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(iii) Vocational/Technical

Although the number of Vocational Institutions have not increased, the enrolment has gone up. The number of courses offered have beenincreased and diversified. Courses offered are; carpentry, metal work, woodwork, tailoring, knitting and general agriculture.

(iv)Educational Assessment and Resource services (EARS)

There are now 52 district based centres out of 67 possible district centres countrywide, complimented by 345 sub-centres. The impact of these centres is very great considering that assessment and placement has been taken closer to the people. Identification and assessment has been enhanced. By 1998, over 80,000 children had been accessed; but only 23,940 had been placed in educational programmes.

Provincial Production Unit Workshops

These are production units for special education teaching/training equipment and materials for the handicapped children. There were four workshops only in 1990 but now there are six; and an additional three mini-workshops. in North Eastern Province because of the vastness of the areas. The other six are at Nyeri, Nakuru, Kakamega, Kisumu, Mombasa and Embu.

Teacher Training

There is only one special education training institution with a capacity of 120 students. It offers training at three levels.

(a) Two year Diploma course level intake is done biannually

(b) Distant education has been started and is being sponsored by DANIDA.

(c) A three month inservice certificate course. Since 1991, 330 teachers have received diploma certificates, while 884 teachers have received 3 month inservice certificates.

5.7 Provision of Essential Skills through Vocational and Technical Training Centres

Voc-Tech Education and training sector in the Country have made tremendous progress towards the achievement of the Goals and Targets of EFA.

The Government together with other partners have worked in partnership to develop Voc Tech Programmes. The following achievement has been realized.

As shown on Table 30, intake in Local Voctional Training Institutions (LVTI) have increased over time from 88,915 in 1991 to 155,730 in 1999.

Source: Report on the Industrial Training Needs Assessment and Institution Capacity in Kenya (Revised 2nd Draft – December, 1995).

The Assessment of the sub-sectors in Education (*****) indicates a mix scenario of achievements. As a Country we have progressed well in some sectors towards achieving the set goals and targets. This is especially a true in ECCD and Teacher Training. However, there are still major challenges towards achieving …..EFA targets.


The laid-out goals, targets and strategies were sound and realistic for effective promotion of Education For All (EFA), however not all were achieved due to constraints and challenges that faced each sub-sector.

(i) Early Childhood Care and Development Education (ECCD)

While great progress has been made in the increased enrolment, provision of facilities and the training of teachers, the enrolment ratio is still low. It is now established that most of the children aged 3-5 years are not catered for in the present ECCD programmes. These are either at home, on the streets, in hospitals, prisons or involved in child labour.

Over 70% of ECCD Programmes are managed and run by the communities. However, due to the increasing rise in poverty levels, communities have to support ECCD programmes effectively. The communities have also not been trained in management.

Despite the low resource allocation for ECCD services, the disbursement procedures have not been efficient. This has adversely affected the implementation of activities especially at the grassroots level.

(ii) Primary Education

(a) Poverty has been one of the main problems that slowed or prevented progress towards specific EFA goals and targets. Currently, 47% of Kenyans live below poverty line and are hence pre-occupied with other survival needs but not education. Majority cannot cost-share effectively and their children are forced to drop-out of school.

(b)The effects of Structural Adjustment Programmes and also debt servicing have restricted households and Governments

(c)There is a mismatch between the skills provided by our education system and those required by industry.

(d)High wastage rates due to several factors such as long distance to school, insecurity, a curriculum which is too loaded and which learners do not perceive as relevant to their needs, early marriages, cultural beliefs, attitudes and practices.

(e)Inadequate physical facilities, and instructional materials due to their high cost.

(f)Monitoring Learning Achievement (MLA) has not been done.

(g)Poor motivation among teachers and learners

(h)Lack of a national policy and a specific gender policy in education

(i)Pedagogy (mode of delivery) that is not learner-centred and gender sensitive.

