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Part II Analytic Section

5.PROGRES S TOWARDS EFA GOALS AND TARGETS

5.1Expansion of Early Childhood Care and development (ECCD

(i)Gross enrolment rates

The Government aimed at raising the GER from 35% in 1990 to 50% in the year 2000. Although many programmes have been initiated within this sub-sector, the Gross Enrolment Rate has remained constant, at an average of 34% as shown in Table 12. This is explained by the increasing number of school going-age children.

Table 11: Gross Enrolment Rates in ECCD by Gender (GER 1990-1998)

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

MF

35.4

35.0

33.7

35.0

35.1

35.3

35.7

35.6

34.9

M

35.8

35.3

34.0

35.6

35.4

35.8

36.1

35.8

35.5

F

35.0

34.7

33.4

34.5

34.8

34.8

35.3

35.5

34.3

Source: Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development.

However, in general the number of pre-school institutions have increased from16,329 in 1990 to 23,977 in 1998, and an increase in

gross enrollment from 844,796- 1,076,606 children in the same period. In 1998, GER was highest in Nairobi Province (40.3%) and lowest in North Eastern Province (19%). Gender disparities were more pronounced in North Eastern Province and Coast Provinces with boys recording a GER of 23.6% and girls 14.1% in NEP while in Coast Province the GER was 41% for boys and 34.3% for girls.

Table 12: Gross Enrolment Rates in ECCD by Gender and Province, 1998

Kenya

Coast

Central

Eastern

Nairobi

Rift Valley

Western

Nyanza

North Eastern

MF

34.9

38.9

33.1

34.8

40.3

40.1

33.8

28.2

19.0

M

35.5

41.0

33.2

35.2

38.6

41.9

33.6

27.5

23.6

F

34.3

36.7

33.0

34.3

42.0

38.2

33.9

29.0

14.1

Source: Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development

Training of Teachers for ECCD.

In 1990, there were only 6,213 pre-school teachers. Currently, there are 16,006 trained teachers in the country out of a total of 37,752. In terms of coverage , this is 42% which is close to the EFA goal of 50% by the year 2000. Private individual investors have also contributed significantly and as a result of this, there are now eleven private colleges training ECCD teachers.

ECCD Centres.

As a result of enhanced public awareness, there has been an increase in the number of ECCD centres from 16,329 in 1990 to 23,977 in 1998. These efforts have also resulted in the acceptance of an Islamic Integrated Education Curriculum in Muslim dominated regions. The overall result has been in increased community support in the provision of ECD services.

5.2 (a) UPE for both Girls and Boys by the Year 2000 at the Primary Level.

Table 14 shows the GER in primary school level by gender from 1990 to 1998. The Assessment indicates that GER has been changing over time.

Table 13: Gross Enroment Rates in Primary School by Gender 1990-1998

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

MF

101.8

91.4

91.0

87.8

88.5

86.8

86.4

87.7

88.8

M

104.0

93.4

92.0

88.9

89.1

87.4

87.3

88.7

89.4

F

99.6

89.5

90.0

86.7

87.8

86.3

85.5

86.6

88.2

Source: Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development

It can be seen from Table 14 and the graph that the Gross Enrolment Rate has been on the decline from 1990. In 1990 it was 104.0 for boys and 99.6 for girls. The average for both girls and boys was 101.8. There was a sharp decline in 1991 and 1993. In 1995 and 1996, it was 86.8 and 86.4 respectively. In the last two years, there has been some improvement in GER. In 1997 GER was 86.6 for girls, 88.7 for boys and an average of 87.7. In 1998 the figures were 88.2 for girls, 89.4 for boys and 88.8 for both.

In the last two years, there has been some improvement in GER.

Though the Gross Enrolment Rate has been high, regional and gender disparities still exist. For example, in 1998, the GER in North Eastern

Province was 32% for boys and 16.8% for girls. In Central Province it was 96.3 for boys and 100.1 for girls. In Western Province it was 102.6 for boys and 103.4 for girls (see Table 15 for details).

Completion Rates

Completion rates have consistently been below the half – 50% mark. In 1995, it was 43% for boys and 43.5% for girls with an average of 44.3%. In 1998, it was 46.4% for boys, 48.1% for girls with an average of 47.2% for both boys and girls (Table 16).

