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Part III Prospects


The commitment for providing Education to All by the Government and other partners is not in doubt. As we face the 21st Century, the enhanced public wareness, the political will and dialogue would continue creating enabling environment for the achievement of EFA goals. In addition the sector has spelt out the Mission and the Vision which will guide the development of education to the 21st Century which is as follows:

Vision: Quality Education for the individual, Societal and national Development

Mission: To provide and promote equal access to quality life long education and training opportunities for enhanced individual and national socio-economic development.

Programmes and projects that will be initiated by the government and its partners will primarily be feared towards realising the Ministry’s vision and mission. Through partnership it is expected that effective methods will be put in place inorder to improve and expand the provision of education to children who have not been reached. For that to happen in the 21st Century there is need to focus on certain key areas in each sub-sector as shown here below .

(i) Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCDE)

(a) Introduction and Utilisation of alternative/complementary approaches e.g. Child to Child approach, Mobile ECCD centres, market based ECCD centres, community based rehabilitation centres, home based care, ECCD services for children in hospitals, prisons and on the streets, will be introduced and enhanced through a proposed Kenyan Early Childhood Care for Survival, Growth and Development (ECC-SGD) model.

(b) Strengthening Community Participation through community mobilisation and parental education and advocacy.

(c) Sustainability of the ECCD Programme by conducting special studies and empowering communities to manage the programme and sustain them.

(d) Strengthening Collaboration by establishing alliances with NGOs, communities and the private sector.

(e) Curriculum Development: Continous review of the curriculum to take on board emerging social and health issues.

8.2 Primary Education

As we enter the 21st Century, there is need to re-focus seriously in Primary education, which, to the majority of children is terminal.

There is need to:

(a) Come up with more comprehensive legislation by harmonising and synchronising existing laws and finally legislating for compulsory Primary Education (Compulsory UPE).

(b) Come up with a policy which formally recognises flexible alternative and complementary approaches which bring in diversity to help reach the unreached children.

(c) Strengthen co-operation and collaboration, among the various providers of education for example, by giving tax rebates and other incentives to individual private investors.

Strengthen research and development in key areas that may need further investigation.

Improve school management and governance. Rationalise the teaching force with a view to containing the teachers' wage bill while at the same time, keeping the teachers motivated;

Come up with modalities of making the curriculum relevant, manageable and less expensive through starting such activities like Monitoring Learning Achievements (MLA), and Rationalise cost and financing of primary education

8.3 Secondary Education

To achieve EFA goals and targets, there is need to:

(a) Strengthen partnerships in the development of secondary schools

(b) Encourage establishment of day schools with the aim of increasing access to secondary education at a reduced and affordable cost

(c) Strengthen Special Bursary scheme for the needy

(d) Expand the non-formal sector to Secondary Education Division of the MOE&HRD

(e) Enhance capacity building for curriculum developers at K.I.E and Inspectorate Section of the MOE&HRD

(f) Reduce the number of examinable subjects at KCSE level with a view to enhancing specialization in the area of study.

(g) Effect implementation of the STEP project

8.4 Training in other Essential skills required by Youth

The Ministry of Research and Technology through Directorate of Technical Training and other stakeholders plans to achieve EFA goals through:

Upgrading the current training programmes for both workers and those in self-employment to meet the needs of the economy.

Improving Technical Teacher Training Programmes.

Staff upgrading (development) to enhance productivity.

Rehabilitation of Technical Training Institutions to match with the latest technologies development.

Establishing the linkage between Technical Institutes with the industries.

Setting-up effective inspection, monitoring and evaluation system for technical training programmes.

Reviewing policies on technical education and training.

Enhancing financial sustainability in the Training Institutions

Initiating programmes for monitoring learning achievements

8.5 Special Education

It is expected that effective methods will be put in place inorder to improve and expand the provision of special education to all children with disability. The following areas need to be addressed:

A Needs Assessment Research should be undertaken urgently accompanied with establishment of a Data Base and a National documentation centre for gathering and disseminating information on disability.

Advocacy to be enhanced among various stakeholders.

