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   Kenya
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4.0 INVESTMENT IN EFA SINCE 1990

The Partnership approach to managing education programmes mentioned in the previous section have also been extended to investment in the sector. The Government, therefore, in partnership with the communities, religious organisations, private investors and donor agencies have continued to invest in the education sector over the years. The MOE&HRD expenditure in Education increased by nearly four-fold from Kú633.10 million in 1990/91 to Kú 2,326.01 million in 1998/99 financial year in nominal terms.

Table 2 and Pie charts below show percentage distribution of Government’s financing of education and training by sub-sector from 1992/93 to 1997/98.

Table 2 Percentage Distribution of GOK Financing of Education and Training by Sub-Sector, 1992/93 – 1997/98 (in Kú’million)

SUB-SECTOR 1992/93 1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98
Actual Actual Actual Approved Printed Forward
Recurrent Expenditure

General Administration and Planning

Pre-Primary Education

Primary Education

Secondary Education

Technical Education

Teacher Training++

Special Education

Polytechnic Education+

Higher Education*

Miscellaneous

 

4.8

0.1

56.3

16.6

1.1

2.2

0.9

0.6

17.0

0.2

 

4.5

0.1

59.2

16.7

0.9

1.8

0.9

0.6

15.0

0.3

 

6.7

0.0

54.2

20.3

1.0

0.8

0.1

0.5

16.0

0.3

 

6.9

0.0

53.9

20.9

0.9

0.6

0.2

0.5

16.0

0.3

 

6.2

0.0

55.0

17.0

0.9

0.5

0.2

0.5

13.6

0.3

 

6.8

0.0

54.7

22.3

1.0

0.6

0.2

0.5

13.6

0.4

% TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
TOTAL 734.1 944.0 1,246.7 1,428.2 1,560.7 1,653.5
Development Expenditure

General Administration and Planning

Pre-Primary Education

Primary Education

Secondary Education

Technical Education+

Teacher Training++

Special Education

Polytechnic Education

Higher Education*

Miscellaneous

 

5.7

-

15.3

4.3

0.1

22.0

0.6

0.9

51.0

-

 

6.8

-

20.6

5.2

0.1

26.9

0.4

0.1

39.9

-

 

14.0

-

20.2

2.9

0.0

34.6

0.4

1.1

26.8

-

 

10.4

0.1

14.5

10.1

14.1

6.9

3.4

0.0

40.5

-

 

7.9

1.6

11.6

6.4

1.3

24.4

2.6

0.2

44.0

-

 

3.6

6.5

12.1

9.5

2.3

14.4

2.9

0.0

48.5

-

% TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
TOTAL 66.7 59.6 74.9 125.3 131.6 129.6
GRAND TOTAL EXPENDITURE 800.8 1,003.5 1,321.6 1,553.4 1,692.3 1,783.0

Source: GOK – Appropriation Accounts and Budget Estimates

* Includes expenditure on all Public (GOK) Universities

+ Currently under the Ministry of Technical Training and Applied Technology

++ Includes Expenditure on Kenya Technical Teachers College

The high increase in expenditure on General Administration and Planning from 7% in 1991/92 to 84% in 1998/99 financial year as shown in the pie charts is due to the shift of Teachers Salary allocation from Primary, Secondary, Voc-Tech and Special education sub-votes to General Administration and Planning sub-vote. The shift was effected in 1994/95 financial year.

 

4.1 Investment in ECCD

The Government has continued to invest in ECCD but investment in this sub-sector has been small compared to other sectors as shown in the Table and the Pie Charts above.

To expand the ECCD, the Government in 1995 negotiated for a credit of US$27.8 million from the World Bank to finance the services. This credit became effective in 1997. The funds are used to finance the development budget of the ECD section which now stands at 6.5% of the total MOE&HRD’s development expenditure.

