to manage the whole process of EFA assessment.
Members of Senior Management.
This constitute all Senior managers in Education; Heads of Education Parastatals and is chaired by the Permanent Secretary incharge of Education. It formulates policy and approves programmes in the various sectors in Education. It is a standing committee whose role was to adopt the report as a true reflection of the countries achievement of EFA goals.
Technical Drafting Subgroup.
The group comprises membership from all the sub-sectors of the MOE&HRD viz: ECCD, Primary, Secondary, Non-Formal, Gender, Special Education, Teacher Education and Curriculum Development. The Department of Adult Education and the Ministry of Research and Technology was also represented . Its role was to collect information through analysis of existing documents, draft the subsectoral drafts and compile the final assessment report.
This group is chaired by the Secretary General, Kenya National Commission for UNESCO.
3.4.2 Data Collection, Analysis and Write-up
The production of this report followed several stages.
The first stage was collection of relevant official documents and research based reports (See Reference Section) by the drafting team. These documents were analysed individually and subsequently in groups. The team came up with sub-sectoral papers following the guidelines provided by the EFA Forum Secretariat and also adopted the eighteen (18) Core EFA indicators.
During the second stage, the draft team organised for a residential writing workshop. With the assistance of a Kenyan Education & Gender Specialist, each paper was reviewed as to its content, analysis and relevance to EFA assessment. After a thorough review, the papers were finalised, and the first Draft of the Country Report put together.
The third stage involved sharing the Draft document with the Senior Education Managers of MoE & HRD. The document was circulated to the Senior managers and adequate time given for their reading. A meeting was organised where the Drafting Committee and the Senior Managers went through the document to build a common understanding and consensus. Comments made after this meeting were incorporated and a second draft made which was sent to the other stakeholders.
The fourth stage involved sharing the Draft document with stake holders, including Politicians, District Education Managers, Civil society, religious leaders, private investors and donor agencies. A workshop was organised where the document was reviewed. Feedback from various groups were incorporated and the final document produced and submitted to the EFA Forum Secretariat through UNESCO Regional office in Harare.
4.0 ORGANISATION OF THE REPORT.
The report is organised in Sections, following the Guidelines for EFA 2000 Assessment. Each of the chapters of this report presents sub-sector based analysis of efforts which have been made in Kenya to achieve EFA goals as developed in 1990 in Jomtien, Thailand. As part of the assessment, each sub-sector presents progress, situational analysis, challenges and prospects available for meeting EFA goals. The Sections are arranged as follows:
1.1 The Goal of Education In Kenya
The provision of educational opportunities has been a standing objective of the Government of Kenya (GoK) since independence in 1963 for it is considered by different stakeholders in the country as an important vehicle for self-advancement socio-economic and political development. It has also now become clear that when educational opportunities are opened to girls and women, such benefits are even greater. To achieve this,
Kenyas guiding philosophy for education is the concern that every Kenyan has the inalienable right, no matter his or her socio-economic status to basic Education. (GoK, 1997:135).
In this regard Education should always seek to realise the six goals of Education which are:
Education must foster national unity;
Education must prepare and equip the youth with knowledge, skills and expertise to enable them to play an effective role in the life of the nation;
Education must serve the needs of national development;
Education must provide for the full development of talents and personality;
Education must promote social justice and morality, social obligations and responsibilities; and
Education must foster positive altitudes and consciousness towards other nations.
Education has, therefore, been seen as a fundamental strategy for human capital development and a crucial vehicle for enhancing the quality of life. Over the last 37 years, the Government, households, communities and the private investors have striven to enhance the development of education in the country. Such investment has been in line with the philosophy spelt out in the Sessional Paper No. 10 on African Socialism and Its Application to Planning in Kenya (GoK, 1965). The efforts of various players in investing in this sector have been guided by the various policy documents such as National Development Plans and Sessional papers (in particular Sessional Paper Nos. 10, 6, 1 and 2 of 1965, 1988, 1992 and 1996) respectively.
As Kenya approaches the 21st century, the county is faced with new challenges of meeting greater public demand for quality education and training both as a human right and as an essential investment in the strife to attain the status of a newly industrialised country. These challenges point to the need for the education sector to properly play its role of developing a highly skilled human resource base.
