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Part ll Analytic Sections

1. Progress toward Goals and Targets (Covering the decade 1990 – 1999)

Six dimensions are taken into account in assessing the progress of basic education: (1) early childhood care and development; (2) primary education; (3) learning achievement and other positive outcomes; (4) adult literacy; (5) training in essential skills; (6) education for better living. For the assessment, 18 core EFA indicators are calculated to describe or measure the main components of basic education. The process of collecting statistics and calculating indicators, the results and the interpretations are presented below for each dimension.

Specifically, EFA indicators 1 through 6 in the areas of ‘early childhood care and development’ and ‘the primary education’ were computed by means of macros in the ACCESS.XLS file, then were copied onto the corresponding datasheets in Tables 1 to 4 of the EFATABS.XLS file. Both ACCESS.XLS and EFATABS.XLS files are attached in the Appendix for reference. Main data sources used in calculating these six indicators are statistics in both the HANDBOOK OF EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS(1998) published by the MOE and the Korean Educational Development Institute and the POPULATION PROJECTION FOR KOREA(1996) published by the National Statistical Office. For these six indicators, the analysis by province could not be implemented due to a lack of population data. The POPULATION PROJECTION FOR KOREA(1996) does not provide statistics at the provincial level. Furthermore, the POPULATION PROJCETION BY PROVINCE FOR KOREA(1998) contains statistics of age-group population for five-year periods only.

A. Early Childhood Care and Development (ECD)

The ECD target area deals with the first component of basic education: early childhood care and development. The official age-group for early childhood development programs in Korea is 4-5 years old. Among 18 core indicators, both indicators 1 and 2 concern this target. For calculating these indicators, we have included only the registered pre-schools in Korea due to insufficient statistical information. Consequently, those in other similar organized educational institutes or programs for young children are excluded in estimating the indicators in ECD in this report, which leads us to conclude that the actual value of the indicators would be far higher than the values measured here.

(1) Indicator 1 : Gross enrollment ratio in early childhood development program(GER in ECD)

GER in ECD indicates the total number of children enrolled in early childhood development programs, regardless of age, is expressed as a percentage of the population in the relevant official age-group (4 to 5).

This indicator measures the general level of participation of young children in early childhood development programs. It also indicates our capacity to prepare young children for primary education. Since gross enrollment does not take the age factor into account, children below 4 years and above 5 years will also be included. Therefore, gross enrollment ratio can exceed 100 percent.

To calculate GER in ECD, both the number of children enrolled in early childhood development programs and the population in the relevant official age-group(4 to 5) have been collected. The number of children enrolled in early childhood development programs over the last 9 years(1990 to1998) was collected from statistics in the HANDBOOK OF EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS(1998). The handbook includes the number of children in the official age-group(4 to 5) enrolled only in the registered pre-schools. In this process of data collection, we discovered that there were insufficient statistics available to calculate the number of children for each age group. This explains the listing of a single 5-year-old age group in the calculations of total enrollment in ECD in the datasheets of the ACCESS.XLS file, even through this that number actually includes the enrolled children in the entire official age group, that is, ages 4 and 5. The population in the relevant official age-group(4 to 5) during the last 9 years(1990 to 1998) has also been collected from the statistics in the POPULATION PROJECTION FOR KOREA(1996).

The results are presented in both Table 1 and Figure 1-1. They show that overall GER ranges from 31.6 to 39.9 since 1990. Considering the fact that these figures reflected only the registered pre-schools in Korea, we can expect the actual gross enrollment ratio to be much higher(presumably more than 50%) than these figures. Furthermore, we can notice a certain tendency of the GER in ECD to consistently increase, e.g. 31.6% in 1990, 33.4% in 1991, 35.8% in 1992, 37.2% in 1993, 39.8% in 1994. That is, the gross enrollment ratio increased by almost 8% during this 5-year period. However, during the latter half of the 1990s, the gross enrollment ratio in early childhood development had remain unchanged. The gross enrollment ratio was 39.9% in each of the years 1995, 1996, and 1997. In 1998, this ratio further shrank to 37.2%. This reverse tendency of decreasing GER in this period seemed to be caused by the severe economic crisis Korea experienced in that particular year. The number of enrolled children in early childhood development program can be easily affected by the financial situation of each household since the formal compulsory education in Korea does not cover the pre-primary education. In addition, as shown in Figure 1-2, we cannot find a significant gender difference in the gross enrollment ratio in early childhood educational program.