(b) Transition to Secondary

The transition rates are still below the 50% mark. Girls were 39.4% in 1990, while boys were 42.9%. In 1998, the girls were 43.1% and boys 46.4%

One of the strategies towards EFA goals was to increase access and participation in secondary education. The following trend can be noted:

The available places had increased to over 700,500 by 1998, from 618,500 in 1990 student population. This amounts to 29.% of the eligible (ages 14 – 17 years) projected population of 3,023,000. This indicates that over 2,322,500 are out of school. Gender disparities in enrolment also exist.

The figures of boys enrolment in Secondary School have remained higher than those for girls over the years as shown in the Table 15.

Table 17: Percentage Distribution of Secondary School Enrolment by Gender in Selected Years, 1963-1998

1963

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

1998

Male

68.2

72.4

70.4

64.1

59.3

61.8

57.2

54.1

53.3

Female

31.8

27.6

29.6

35.9

40.7

38.2

42.8

45.9

46.7

Source: Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development

However, girls’ participation has generally increased during the period under assessment.

Girl-Child Education.

Since the Jomtien Conference on Education for All, held in 1990, the issue of gender parity has featured prominently in the provision of education at all levels in Kenya. Several strategies and activities have been put in place and they are bearing positive results. Several achievements need to be noted.

The Gender Unit was created in the Ministry of Education in 1995 as recommended during the symposium on Girls Education in 1994. The Gender unit is the focal point for handling gender matters in education and the day today work is handled by the Unit Secretariat. The Unit operates and networks with other Ministries within the Government, NGOs, community leaders and individuals interested in matters concerning girls education.

The Ministry in collaboration with UNICEF has initiated the Girl Child programme whose main objective is to close the gender gaps in Education. It has undertaken gender sensitisation activities for top, middle and grassroots Ministry of Education personnel and intends to move to communities. Teachers have also been sensitised to make them gender responsive to the special needs of the "girl and boy" child learners.

All officers in the Gender Unit have undergone some training on the principles of Gender and Development and have adequate skills to deal with gender issues in education including strategic programme planning.

One of the great achievements of the Ministry of Education is the establishment of Data bank in the Planning Departments, with easily accessible gender desegregated data. Significant empirical and analytical knowledge and information has been generated on the status of girls education. Gender desegragated data are collected annually for monitoring of gender disparity.

A work plan for gender sensitization workshops for the Ministry of Education officials was developed in 1995. Several such workshops have taken place at the national, provincial and district levels.

The Ministry of Education initiated in 1996 a follow up study to establish guidelines on the readmission of teenage mothers back to school and has advised school administrators to assist in the readmission process. This has been accepted as one way of reducing the high drop out rate among school girls.

As a result of the general public awareness created on the importance of education for both boys and girls over the years, there has been parity between boys and girls at primary and secondary levels.

At the beginning of 1990, the percentage of boys to girls nationally was 51.3% and that of girls 48.7%. By 1998, the percentage were almost at par at 50.6% for boys 49.4% for girls.

At Secondary level (at 1990) the percentage of boys to that of girls was 57.2% and 42.8% respectively. By 1998, the percentage change was 53.3% for boys and 46.7% for girls. Hence, it can be noted that there has been an improvement in girls enrolment as compared to the boys at secondary level.

Improvement of Learning Achievement

Teacher Education

Investment in Teacher Education in Kenya is based on the premise that the provision of professionally qualified teachers is critical to the provision and maintenance of quality and relevant education at all levels. The focus on Teacher Education was one of the issues for discussion during the Kisumu National Conference in 1992. During the decade, there has been a marked improvement in teacher training as shown in the Table.

Early childhood Care and Development.

Training of Pre-school teachers in DICECE’s has achieved tremendous success. The percentage of untrained teachers has gone down from 70% in 1990 to 58% in 1998, despite the slow growth in the number of DICECEs. There were 18 DICECEs in 1990 as opposed to 31 DICECEs (1999).