Since provision of special education services is expensive, increased funding level will be considered.

Inspection and supervision services be expanded and strengthened at district level.

Special education be included in the early childhood care and development (ECCD), and primary teacher training programmes.

Education and training for the handicapped be expanded and diversified in order to enhance employment opportunities.

8.6 Girl Child Education

Future prospects on the girl child education depends on the following factors if EFA goals are to be realised:

completion and the adoption of Gender policy in education.

added commitment by all the stakeholders to the girls education.

enough and targeted funding by government and donors to the girl child education.

strengthening the gender unit by allocating enough financial and material resources.

strengthening the capacity of the National Task Force on Gender and Education by allocating financial resources for activities.

incorporating gender programmes in pre-service and inservice teacher training.

advocacy for the girl child education be intensified. This should target communities, parents, teachers, policy makers and the girls themselves.

appointment of more women in key administrative positions at school and policy making level.

strategies and plans to address the major disparities identified at primary and secondary school level be formulated.

8.7 Non-Formal Education NFE (out of School Education)

The Government has put in place structures for strengthening and opening opportunities for Non-formal Education which are in the draft of Non-formal Education Policy guidelines. The focus areas are:

Recognition of NFE: The Government recognises the need for OOS children and youth to have access to formal education.

Co-ordination: An inter sectoral committee made up of members from Ministries of Education and Human Resource Development, Home Affairs, National Heritage, Culture and Social Services, Local Authorities, Research Training and Technology, Office of the President, NGOs and Religious Organisations shall be set up to co-ordinate NFE.

Curriculum and Assessment in NFE: NFE curriculum will be diversified based on learning needs of the socio-economic environments of the learners. The curriculum will have a system of equivalencies between formal and NFE system. A certification test nationally recognised as an equivalent of the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) examinations shall be developed.

Accessibility to NFE centres: NFE shall be provided to those who do not join or drop-out from the formal system

Cost, Financing and Sustainability of NFE: Communities and other providers of NFE will be encouraged to keep the cost of NFE to a minimum. Internal adjustments shall be made within MOE&HRD budget to cater for NFE.

Management: The communities shall be actively involved in the administration and management of NFE centres to improve governance and ensure greater participation and efficiency. NFE centres shall be provided with supervision and inspection services in order to maintain standards.

8.8 Adult Education

As a measure to intensify adult education to achieve EFA goals, the following issues will be addressed:

Finalising the review of the Act of the Board of Adult Education Cap 233, of the Laws of Kenya of 1966.

Enhancing advocacy through the media, administration and during International Literacy Day celebrations.

Strengthening partnerships with other agencies.

Finalising curriculum development, and the production of materials

8.9 Teacher Education

There is an urgent need to:

sort out the issue of teacher deployment so as to address equal distribution of primary teachers in districts.

strengthen inspection of schools for effective learning.

carry out registration of all pre-school teachers as a symbol of recognition of ECCDE have all untrained teachers trained through inservice courses.

put in place adequate staffing norms at all levels to make maiximum use of teachers.

put in place efforts to raise the professional and academic level of primary teaching force to a minimum of KSCE and Certificate in teaching.

define the the concept of a teacher as a professional within acceptable professional principles.

inservice teachers regularly on classroom management to enable the teacher to cope with the changing values of the society and pupils.

review periodically the registration of individual teachers.

promote teachers on the basis of teachers certification, performance and appraisal.

recruit teachers at graduate level based on interest in addition to academic qualification.

8.10 Curriculum Development

Curriculum being a key area in all sub-sectors, there will be:

Need to harmonise the curriculum so that, there are no parallel programmes i.e. One offering the 8-4-4 system and another for foreign based education systems.

Modalities will be developed for continous review of the curricular to make the education system relevant, cost effective, gender sensitive and of high quality.

Kenya will strengthen her position in the regional programmes such as Southern African Consortium for Measuring Education Quality (SACMEQ) and Monitoring Learning Achievements (MLA), whose aims are to monitor learning achievements and Quality at all levels of the education system.