(j)The existence of two parallel systems - the GCE and the 8-4-4 systems. These imply double standards and perpetuate a class structure.

(k)Overreliance on donor funding to support innovative Programmes and not building in sustainability mechanism in many projects

(iii)Secondary Education

(a)Increased poverty level (which is currently 47%) this has had a negative effect in access and participation in secondary education.

(b)Servicing of International Debts by the Government has left very little funds for development of secondary education

(c)There is less participation in Secondary Education because of high cost involved in the provision of the same.

d)Reduced budgetary allocation by the Government has had negative impact on development of schools in disadvantaged Arid and Semi-Arid land. This has enhanced regional disparities.

(e)We lack adequate trained professional curriculum developers for Secondary Education

(f)Performance at KCSE has remained below average in Science, Mathematics and Technical subjects.

(g)The existence of two parallel system 8-4-4 and GCE has enhanced double standards in Education system.

(h)Lack of National Gender policy and specific gender policy in Education.

(iv) Training in other Essential Skills required by Youth

Lack of flexible vocational training curriculum designed to respond quickly to the changing needs of the labour market.

Development of trainees' manuals to support the implementation of the developed curriculum has not been started.

Lack of upto date demographic data and labour market information required for purpose of planning in education and training.

Enough Instructor's guides have not been developed.

Low student enrolment in all technical training institutions due to lack of social awareness, negative attitude towards vocational education coupled with poor employment prospects after graduation as well as right curriculum requirement.

Limited resources in Voc-Tech Education and Training Sector has resulted to:

Lack of basic tools and equipment needed to input skills and competencies required for wage employment or self employment

 Lack of qualified and poorly remunerated teaching staff who also lack adequate skills and competencies in modern instructional techniques required for effective training in a dynamic and competitive labour market

Lack of adequate managerial skills and competencies needed to mobilise local resources for sustainable development and efficient management of technical training institutions.

Lack of specialised examiners and curriculum development experts.

 Lack of effective mechanism for pooling and sharing resources within a particular region for the benefit of the wider community.

Lack of adequate capacity to co-ordinate, monitor, evaluate and supervise the implementation of new training programmes.

(v) Special Education

Acute shortage of specially trained teachers in all special education programs/schools and especially at Primary school level, were only one or two diploma or 3 month in-service teachers trained in special education, are found.

Acute shortage of technical and support staff: - Braille transcribers, audiologist speech therapists, interpreters, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, teacher aid producers etc. at Primary, Secondary and Vocational levels.

Inadequate specialized equipment and instructional materials in all schools. For example the hearing aids for the deaf (hearing impaired), Braille material and white cane for the visually impaired, wheel chairs and crutches for the physically handicapped etc.

Special Education programmes have not been fully main streamed into Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD).

There has been no systematic survey done to identify and determine the exact numbers of children with disability, age, gender and type and degree of disability.

The current regular curriculum and examination is insensitive to the needs of the handicapped.

Most of the Programmes are Donor funded and yet the issue of their sustainability has not been adequately addressed.

Cost and financing:

 Parents of the handicapped children are generally poor and the PTAs are too small to adequately finance school projects. This has resulted in serious dropouts due to the cost sharing policy.

There is also lack of bursary at primary and vocational levels for the handicapped children.

Inadequate funds allocation for provision of specialized equipment, teaching/learning aids and specialized furniture.

(i) Limited training opportunities: The Kenya Institute of Special Education (KISE) for example trains only 80 teachers at diploma level bi-annually, and an additional 120 teachers receive three - months course per year.

(vi) Girl Child Education

The process of addressing the girl child education is faced by a number of challenges:

There has been no specific budgetary allocation for the Gender Unit for its activities.

The Kenya constitution and The Education Act do not specifically cater for the girl child .

Some factors impacting negatively on girls education are still problematic and some have proved hard to deal with. Such factors include:

some socio-cultural factors and practices

gender insensitive curriculum, curriculum materials and classroom dynamics

(The factor of poverty has affected girls participation in education and preference for boys education in situation of poverty has reduced chances of many girls attending school.