TABLE 19: PERCENTAGE OF UN-TRAINED TEACHERS IN PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOLS FROM 1990-1998

 YEAR TRAINED UNTRAINED TOTAL % UN

TRAINED

1990 6213 14831 2104 70
1991 8595 16214 24809 65
1992 8967 16714 25681 65
1993 10435 16190 26625 61
1994 10.551 17278 27825 62
1995 11877 17374 29251 59.4
1996 12551 20658 33170 62
1997 14985 21144 36114 58.5
1998 16006 21646 37752 58

Source: Economic Survey, MOE&HRD

Provision of Professionally qualified primary teachers

Since 1990 there has been an increase in this number of primary

(public) teacher training colleges from 15 to 21 colleges, resulting to a large number of trained teachers. By 1998, 96.6% of the teaching force in primary schools were qualified as per the national standards (Table 18).

      Table 20: Percentage of primary school teachers who are classified to teach according to national standards

    Grade Percentage Qualified
    Approved Teacher Status

    Sl/Diploma

    Pl

    P2

    P3

    1.1

    9.9

    69.4

    15.1

    1.1

    Total

    96.6

    Source: Economic Survey 1999

    Only 3.4% of primary school teachers are untrained. There are however gender disparities regionally as shown in Table 2.

    TABLE 21: PROPORTION OF TRAINED PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS BY PROVINCE AND BY GENDER – (1998)

     

    KENYA

    COAST

    CENTRAL

    EASTERN

    NAIROBI

    RIFT VALLEY

    WESTERN

    NYANZA

    NORTH EASTERN

    MF

    96.6

    95.3

    99.0

    95.5

    99.3

    96.4

    97.0

    95.9

    96.8

    M

    96.1

    94.1

    99.0

    95.3

    98.0

    96.0

    96.5

    95.3

    96.4

    F

    97.3

    96.9

    99.0

    95.7

    99.5

    96.8

    97.8

    97.4

    98.6

    Source: Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development

    TABLE 22: SECONDARY SCHOOL STATISTICS 1990 - 1996

     YEAR

    ENROL

    MENT

    TEACHERS ON DUTY

    TOTAL

    % UN

    TRAINED

    STUDENT TEACHER

    RATIO

    TRAINED

    UNTRAINED

    1990

    1991

    1992

    1993

    1994

    1995

    1996

    618500

    614200

    629100

    531300

    619800

    632400

    658300

    19431

    24471

    27564

    29167

    30427

    33443

    34923

    11190

    10626

    5208

    5339

    4619

    8041

    6357

    30621

    35097

    32772

    34506

    35046

    41484

    41280

    37

    30

    16

    15

    13

    19

    15

    20

    18

    19

    15

    18

    15

    16

    Source: Economic Survey, MOE&HRD

Provision of Professionally qualified Secondary school Teachers

In 1990, 37% of secondary school teachers were untrained. In 1996 only 15% of the teachers in secondary schools were untrained . The majority of the untrained teaches are found in subject in areas such as Mathematics, Physics, English and in Technical subjects.

Overall there has been progress in training of graduate teachers (Bachelor of Education in secondary, in Early Childhoold Education) Diploma in Education in Science and Technical Education from public institutions. Private universities have also contributed in the training of graduate teachers.

Curriculum development

Since the 1990s the government had put in place the 8:4:4 curriculum which sought to make education more responsive to the needs of the nation and the learners. It sought to prepare the youth for self-employment, training in life skills and further education. The following have been done over the period under assessment.

In the last ten years National Center for Early Childhood Education (NACECE) has developed a wide range of curriculum and other support materials for use at the ECD centre level and for the training of teachers and trainers. Notable achievements have been in the development of an integrated curriculum which considers the holistic approach in the provision of services. In addition. The Islamic Integrated Education Programme (IIEP) curriculum became effective in 1994. Although little progress has been made in harmonising the curriculum at the RCD level, there is now a draft bridge curriculum to relate ECCD to lower primary curriculum.

The formative and summative evaluation of the 8:4:4 system of education in primary and secondary levels in 1991 – 1992 , led to the revision of the curriculum and implementation of recommendations that would enhance increased participation in education. This led to the reduction of subjects to minimum of 8 and a maximum of 10 at the Secondary school level and reduction in content at the primary school level.