UNICEF’s contribution has been mainly in support of the existing programs and has been rising over the years. In the last two years, it has contributed over Kú400,000 and this contribution is expected to rise during the implementation of the current Master Plan of Operation.

Private investors have invested heavily in the provision of ECCD services. They have contributed in the provision of physical facilities, training of pre-school teachers and their renumeration and also in the provision of learning materials.

4.2 Investment in Primary Education

The Government has continued to allocate substantial resources to the Primary Education sub-sector. Since 1992/93 financial year, primary education has been taking over 50% of the Ministry’s recurrent expenditure. See Table 3 and Graph.

TABLE 3: PUBLIC RECURRENT EXPENDITURE ON PRIMARY EDUCATION, 1990/91-1998/99
Year % of Public Current Exp. on Ed. that goes to Primary Ed. Public Current Exp. on Primary Ed. as % of GNP Public Current Exp. on Primary Ed. per Pupil as % of GNP per Capita
1990/91 51.2 3.1 13.6
1991/92 57.3 3.3 14.6
1992/93 54.7 3.1 14.2
1993/94 60.2 3.6 17.3
1994/95 55.2 3.6 17.2
1995/96 55.3 3.4 17.1
1996/97 58.1 3.4 16.9
1997/98 57.6 3.9 19.7
1998/99 55.8 3.6 17.9
Source: Adapted from Economic Survey, Various Issues and Budget Estimates

Out of over 50% of Ministry of Education recurrent budget, most of it goes to teachers’ salaries. For example, in 1998/99 financial year, 91.8 % of the primary school allocation went to payment of teachers’ salaries. The Development Expenditure has varied from year to year. Overall, there was a decline from 20.6% in 1993/94 Financial Year to 12.1% in the 1997/98 Financial Year.

Communities have also invested heavily in education at this level. Under the cost-sharing policy, communities are supposed to put up physical facilities and meet other direct and indirect costs of education while Government pays teachers’ salaries. However, due to the costs involved and the rising levels of poverty, households are finding it increasingly difficult to send and retain their children in school.

The contribution of individual private investors has also been high. Private schools have been developed throughout the country and there are prospects for the sector to grow.

Various donors are involved in support projects in the primary sector. Table below shows that various donors have already invested substantial amounts of money in various projects. The main objective is to support and strengthen primary education.

TABLE 4: DONORS CONTRIBUTIONS

PROJECT NAME SOURCE EXTERNAL GRANT (Kú’000) Period
  Strengthening Primary Education (SPRED II) – Phase II U.K. 94,766  
  GOK/Dutch Budget Support to Education – Provision of Textbooks Netherlands 49,500  
  Strengthening of Education at Primary and Secondary Levels (STEPS) IDA    
  Situation Analysis UNICEF 30,000  
  Food Assistance to Primary and Pre-Primary Schools WFP 110,451  
  AIDs Education in and out of school (KIE) UNICEF 3,800  
Non-Formal Education UNICEF 4,741

Source: Public Investment Programmes 1999/2000 – 2001/2002

4.3 Investment In Secondary Education

The Government in partnership with the community has continued to invest in secondary education. The private investors and Donor agencies have also been investing by developing secondary schools and supporting projects that strengthen/improve secondary education.

As shown in Appendix 2 the annual allocation to the sub-sector continued to rise steadily from Kú88.2 millions in 1990/91 to Kú157.27 million in 1993/94 financial years. The allocation fluctuated to Kú15.94 million in 1994/95 and then rose gradually to Kú27.12 million in 1996/97 financial year. In 1997/98 the allocation dropped to Kú20.03 million.

4.4 Investment In Voc-Tech

Technical training functions of the Ministry of Research and Technology takes about 33% of the Budgeted expenditure of the entire Ministry (Review of Public Expenditure on Technical Training by Peran Penrose, 1993). The highest portion of the budget goes towards wages and salaries of the teachers. Funding of Voc-Tech has been provided jointly by the GOK, Communities, Religious Organisations, NGOs Donor Agencies and Industry through training levies, Scholarships e.g. (Toyota Foundation), donations and Institutions through production units. Statistics on expenditure are shown below in Table 5.