9.1 Critical Reflection

The EFA 2000 Assessment efforts in Kenya has revealed that the past decade has witnessed a renewed GoK commitment to EFA goals, at least in Government’s statements of intent. Unfortunately, a wide disparity has emerged between the Jomtien agreed upon goals and actual domestication of those principles in Kenya. Although, there has been considerable expansion of educational opportunities during the period, major issues have emerged which have made the achievement of EFA goals difficult. As mentioned in the introduction, the continued poor economic growth, the implementation of structural adjustment programs and servicing of international debt are top in the long list of constraints. In the last three years, the Government and other partners, including parents and communities, civil society, private investors, educationists and donors have intensified efforts to address challenges facing the education sector. Besides, there is also a renewed call for greater partnership among the partners for the development of viable and sustainable plans, mobilisation of additional resources and efficient implementation of education programmes.

Our assessment indicates that progress since Jomtien has been much slower than anticipated in relation to most of the major targets set for achieving EFA goals. While it is true that more educational opportunities have been created in the last decade, many eligible school age children - aged 6-13 ( about 11%) are still out of school. This is more prononouced in the ASAL and Coastal areas. The report has indicated the magnitude of wastage (inefficiency) in the system. Current statistical data show that in the last two years the national primary school gross enrolment rate (GER) has increased from 86.4% in 1996 to 88.8% in 1999. However, the net enrolment rate (NER) -the single most important indicator of progress towards the goal of UPE is estimated to be not more than 60%, although there is an urgent need for a systematic study on this. Although GER indicate a positive rise, it obsecures the full extent of the challenges facing education. For example, the many children who enrol in primary school in Kenya, particularly girls, do not stay longer enough to complete the cycle. The completion rate in the last five years at this level has remained at 46% mark. Out of those who join form one, only 84.5%(1998) complete secondary education. And only 7% proceed to university. The quality and relevance of education offered have also not been upto the required standards.

The country’s commitment to providing educational opportunities to her children still remains, and is growing stronger and stronger with the increased public demand for education and training. The country has put in place several initiatives and used various strategies to accomplish such commitments. However, it is our submission that the picture that emerges from EFA 2000 Assessment suggests little cause for celebration. We have not been able to meet the targets. Progress towards the development of quality education for all in all the six "target dimensions" of EFA - shown in the Box - has been much slower than those anticipated after Jomtien conference in 1990.

World Declaration on Education for All, 1990

Jomtien Target Dimensions

the expansion of early childhood care and development; universal access to and completion of primary education by the year 2000;

a reduction of adult illiteracy rates to one half of the 1990s levels by 2000, with an emphasis on female literacy;improved learning achievement; based on the attainment of defined  levels of performance;expansion of basic education and training for adults and youths;improved dissemination of knowledge, skills, and values required for sustainable development.However, the most notable positive progress has been in the following areas:the initiatives put in place for the expansion of early childhood education;

(ii) programmes initiated and implemented for the reduction of adult illiteracy rate;

(iii) Various policies and programs have been put in place to develop non-formal education and other alternative and complementary approaches;

(iv) Teacher education programmes have worked well. For example, out of 192,306 of the total number of primary school teachers only 3.4% are untrained;

(v) Initiatives to build partnership in the provision of education among key partners, the communities, individual investors, religious organisations, civil society and external donors have given positive results;

(vi) Initiatives to address the internal efficiency in education, for example health and nutrition programmes, the Girl-Child projects, have increased retention of children in school, and has also reduced the gender gap between boys and girls;

(vii) Capacity building programmes for efficient and effective management of schools, for example PRISM, SPRED, and inservice course at Kenya Education Staff Institute (KESI) are bearing positive fruits.

The EFA 2000 Country Reports notes that the most important positive progress in the last decade is that the Government and its partners, through state machinery, have managed to set in motion the process of addressing the challenges facing education and training. Several actions have been taken in the last two years. These include:

(a) The production of the Master Plan on Education and Training, 1997-2010 (GoK, 1998). The focus of the document is the rationalisation of financing and governance of education and training for more efficient and effective allocation, mobilisation and utilisation of resources.