The curriculum has been made relevant for the disadvantaged groups e.g. the girl child Education project targeting girls in all sections of education. Through this project, the curriculum has ;been made gender responsive, teachers have been in-serviced and gender training conducted for key personnel in education and the general public.

Syllabus and Curriculum support materials for non-formal Education have been developed for the youth outside the formal education system. Social marketing of this curriculum has been done in order to popularise it and make it acceptable as an alternative curriculum.

Curriculum materials in the form of books and training materials have been developed on HIV Aids and teaches in-serviced on how to infuse messages in the curriculum that can help prevent the spread of AIDS.

Reduction of the cost for the implementation of the curriculum through the provision of text-books in the core subjects. This has been facilitated by the Netherlands government, the British government through ‘SPRED" project and the government of Kenya

Programme under non-formal education curriculum have been expanded to cater for:

Women and gender education

Social development education

Out of school children and Youth Education programme

Literacy and Post Literacy

Distance Education

Training and Continuing Education

Reduction of Adult/Illiteracy Rate.

Adult and Continuing education has been given a very important place as a development tool as well as a strong back-up for achievement of EFA goals by the government. Efforts have been made towards achieving the goals and targets as shown below:

Raising Literacy Levels form 60% to 80%.

There was a positive move towards achieving the goals and targets between 1990 and the year 2000. It was hoped that the literacy rate would rise from 60% to 80%.

Table 23 shows a positive trend towards achieving the same. Literacy Rate

Year

1960

1963

1976

1980

1988

1992

1994

1997

Literacy Rate  

23

46

47.2

54.3

60

67

77

Source: Welfare, Monitoring Survey II-CBS

The 1997 national literacy rate conceals sharp gender and regional disparities. There is a higher illiteracy among pastoral communities compared to the high potential districts. The majority of illiterates are still women.

(b) Increasing Women’s Average Literacy

The following table shows the enrolments in adult literacy programme. It is clear that the majority are still women. There is a move towards raising the literacy levels of women.

However, several campaigns have targetted women. There are now more women enrolled in the literacy classes to the ratio 1:3 for men against women. This shows that there is a higher demand for literacy among the women.

Table 24 indicates the 1999 sample District surveys on illiteracy rates.

DISTRICT

ILLITERATES 0 - STD.4

SEMI-LITERATES STD. 4-7

WITHOUT KCPE CERTIFICATE

MALE FEM. TOTAL
Homa Bay

9,822

16,112

25,934

12,545

14,378

26,927

Meru

3,097

5,458

8,555

5,166

10,268

15,434

Bungoma

45,099

53,813

98,912

50,573

55,777

106,350

Suba

8,141

16,466

24,607

6,764

13,153

19,917

Migori

7,312

13,428

20,740

8,525

10,637

19,162

Trans Nzoia

14,739

20,325

35,064

22,641

31,822

54,463

Nyeri

17,914

32,658

52,582

24,395

27,599

51,994

Source: Department of Adult Education

The survey is on-going. It is apparent that there are still many illiterates and the majority are still women.

During the decade notable progress towards achieving the EFA goals was noted in the following areas:

(a) The launching of the post-literacy programme in 1996

(i) Development of Post-Literacy Curriculum: This was developed by the Department of Adult Education and the other stakeholders. Design work is complete for eight subject areas. These subjects areas include: English, Kiswahili, Mathematics, Agriculture as core subjects and Environment and health, Business management, Civics and Social ethics, Applied Science and technology as elective subjects.

Production of materials: Twenty titles have been printed for use in the post-literacy pilot districts and for each of the titles, 8,700 copies were produced.

Training: Training of Trainers for Post Literacy Project (PLP) has been done. The programme is planing to carry out training of 1,400 teachers.

Establishment of Community Learning Resource Centres and Libraries. The post lieteracy pilot Districts i.e. Thika, Kilifi, Malindi, Machakos, Nairobi, Garissa, Homa Bay, Rachuonyo, Nakuru, Narok, Busia and Teso have been asked to establish community learning Resource Centres with the help of Kenya National Library Service (KNLS). At least one centre at each of the 12 Pilot PLP districts has been established.

Three titles out of the 22 original primers have been revised.

In-service training for Teachers.