TABLE 5: PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF RECURRENT FINANCING OFTECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION BY MAJOR ACTIVITY, 1992/93 – 1997/98

ACTIVITY 1992/93 1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98
ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL APPROVED PRINTED FORWARD
General Administration 3.6 2.7 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.6
Polytechnics 7.9 8.6 7.0 6.8 8.2 7.9
KTTC 2.7 2.8 3.2 2.7 2.8 2.7
TTIs 9.2 8.0 8.1 8.3 8.5 8.7
Institute of Technology 3.1 4.9 5.5 4.9 5.1 5.2
Industrial Training 1.6 2.2 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.5
Youth Polytechnics 9.4 7.0 4.5 4.1 4.0 3.9
% Share of Total MRTT Recurrent Exp. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total MRTTT Recurrent Exp. 55.5 67.5 91.5 101.0 106.6 114.5

Source: Ministry of Education and Human Resource

The table shows inconsistence in public allocation in the main sectors of Voc-Tech Education and Training. The Indicator portrays the difficulties experienced in planning and development of Voc-Tech. Education and Training due to limited resources.

TABLE 6: DONOR CONTRIBUTION TOWARD VOC-TECH EDUCATION AND TRAINING (PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 1999/2000-2002) DECEMBER, 1998 (THOUSANDS OF Kú) FOR THE ON GOING PROJECTS

PROJECT NAME

SOURCE OF FUNDS

TOTAL ESTIMATED COSTS EXTERNAL BALANCE REQUIRED TO COMPLETE PERIOD COVERED TO COMPLETE
  GRANT LOAN    
Micro and Small Enterprise Training and Technology Project IDA - 13,350 9,818 1994 - 2004
Demonstrating and Training Centre for Jua Kali Kariobangi UNDP 2,229 - 48 1993 -1999
Training and Seminars IDA IDA - 8,121 6,670 1997 - 2002
Training and Seminars EU-Phase II EDF/

EFC

8,869 - 5,019 1998 - 2003
GRAND TOTAL   11,098 21,471 21,555  

Source: Public Investment Programme 1999/2000 – 2001/2002

4.5 Investment In Special Education

The investment by government in special education is limited. The total budgetary allocation for recurrent expenditure in the sub-sector totals to only US$0.58 million dollars (Kú4,038) in the last 10 years, or Kú3.32 million (US$0.047) in 1998/99 . It should be noted that financial allocation to special schools is now Kú3.58 million up from Kú3.32 million.

Out of the 107 fully pledged special schools/institutions, the Ministry of Education disburses recurrent grants to only 38 of them. The rest of the schools are provided for by the Donors and Religious organizations. Special schools have continued to operate under difficult circumstances since they have big pending bills, salary arrears to BOG employees amounting to Kú (US$0.294million) arrears.

Private sector and the community have in recent years began making contributions directly to schools in the form of donations.

Development expenditure by the Ministry of Education on Special Education is minimal.

The government has undertaken to pay teachers trained in special education an allowance of 10% of their basic salary.

4.6 Investment On Girl Child Education

The needs of girls education are supported through various projects within the MOE&HRD. Specific projects on the Girl Child include the support by UNICEF, British Government funded projects (SPRED I & SPRED II) and FAWE. Most of the activities on the gender and education have been supported by UNICEF through, the Girl Child project which received Kú 541,557 in 1998/1999 and Kú 79,280 in 1999/2000

4.7 Investment in Non-formal Education

The Government of Kenya, the NGOs, Donors, religious organisations, Parents-Teachers’ Associations (PTAs) and other stakeholders have been investing in NFE programmes since 1990.