In conclusion, as compared to the GER of 1.3% in 1970, about 40% of GER in the 1990s indicate quite a noticeable tendency of increasing GER in Korea. If all organized educational institutes or programs for young children, either registered or otherwise, were included for estimating GER here, then the value of GER would undoubtedly be considerably higher than 40%. These results confirm the assertion that the general level of participation of young children in early childhood development programs in Korea is increasing at quite a satisfactory rate.

(2) Indicator 2 : Percentage of new entrants to primary grade 1 who have attended some form of organized early childhood development programs (NE)

The indicator 2, NE, intends to assess the proportion of new entrants to grade 1 who presumably have received some preparation for primary schooling through early childhood programs.

Calculating NE can hardly be done here due to the insufficient statistical information. To calculate NE, we need two kinds of data, "the number of new entrants to grade 1 of primary education who have attended some form of organized early childhood development programs" and "the total number of new entrants to primary grade 1 in a given school-year." Unfortunately we don’t have any statistics referring to the number of new entrants to grade 1 of primary education who have attended some form of organized ECD programs.

Even though we are not able to calculate NE in exact figures, we can estimate the approximate numbers of new entrants to primary grade 1 who have attended some form of organized early childhood development programs. This estimation is possible based on the fact that the intake rate to primary education in Korea is nearly 100%. It indicates virtually every child in the relevant official age-group(6-year-old) in Korea enters grade 1 of primary education. Then, it would follow that those who have attended some form of ECD programs possibly tend to enter grade 1 of the primary school. Therefore, it is logical to expect that the percentage of new entrants to primary grade 1 who have attended the registered pre-schools might be approximately 40% and this figure would most likely approach a higher value when other similar forms of non-registered ECD programs are considered.

In conclusion, the gross enrollment ratio in early childhood care and developmental programs in Korea is about 40% when only registered institutes are concerned, and this ratio has continually expanded over the last 9 years. Moreover, it is not an unreasonable conclusion that most of these children enter grade 1 of primary school, based on the fact that the intake rate to primary education in Korea is approaching 100%.

B. Primary Education

This target concerns not only the expansion of access to primary education to cover all eligible children (covered by the indicators 3 to 6), but also the improvement of its internal efficiency so that all pupils actually complete the primary cycle (covered by the indicators 12 to 14). It also entails ensuring that adequate resources and infrastructure are available and used effectively (covered by the indicators 7 to 11). The official age-group for primary education in Korea is 6 to 11 years old.

(1) Indicator 3 : Apparent intake rate to primary school (AIR)

AIR refers to the total number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school-entrance age, which is 6 years old in Korea. This indicator reflects not only the general level of access to primary education but also the capacity of the education system to provide access to grade 1 for the official school-entrance age population. As this calculation includes all new entrants to first grade, including over-aged and under-aged children entering primary school for the first time, the AIR can exceed 100%.

To calculate the indicator 3, both the total number of new entrants in grade 1, regardless of age, and the population of the official school-entrance age( age 6) have been collected. The total number of new entrants in grade 1, regardless of age, during the last 9 years(1990 to 1998) was collected from the statistics in the HANDBOOK OF EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS(1998). The handbook includes the statistics not only of the number of new entrants in grade 1 at 6 years-old, but also the number of over-aged and under-aged children entering the first grade of primary education. The population of the 6 year-old age group during the last 9 years(1990 to 1998) was collected from statistics in the POPULATION PROJECTION FOR KOREA(1996).

The results of the calculation of the AIR are presented in Table 2, Figure 2-1 and 2-2. They show that the apparent intake rate in primary education in Korea is greater than 100%. These high values of the apparent intake rate in primary education were reached in Korea as early as the 1970s. This confirms that Korea maintains a seamlessly high level of

access to primary EFA eligible children, regardless of gender.

 

(2) Indicator 4 : Net intake rate to primary school (NIR)

NIR indicates new entrants in the first grade of primary education who are of the official primary school-entrance age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the same age. This indicator gives a more precise measurement of access to primary education of the eligible, primary school-entrance age population than does AIR, the apparent intake rate to primary school. In principle, the value of NIR should not exceed 100%.

To calculate NIR, both the number of children at the age of 6 who enter the first grade of primary education and the population of the same age have been collected. The number of children at the age of 6 who enter grade 1 during the last 9 years(1990 to 1998) was collected from the statistics in the HANDBOOK OF EDCUATIONAL STATISTICS(1998). The population of the 6 year-old age group during the last 9 years(1990 to 1998) was collected from the statistics in the POPULATION PROJECTION FOR KOREA(1996).