Between 1991 1998, a total of 1,656 teachers sat and passed the Teachers Foundation Course. With the relaunching of the Adult Education Diploma Course, 29 teachers have attained the Diploma within the 1998/99 academic year. Currently, there are 30 Adult Education teachers pursuing a similar course at the University of Nairobi Kikuyu Campus.

Relaunching of the Diploma in Adult Education Course.

This course which had been discontinued has been re-launched to meet the needs of various adult education providers

5.6 Complimentary and alternative Approaches (Non-Formal and Special Education)

Non-formal education refers to any organised learning activity outside the formal school system. Following the Jomtien Conference (1990), Non-formal Education programme emphasises the educational need of children especially in difficult circumstances, such as children of nomadic communities, street children, unenrolled and drop-outs from formal primary schools.

Progress towards achieving EFA goals and targets through complementary and alternative approaches has been made in the following areas:

Education for Nomadic and Pastoralists out–of-school

Children and Youth

Providing basic education for nomadic and pastoralist communities:

Finances have been put in place to reach and provide education to OOS children and youth in Wajir, Laikipia and Samburu Districts. Mobile schools have been organised in Wajir. In these type of schools, teaching is done in Manyattas (Kraals). Children are gathered together in the manyattas for teaching purposes. Both teachers and children migrate together with community/family as and when geographical conditions dictate.

Special Education: In the last 10 years there has been steady progress towards provision of special education services. There has been increased access and participation, increase in the number of teachers, an increase in the physical facilities and in the number of schools.

Enrolment in Primary schools and programmes

Table 23, 24, 25 show the progress which has been made in Special Education sub-sector. For example at Primary School Level, enrolment in Special schools have increased from 645 in 1990 to 8,978 in 1998.The Number of schools have risen from 62 in 1990 to 107 in 1998.

HANDICAP

1990 No. of schools

1990 enrolment

1998 No. of schools

1998 enrolment

 

Visually handicapped

Hearing Impaired

Physically handicapped

Mentally handicapped

Deaf Blind

 

VH

HI

PH

MH

DB

 

11

19

10

22

-

 

1135

2204

1075

1701

-

 

16

31

13

46

1

 

2015

2631

1730

2532

70

 

Total

 

 

 

62

 

6115

 

107

 

8978

Source: Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development

Table 27: Enrolment in Special schools and units programme

HANDICAP Schools/Units Programme Boys Girls Total
 

Visually Handicapped (VH)

Hearing Impaired (HI)

Physically Handicapped (PH)

Mentally Handicapped (MH)

Deaf – Blind

 

113

245

102

301

7

 

1467

2156

1439

2776

45

 

1158

1448

932

1494

25

 

2625

3604

2371

4270

70

 

TOTAL

 

761

 

7883

 

5054

 

12,940

Source: Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development

There are 761 special primary schools /units/programmes up from 242 in 1990. Enrolment has also increased to 12,940 pupils from 6114 pupils in 1990. This represents a 211.6% increase in enrolment. Those in integration have not been included above.

Integrated Programmes

There were 184 integrated programmes in 1990 but by 1998 they had increased to 655. In the visually handicapped category there are 19 programmes, sponsored by sight savers international, with a total of 1040 blind children having been integrated into regular primary and secondary schools. Integration of the deaf only exists at secondary school level and not at primary school level. The integration of the physically handicapped has been done at all levels of our education system. The current trend is towards more integration and less towards segregation of the handicapped children. So far more than 11,000 have been integrated in regular school

Children in schools for the blind, deaf (hearing impaired), and the physically handicapped follow the curriculum in the regular primary and secondary schools and all sit for national examinations. In so doing they compete equally with their non-handicapped counterparts even in institutions of higher learning, universities included.

(ii) Progress in Secondary Schools

The number schools for the visually handicapped have not increased. This is due to the aggressive integration programme by sight savers International (SSI) and the low vision project by CBM (Christofel Blinden Mission), Enrolment in the secondary schools for the deaf (Hearing Impaired) has increased from 110 in 1990 to 268 in 1998 due to effort by welfare organizations that have put up physical facilities, and the peace corps who have offered teachers.

Integration approach has also been used as secondary school level and it has been successful.


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