There are few women in key positions in the administrative structure of the Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development, hence lack of adequate role models for girls to emulate.

The issue of the boy child has not been addressed adequately, yet it is a factor that influence girls’ education in many ways.

Statistics in this report show that the girl child is more disadvantaged than the boy child in terms of enrolment, retention and completion, performance and transition form primary to secondary school and secondary school to the University.

Due to lack of adequate resources, the outreach progress in gender sensitisation has been slow.

(vii) Non-Formal Education

(a)There is no policy addressing non-formal basic education programmes and survival skills

(b)Lack of adequate financial resources

(c)Sustainability and scope of coverage as most NFE programmes depend on NGOs, donors and other partners

 (d)Data on out of school children is not available

 (e)Co-ordination of the programmes has not been fully operational because there are several stakeholders who are providing NFE independently of each other

 (viii)Adult Education

 (a)Insufficient supply of teachers and other personnel. After the introduction of the early retirement programme, many of the adult education teachers retired. The Government embargo on employment of these cadres has hampered the programme as it has not been possible to replace them. The number of full time teachers has reduced from 3,000 to 2,000 between 1990 and 1999.

(b)Competing priorities of survival due to poverty at individual, family and community levels leaves little time and money for educational activities among adults and OOS youth.

(c)The high rate of school drop-out among the primary school children who graduate into illiterate adults has overburdened the programme. The current completion rate from the formal system is 47%. With the existing resources, the Adult and Continuing education programme cannot handle the massive demand.

(d)Decreased Government and Donor funding for Adult and Continuing Education(ACE) programme has retarded the progress of providing EFA. It has further affected supervision and monitoring of implementation due to lack of means of transport.

 (e)There is low morale among the teachers, who have for a long time been on temporary basis. The part time teacher's allowance is so low and does not act as an incentive. The self-help teachers cannot be depended upon and are known to abandon the centres.

 (ix) Teacher Education

There is a problem of teacher deployment at primary level with some districts being understaffed while others are overstaffed

The staffing norms in primary and secondary schools have resulted in low student/pupil teacher ratios (i.e Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) of 31:1 in primary and Student Teacher Ratio (STR) of 16:1 in secondary) and hence under utilisation of teachers. (see appendix 3 & 4)

The primary teacher curriculum is heavily congested in view of the fact that a teacher trainee is required to study a total of 13 subjects. These are many and do not allow room for specialization.

Some of the S1/Diploma holders were trained to teach two subjects at secondary school level. On re-deployment to primary education, they were expected to teach all those subjects which they had failed or not done at KCSE or had not prepared to teach.

There are teachers who have been promoted on merit to the level of Approved Teacher/Graduate status without any additional academic advancement. Some of them are expected to serve at various levels of Education management in the schools and education offices. The demand at such service levels overstretches their capacity.

Some of the teacher trainers at the University are not professionals and yet they are charged with the responsibility of preparing teachers to be professionals.

Economic hardships have resulted in low morale in the teaching profession.


The development of goals, targets and strategies through partnership between the government and other stakeholders in national forums enhanced the soundness (realism) of different plans and programmes put in place to address EFA goals. The existing sectoral policy frameworks and statements (e.g. Sessional Paper No. 6, 1988) provided a good foundation and environment under which different programmes were implemented. This approach also promoted public awareness, political will and partnership in the development of education. The EFA 2000 Assessment has re-confirmed the Government, and other partners including parents and communities, civil society, individual private investors, and donors’ commitment to increasing educational opportunities for both girls and boys,and also improving the quality of education in the country. There has been considerable expansion of educational opportunities during the last decade. Besides, there is also a renewed call for greater partnership and networking among partners for the identification and development of viable and sustainable plans, mobilisation of additional resources and efficient implementation of education programmes to achieve EFA goals.