The results of calculating NIR are presented in Table 3, Figure 3-1 and 3-2. They show that the values of NIR exceed 90% for the last 9 years except the year 1997. However, this value of 88.3% in 1997 does not seem to carry any significance. Certain difficulties in calculating the indicator as affected by the existence of some repeaters may have caused this result. In conclusion, the high net intake rates indicate that Korea achieved a satisfactorily high level of access to primary education for the official primary school-entrance age children, regardless of gender.

 

 

(3) Indicator 5 : Gross enrollment ratio in primary education (GER)

The GER indicates total enrollment in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official primary school-age population in a given school year. This indicator is widely used to measure the general level of participation in and capacity of primary education. GER can sometimes exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged pupils and repeaters.

To calculate GER in primary education, both the total number of pupils enrolled in primary education and the population of the official primary school age-group(6 to 11) have been collected. The number of pupils enrolled in primary education during the last 9 years(1990 to 1998) was collected from the statistical information in the HANDBOOK OF EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS(1998). The handbook includes the statistics of not only the number of children in the official age-group(6 to 11) enrolled in primary education but also the number of over-aged and under-aged children enrolled in primary education. The population in the relevant official age-group(6 to 11) during the last 9 years(1990 to 1998) was collected from the statistics in the POPULATION PROJECTION FOR KOREA(1996).

The results are presented in Table 4, Figure 4-1 and 4-2. They show that the gross enrollment ratio in primary education is over 100% for the last 9 years in general. In fact, Korea achieved these high levels of gross enrollment ratio in primary education long ago. For example, GER in primary education in 1970 was already 100.7%. This tendency continued until 1995. However, the gross enrollment ratio in primary education began decrease from 1996, although to a tiny degree. The GER in primary education was 99.3% in 1996, 98.6% in 1997, and 98.3% in 1998. This tendency was caused by the fact that the decreasing rate of population of pupils is larger than the decreasing rate of the number of enrolled pupils in primary schools. This high GER value approaching 100% indicates that Korea is, in principle, able to accommodate all of its primary school-age population, regardless of gender.

 

(4) Indicator 6 : Net enrollment ratio in primary education (NER)

NER refers to enrollment in primary education of the official primary school age-group(6 to 11) expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Compared to the gross enrollment ratio, this net enrollment ratio gives a more precise measurement of the extent of participation in primary education of children belonging to the official primary school age. Although the NER’s maximum value cannot exceed 100%, values up to 101% have been obtained due to inconsistencies in enrollment or population data.

To calculate NER in primary education, both the number of pupils enrolled in primary schools who are of the official primary school age-group (6 to 11) and the population for the same age-group have been collected. The number of pupils at the appropriate age enrolled in primary schools during the last 9 years(1990 to 1998) was collected from statistics in the HANDBOOK OF EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS(1998). The population for the age-group from 6 to 11 during the last 9 years(1990 to 1998) was collected from statistics in the POPULATION PROJECTION FOR KOREA(1996).

The results are presented in Table 5, Figure 5-1 and 5-2. Similar to GER values, overall values of NER in primary education in Korea are almost 100%. This high NER denotes a high degree of participation in primary education of the official primary school age-group. Even though NER shows a tendency of decreasing value over time, it is small enough to be negligible. In conclusion, Korea has already achieved an almost perfect degree of access to primary EFA eligible children, regardless of gender.

 

(5) Indicator 7 & 8 : Public expenditure on primary education

Indicator 7 comprises the current public expenditure on primary education (a) as a percentage of GNP and (b) per pupil, as a percentage of GNP per capita in a given financial year. Indicator 8 shows the public expenditure on primary education as a percentage of total public expenditure on education. To obtain date for Korea, the STATISTICAL YEARBOOK OF EDUCATION (8 volumes of 1991 through 1998) was used as the basic source. Two considerations are to be noted. One point is that figures for public current expenditure on primary education comprise those of both elementary and secondary schools. This can be simply explained as in Korea it is customary to add the statistics for primary schools and that of secondary schools in order to obtain data for public current expenditure on primary education in respect to educational financing. Another relevant point is the statistical expenditure figures of a given financial year will be those shown in the next year’s statistical yearbook. For example, the 1991 yearbook will be used for 1990 data.

The public current expenditure on primary education expressed as a % of total public current expenditure on education has declined from 79.3%(1990), 62.3%(1991), 61.9%(1992), 62.0%(1993), 61.4%(1994), 61.5%(1995), 55.1%(1996) to 51.3%(1997), which shows a marked slowdown over these years. The public current expenditure on primary education per pupil as % of GNP per capita has gradually increased, showing the figures of 8.8%(1990), 9.0%(1991), 8.8%(1992), 9.6%(1993), 9.4%(1994), 9.5%(1995), 10.0%(1996), and 12.3%(1997).