The development of education in Kenya has been marked by various changes and challenges, and so is the impact the sector has had on national development. Over the last 30 years, the education sector has undergone major transformations with more than ten reviews by special commissions and working parties established by the Government. These include, the 1964 Ominde Commission, the 1979 Gachathi Report, the 1981 Presidential Working Party on the Establishment of the Second Public University, and the 1988 Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the Next Decade. The reviews have been necessitated by the quest to address the pertinent issues of access, relevance, quality and efficiency of the education system in the country.
Since 1985, Kenya has followed the 8-4-4 system of education (8 years of primary education, 4 years secondary and 4 years university education for a basic degree). Early child-hood education and adult education are also features in this system of education, although not formally presented in the education structure. Under the 8-4-4 system, the objectives of primary schooling include providing learning opportunities which enables pupils to acquire basic knowledge and skills for the world of work in the context of economic and human resource needs of the nation. Although there has been considerable investment and participation in the 8-4-4 system of education, it has featured prominently in the national political and academic discourse. The debate has centred on its relevance, efficiency, and cost to both the parents and the government.
In the last decade, the increased public demand for education and training has stretched the Government budget to the sector. The Government has therefore intensified partnerships and collaboration with other partners, including parents and communities, individual investors, civil society and donors in the financing of education and training.
1.2 GoK Commitment to EFA
The participation of GoK in the Jomtien conference in 1990, and its subsequent endorsement of EFA Declaration, re-enforced the commitment Kenya has on the provision of education to its citizens. The GoK, was also a signatory to the 1990 World Declaration on Education for All, whose Article 1 states that every person - child, youth and adult - shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs. The six key goals identified at Jomtien were:
the expansion of early childhood care and development;
universal access to and completion of primary education by the year 2000;
a reduction of adult illiteracy rates to one half of the 1990s levels by 2000, with an emphasis on female literacy;
improved learning achievement; based on the attainment of defined levels of performance;
expansion of basic education and training for adults and youths;
improved dissemination of knowledge, skills, and values required for sustainable development.
The events related to the development of education sector in the country following Jomtien conference exhibit how Kenya has tried to domesticate the EFA Declarations. The magnitude of Kenyas commitment is presented in this report. But, some events are worth mentioning upfront as part of domesticating EFA commitments.
(a) National Conference on Education for All. As a strategy of domesticating EFA goals, the GoK, organised a national conference in 1992 in Kisumu. Several partners representing policy makers, politicians, NGOs, scholars, community leaders and donor agencies participated actively in this consultative and planning meeting. Several pertinent issues were discussed agreed upon, and work plan developed. The specific objectives of the meeting were to:
(i) Analyse and recommend mechanism for co-ordination among government and other organisations and agencies;
(ii) Recommend mechanisms for implementation of National EFA strategies, and
(iii) Suggest mechanisms of translating the draft Plan of Action into a working government format.
(b) National Symposium on the Education of the Girl-Child, 1994. This symposium focused on the Girl-child. Again, through participatory approach, recommendations were made and work plans developed. The specific objectives of the symposium were to:
(i) Review the status of girl-child education.
(ii) Identify areas which need urgent attention.
(iii) Strategise on how to mainstream gender in education and training.
(a) The rising cost of education and how to finance the sector, thus expand educational opportunities to all eligible children;
(b) Mismatch between formal learning and job opportunities in the labour market.
(c) Inefficiency in the school system, including high wastage due to high drop-outs and repetition; and decline in the quality of education.
(d) Regional and gender disparities in participation in education.
(e) Need to sustain morale among educational managers, teachers and support staff;
(f) Impact of increased poverty on the education sector;
(g) Impact of HIV/AIDS on education sector;
(h) Monitoring learning achievement to improve the quality and relevance of education and training;
(i) How to make education cope with liberalisation, globalisation in general, and technological advancement in particular.