(b) The establishment of the Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya by the Government in 1998. The Commission is to collect and collate view from the public and give recommendations on what kind of education is necessary in the country and how to finance and manage it more efficiently.

(c) The production of National Poverty Eradication Plan, 1999-2015, and the creation of Poverty Eradication Commission (1999). The Plan has set up specific goals and targets, and come up with comprehensive work programme to achieve the same. Some of these targets include:

Reduction of the poor in the total population by 20% by 2004; and by a further 30% by 2010.

15% increase in enrolment rates at Primary level over the first six years of the Plan.

10% increase in completion rates, especially for girls in the first six years of the plan period.

UPE to be achieved by the year 2015.

9.2 Lessons Learned

Over the last decade, several lessons have been learned and consensus has grown concerning why the goals of EFA have been difficult to realise. There is also a realisation that the entire education sector needs re-engineering, if not total overhaul, to make it more efficient and effective in service delivery. As we enter the 21st century, the public demand for quality education will continue to increase. Besides, the issues of cost and financing quality education will become even more acute. Some specific lessons have been learned:

(a) Political commitment and proper programming - developing vision/mission for education and establishing realistic goals and targets is necessary. Politics of confrontation have to be kept out of education development.

(b) Putting education - the development of human resource - at the core of development planning and implementation is necessary, if not mandatory.

(c) Establishing viable Education Investment Programme is mandatory.

(d) Building and utilising policy analysis and research in formulation and implementation of educational policies is critical.

(e) Continuos lobbying and advocacy, and training to mainstream gender equity in the entire education system will have to be intensified. Development of realistic gender sensitive benchmarks and indicators is a critical variable in achieving EFA goals.

Targeting of the girl-child, and in some instances the boy-child, is necessary if not essential for EFA.

(f) Putting in place monitoring and evaluation mechanisms (machinery), with specific indicators is necessary. This will assist in assessing the quality and relevance of education and training.

(g) The achievement of EFA goals under the implementation of SAP’s requirements, for example cost-sharing and liberalisation of the economy, is problematic, if not impossible.



1. Partners in Education Programmes

2.     Percentage Distribution of Goal Financing of Education and Training by subsector 1992/93 - 1997/8

3.     Public Recurrent Expenditure on Primary Education 1990/91 - 1998/99

4. Donors contributions to Education

5.     Percent distribution of Recurrent Financing of Technical and Vocational Education by Major Activity 1992/93 - 1997/98

6. Donor contribution toward Voc-Tech Education and Training

7. Recurrent Expenditure on Adult Educatio

8. Public Expenditure on ACE in other Government Departments

9. Recurrent Expenditure (1990-98)

10. Development Expenditure (1990 - 98)

11. Gross Enrolment Rates in ECCD (1990 - 98)

12. Gross Enrolment Rates in ECCD by Gender and Province (1998)

13. Gross Enrolment Rates in Primary School by Gender (1990 - 98)

14. Primary School Gross Enrolment Rates by Gender and Province 1998

15. Primary School Completion Rates by Gender 1990 – 98

16. Percentage Distribution of Secondary School

17. Percentage Distribution of Secondary School Enrolment by Gender in selected years (1963 - 1998)

18. Percentage Distribution of Primary School Enrolment by Gender in selected years 1963 - 1998.

19. Percentage of untrained teachers in pre-primary schools (1990 -98)

20. Percentage of Primary School Teachers who are classified to teach according to national standards

21. Proportion of trained primary school teachers by province and by Gender(1998)

22. Secondary School statistics 1990 – 96

23. Literacy Rates

24. Illiteracy rates survey by Districts

25. Enrolment in special schools at primary level

26. Enrolment in 1998 in special schools by Gender in each handicap

27. Enrolment in special schools and units/programme

28. Enrolment in Special Secondary school by type of Handicap

Enrolment in Vocational and Technical Institutions by Type of Handicap (1990 and 1998)

Intake by local vocational Training Institutions (1991 - 1999)


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