As seen in the change for Col. 2 of the Figure 6-1, public current expenditure on primary education has gradually increased over the years 1990 through 1997. The figure of 9,721,470,000 Korean won for 1997 is twice that of 1990(4,892,630,000 won). The change in total public current expenditure on education has abruptly increased over the years (1990-1997) a three-fold increase from 6,168,970,000 won (1970) to 18,939,880,000 won (1997). Specifically, the increase from 1994 to 1997 was salient.

Thus, the degree of increased change of total public current expenditure on education is greater than that of public current expenditure on primary education during the same time. The explanation for this can be founded in the fact that the Korean government has invested relatively more of its current public expenditure in higher education than primary education, especially for the past recent years (1995-1997). Overall, however, the gradual increase in the public current expenditure on every level of education is demonstrated over years, implying that the Korean government has consistently been keenly interested in the development of education and, thus, invested its resources into education.

As shown in the figure 6-2, the yearly change of Col. 4(Total enrollment in primary education) has gradually decreased over the years from 9,430,000 in 1990 to 8,300,000 in 1997. This change can be explained by the fact that Korean families have shown less willingness to bear children due to several factors, including the high cost of living and steep educational expenses.

A gradual increase appears in the change of GNP over the given school-years as shown in Col. 5 of Figure 6-3, except for the years 1991 and 1997. The decrease of GNP in 1991 and 1997 can be reasoned by the fact that Korea suffered from economic recessions, especially the beginning of IMF controlling era in 1997.

During the period 1990-1997, the number of total population has gradually increased over years from 42,870,000 in 1990 to 46,890,000 in 1997.

Col 7, 8, and 9 in Table 6-2 represent public current expenditure on primary education as a % of total public current expenditure on education, public current expenditure on primary education as % of GNP, and public current expenditure on primary education per pupil as % of GNP per capita, respectively. Figures 6-5, 6-6, and 6-7 show their yearly fluctuation over years (1990-1997).

As for the yearly change of public current expenditure on primary education as a % of total public current expenditure on education (Col. 7 in Figure 6-5), a general decrease over recent years appears, except for the abrupt fall from 79.3% in 1990 to 62.3% in 1991. The gradual decrease over the years suggests that the Korean government has gradually shifted its priority in its financial investment from primary education to higher education. Also, it reflects the government’s judgement that the level of primary education in Korea has already settled at a certain level.

As seen in the yearly change of Col.8 of Figure 6-6, current public expenditure on primary education as a % of GNP showed a gentle decrease from 1990 to 1996, but a sudden increase from 1.8% in 1996 to 2.2% in 1997. This signifies that, in spite of economic recession from 1996 to 1997, the Korean government consistently invested at least the same amount of resources into primary education as in past years.

 

Regarding the yearly change of public current expenditure on primary education per pupil as a % of GNP per capita, as shown in Figure 6-7, there appears a slow increase from 1990 to 1996 and an abrupt increase from 10.0% in 1996 to 12.3% in 1997. This surge is due to the consistent investment into primary education by the Korean government despite the recent economic recession.

(6) Indicator 9 & 10 : Percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications

TABLE 7 comprises indicators 9 and 10.

Indicator 9 focuses on the percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications. Indicator 10 concerns the percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards. For the data of both indicators 9 and 10 in the case of Korea, the STATISTICAL YEARBOOK OF EDUCATION (9 volumes of 1990 through 1998) was used as the basic source. Unfortunately, however, it is almost impossible to find first-hand data to show the percentage of primary school teachers who have at least the minimum academic qualifications or who are certified to have received the minimum organized teacher-training required for teaching in primary education. Such an obstacle, however, is not insurmountable, taking into consideration that all Korean primary teachers are required to have teaching credentials issued by a national education university or department of primary education, Ehwa Women’s University immediately upon graduation.

Figure 7-1 shows the change in the number of primary school teachers (total, male, and female) from 1990 to 1998. The total number of primary school teachers has slightly increased over the measured years. Moreover, the number of female primary school teachers has increased to a considerable degree, whereas the number of male primary school teachers has gradually decreased. Interestingly enough, the difference between female and male teachers in 1990 was not significant, but in 1998 the difference became salient reaching roughly 29,000. This phenomenon is based on the fact that the position of primary teachers is growing less popular for males in recent years.