The assessment has indicated that the effectiveness of various strategies in achieving EFA goals varied from one sub-sector to the other. The Government's strategy of providing ECCD services through community participation has resulted in an increase in the number of pre-schools throughout the country from 16,239 in 1990 to 23,977 in Over 70% of these are managed by communities and have over one million children.

Progress has been made in reducing the number of untrained teachers at all levels of education. For example, currently, 42% of all pre-school teachers are trained as compared to the 50% target by 2000. At primary school level only 3.4% of the teachers are untrained and 15% at the secondary school level. This has been followed by a continuous review of curricular at all levels to address the issues of quality, gender and relevance.

Partnerships have been built through advocacy and networking, in the provision and development of education by key partners including the communities, individual investors, religious organisations, donors and have yielded positive results.

Although it has been possible to reverse declining national primary school gross enrolment from 86.4% in 1996 to 88.8 in 1998, many school-age children are still out of school. Furthermore, of those who enrol in Grade I, about 53% fail to complete the primary cycle due to high drop-out rates. The transition rates at the primary school level are still below the 50% mark. In 1990 girls represented 39.4% and boys 42.9% compared to 1998 where girls represented 43.1% and boys 46.4%. Transition rates from secondary to the university level stands at only 7%.

With the realisation that many eligible children are still out of school, the Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development has supported Non-Formal Education and other alternative and complementary approaches to basic education. A Desk to co-ordinate Non-Formal Education and other alternative approaches was set up in the MOE&HRD. A Non-Formal Education Curriculum and a ‘draft’ on policy guidelines have already been developed. Programmes and/or projects have also been initiated to mainstream gender equity in education.

Although the strategies of EFA were meant to make the curriculum relevant, affordable and increase access among the disadvantaged groups, this has not been achieved as witnessed through the declining enrollment, completion and drop-out rates especially among the girls. The performance of girls in Mathematics and Science is below that of boys at all levels of education system.

Despite the progress Kenya has made in the development of education, there are disparities and gaps between the agreed upon goals and targets. The assessment indicates that major socio-economic issues, which were not anticipated and were beyond the country’s control, made the achievement of national EFA targets difficult.

The most notable ones include:

Continued poor economic growth:- Over the last decade Kenya has experienced declining economic growth due to various factors including

deteriorating climatic conditions, world economic recession, and internal structural and institutional constraints. According to 1998 data, about 47 per cent of Kenyans are living below the poverty line.

ii.The implementation of structural adjustment programmes: Kenya implemented structural adjustment programs (SAPs) in 1985 as a pre-condition for getting loans and/or grants from IMF-World Bank and other donors to tackle economic issues the country has been facing. This however has not produced positive results e.g, cost-sharing and economic liberalisation have had negative impact on access and retention in education.

iii.Servicing of international debt: For the last decade, the government has been heavily servicing international debt. The debt has been taking the largest share of the country’s GNP, leaving little resources for investment in economic and social sectors - education included.

The Assessment takes note that as the country enters the 21st century, several strategies and initiatives have been put in place, through government machinery, to address the challenges facing education. These include:

(i). The production of the Master Plan on Education and Training, 1997-2010 (GoK, 1998). The focus of the document is the rationalisation of financing and governance of education and training for more efficient and effective allocation, mobilisation and utilisation of resources.

(ii)The establishment of the Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya by the Government in 1998. The Commission is to collect and collate views from the public and give recommendations on what kind of education is necessary in the country and how to finance and manage it more efficiently.

(iii) The production of National Poverty Eradication Plan, 1999-2015, and the creation of Poverty Eradication Commission. The Plan has set up specific goals and targets, and come up with comprehensive work programme to achieve the same. Some of these targets include: . Reduction of the poor in the total population by 20% by 2004; and by a further 30% by 2010. ii. 15% increase in enrolment rates over the first six years of the Plan. iii. 19% increase in completion rates, especially for girls in the six year period. iv. UPE achieved 2015.

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