Recognising the above challenges, the Government has already put in place various strategies with an aim of developing education and making it accessible to all eligible children in the country. The initiatives include:
1. The production of the Master Plan on Education and Training, 1997-2010 (GoK, 1998).
2. The establishment of the Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya by the Government in 1998.
3. The production of National Poverty Eradication Plan, 1999-2015, and the creation of Poverty Eradication Commission.
Review shows, some basic lessons have been learned from the Governments commitment in the development of education. First, as part of long-standing concerns to combat ignorance, disease and poverty, every child, regardless of gender and socio-economic status, has the right to access basic education. Second, the Government, through partnership, has an obligation to provide the opportunity to all Kenyans to access quality education and acquire relevant life skills for socio-economic and political development of the individuals and the country as a whole. Third, achieving EFA goals requires co-ordinated investment of huge resources in education. However, with economic hardship Kenya has faced in the last decade due to various internal and external factors, including implementation of SAPs, poor economic growth, repaying international debt, inefficient systems, among others, achieving EFA goals has been elusive. It is however important to note that initiatives to support alternative and complementary education and training programmes have been put in place, and the Government is collaborating actively with other partners in this venture.
This EFA Assessment Report takes stock of foregoing commitments and challenges and uses them as a base for strategising for the provision of quality basic education as a basic need and right to all children in the country. The MoE Team while conducting EFA assessment took note of the outlined EFA goals and the various initiatives which the Government and other key partners (parents, communities, individual investors and donor agencies) have put in place in the last decade to increase quality educational opportunities. Following the General Guidelines For EFA 2000 Assessment, the review has critically examined and analysed the development and expansion of educational opportunities during this period. This analysis has covered basic education (ECCD, primary, and secondary levels). Besides, other support sub-sectors which target EFA goals have been analysed. These include: Non-Formal Education, Adult Education, Special Education, and Technical and Vocational Education. As noted earlier this report, the challenges facing education in Kenya are very clear. This is because of two major events in the last ten years. One, the increased public demand for quality education; and two, poor economic growth-rate which have negatively affected investment in education.
2.0 NATIONAL EFA GOALS AND TARGETS
Following the 1990 World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, 1990), the
Government, in partnership with other partners set up mechanisms and structures to
accelerate the domestication of Jomtien EFA commitments; and drew work plans for
implementation and monitoring of progress towards the achievement of EFA goals.
Through a consultation process, different stakeholders, including policy makers, administrators, politicians, civil society representatives of professional bodies and educationists were brought together in a National Conference on Education For All held in Kisumu in 1992. In 1994, another meeting, the National Symposium on Education of the Girl-Child was convened in Machakos, bringing together different stakeholders. The main objective of the two meetings were:
(i) To analyse and recommend mechanisms for co-ordination among government and other organisations and agencies;
(ii) Discuss and document factors that impact on girls and boys participation in education;
(iii) Sensitise service policy makers and managers on the rationale for mainstreaming gender equity in education;
(iv) To recommend mechanisms for implementing National EFA strategies; and
(v) To suggest mechanisms of translating the draft Plan of Action into a working government format.
2.1 Goals/Targets and Strategies.
Taking cognisance of existing policy frameworks and statements (for example Sessional Paper No., 6, 1988) and the achievement in education, the national conferences set up goals and targets for EFA.
The specific goals/targets and strategies for specific sectors are summarised in the schema below:
|VOC-TECH. EDUCATION & TRAINING|| Goals
Increasing number of school leavers to enable them be self-supporting.
|TEACHER EDUCATION|| Goals
With the national EFA goals, targets and strategies having been agreed upon by various stakeholders, the actual implementation, decision-making and management were to be a shared responsibility. The government, as expected, was also to play the role of creating for enabling environment.
3.0 DECISION-MAKING, MANAGEMENT AND CO-OPERATION FOR EFA
The Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development (MOE&HRD)
administers and manages all EFA programmes in partnership with other Government Ministries, communities, NGOs, donor agencies, religious organisations and other stakeholders. The Director of Education is responsible for all education programmes. (see schema below)
Adult Education and Vocational and Technical Training programmes are based in the Ministry of Home Affairs, National Heritage and Culture and Social Services and the Ministry of Research and Technology respectively. The Departments/organisations which manage and administer these programmes are as follows:
(a) The Board of Adult Education
(b) Department of Adult Education
(c) The National Task Force Committee for Post-School Literacy.
| Vocational and Training
(a) Department of Technical and
Vocation Education and Training
(b) Directorate of Industrial Training
The Government emphasises the policy of partnership in provision of education services. There is a strong and continuous partnership with communities, NGOs, religious organisations, donor agencies and private individual investors. The main partners and the programmes which they support are as follows:
TABLE 1: PARTNERS IN EDUCATION PROGRAMMES