The main investment by the Government is the provision of service to the programme. The MOE&HRD’s Inspectorate has appointed a Senior School Inspector for NFE and has also provided some teachers to NFE centres. The Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development (MOE&HRD) established a permanent NFE Unit in 1994 within the Directorate to:-

(i)Co-ordinate all NFE programmes;

(ii) Liaise with and advise bodies and organisations involved with NFE; 

(iii) Create linkages between formal education and NFE.

UNCEF is the main donor for NFE activities. During 1994- 98 GOK-UNICEF Programme of co-operation, it provided funds amounting to Kú559,900. Between 1994 and 1998 Non-Formal Education Project activities which included the United Nation Drugs Control Programme (UNDCP) provided funds through UNICEF for infusing drugs control and prevention in NFE curriculum and teacher guides. The funds it provided is part of UNICEF funds shown above.The investment by NGOs, donors, religious organisations, partners and other stakeholders is enormous but cannot be quantified because the data for financial outlays are not readily available.

4.8 Investment in Adult Education

Donors contribution towards this sub-sector has been minimal. Table 8 indicate some basic contributions. However, the commitment by GTZ project under the Ministry's Department of Technical Training whose objective is the improvement of TTIs and ITs was not included in the Project Investiment Programme (PIP) Document. The Data was not available for .compilation

The following is the public expenditure in ACE since 1990 as shown in Table 7.

TABLE 7: RECURRENT EXPENDITURE ON ADULT EDUCATION

Financial Year Recurrent Expenditure

(Kú)

Development Expenditure

(Kú)

1990/91

1991/92

1992/93

1993/94

1994/95

1995/96

1996/97

1997/98

1998/99

7,247,473

7,849,399

8,442,970

9,893,856

12,163,915

12,558,254

12,939,602

14,403,700

15,610,973

169,972

1,984,100

120,770

208,750

176,750

644,750

164,750

297,000

45,000

Most of the funding has gone towards payment of staff salaries. Development expenditure has also been allocated with funds. Development funds have been channelled to the departments's multi-purpose development training centres. We however, note a drastic decline in 1998/99 which was due to lack of cash flow.

Table 8: Public Expenditure on ACE In Other Government Departments (Example)

Ministry 1988/89 1989/90 1990/91 1991/92
Health (Community Health Education) 283,186 279,461 297,829 318
Agriculture (District Agricultural Extension Services) 14,551,579 17,279,239 18,369,987 19,357
Cooperative (Co-operative Members Education) 389,332 396,655 466,113 479
Information and Broadcasting (Rural Press) 213,994 259,040 277,060 299
Home Affairs, National Heritage, Culture and Social Services (Vocational Rehabilitation) 547,298 562,276 583,989 621

It is important to note that the above allocations were given for the various educational needs of the adults.

The major foreign assistance in ACE has been in Post-Literacy programme since 1996 to-date. The thrust of the project is provision of a variety of reading materials worth US$582,857 out of the GTZ US$1.2 million funded Post Literacy (PL) Project in order to help reinforce the literacy skills among the newly literates while they acquire relevant knowledge for use in their daily activities.

4.9 Investment in Teacher Training

Investment in Teacher training programmes has impacted positively on the number of teachers trained and in serviced during 1991/98 period. As described in the progress section, currently almost all our teachers of Primary school level have been trained. The recurrent and development expenditure are shown in Tables 10 and 11.

Table 9: Recurrent Expenditure (1990-98) Kú million

1990/91 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99
14.97 12.87 16.14 17.15 10.10 10.26 8.59 9.83 9.67

Source: Economic surveys 1990 – 98

Table 10: Development Expenditure (1990-91) Kú million

1990/91 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/99 98/99
10.09 20.23 14.66 16.0 25.94 6.27 16.97 16.06 10.70

Source: Economic Surveys 1990-98

Although Kenya has faced economic difficulties and pressure in the last decade, the EFA Assessment has shown the Government’s and other players’ heavy investment in education. Such partnership has helped in increasing education opportunities for Kenyan children as described in the next chapter.


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