As mentioned before, all Korean primary teachers are required have teaching credentials issued by their education universities immediately after graduation, and they also have at least a bachelor degree’s as a minimum academic qualification. Thus, the percentage of primary school teachers who are equipped with academic qualification and certified to teach is considered to be 100% throughout all provinces within the years from 1990 to 1998.

(7) Indicator 11 : Pupil-teacher ratio

TABLE 8 deals with indicator 11. Indicator 11 represents the pupil/teacher ratio in primary education in a given school year. Data for indicator 11 in the case of Korea, the STATISTICAL YEARBOOK OF EDUCATION (9 volumes of 1990 through 1998) was used as the basic source. However, any statistical clues about the relative ratios of pupils/teacher in urban or rural areas are not available.

 

 

Figures 8-1, 8-2, and 8-3 show the total enrollment of pupils (public plus private schools), the total enrollment of pupils of public schools, and the total enrollment of pupils of private schools, including male and female students, respectively.

Each figure similarly demonstrates that the total enrollment of pupils has gradually decreased over the years between 1990 to 1998. This pattern holds true in the number of both male and female students regardless of public and private schools. One interesting observation is that the number of male students both in public and private schools is greater than that of female students throughout all the given school-years. It is most probably due to Korean parents’ distinctive bias toward male preference.

Figures 8-4, 8-5, and 8-6 show the changing trend of total number of teachers (public plus private schools), the total enrollment of teachers in public schools, and the total enrollment of teachers in private schools, specifying male and female teachers, respectively. As seen in Figure 8-5, there was gradual increase in the number of female teachers at public schools over the given years, a pattern not followed by male teachers. However, a large change of total number of teachers at private schools is not discernible in either male and female teachers, howbeit, there is a detectable increase in the number of male teachers which is in contrast to public schools. This is simply because private schools are comparatively more stable than public schools in terms of the drop-out rate from teaching jobs by male teachers. Moreover, private schools are likely to prefer male teachers to female teachers.

 

 

 

 

 

As seen in TABLE 8, the number of pupils per teacher is 35.59(1990), 34.43(1991), 32.84(1992), 31.16(1993), 29.47(1994), 28.22(1995), 27.12(1996), 27.29(1997), and 27.35(1997). Figures 8-7, 8-8, and 8-9 suggest the changes of pupil-teacher ratios (total, public, and private). As seen in Figures 8-7, 8-8, and 8-9, the ratios have generally decreased both in public and private schools. However, the ratio has increased from 27.2 in 1996 to 27.35 in 1998 due to the increase of the ratio in public schools.

(8) Indicator 12 : Repetition rates by grade

At the level of primary education, children in Korea rarely repeat. As presented in the tables in the Appendix to this report, over the last decade the repetition rates have not exceeded 0.4 percent for any grade. Only once for the year 1995 did the rate reach 0.4 percent. Except for that year, the repetition rates remained mostly between 0.0 and 0.2 percent. It is quite safe to say that the repetition rates for primary schools in Korea are close to zero. The statistics are summarized in the Table 9-1.

The repetition rates do not vary with gender. In most of the grades, the rates are virtually identical for male and female children.

Table 9-1 Repetition rates in primary education by grade and gender

Year  

Grade

  1 2 3 4 5 6
1990-91 Total

0.0

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Male

0.0

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Female

0.0

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
1991-92 Total

0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Male

0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Female

0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1992-93 Total

0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Male

0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Female

0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1993-94 Total

0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Male

0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Female

0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
1994-95 Total

0.4

0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3
Male

0.4

0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3
Female

0.4

0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3
1995-96 Total

0.2

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Male

0.2

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Female

0.2

0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
1996-97 Total

0.1

0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Male

0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
Female

0.1

0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
1997-98 Total

0.3

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Male

0.3

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Female

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

An explanation may need to be made for the difference between years. The rates in 1995 are quite noticeable. However, the reason for the relative surge is not certain. One hunch is that the operational definition of ‘repetition’ was more inclusive than at other periods.

On the other hand, the higher rates for the first grade in 1998 are explicable. In 1997, as a measure of educational reform, earlier entrance into primary school was made possible. That is, children who did not attain the admission age (i.e., six years old) were allowed to seek permission to enroll in school, if they had applied for and passed the screening procedure. As a result, the enrollment of primary schools in 1997 included more children of under six years old than ever before. In response to the reform measure, motivated parents chose to try the first year of schooling a year earlier than mainstream parents did for their children. At the end of the year, however, many recognized the significance of the one-year difference. Quite a few of the early-entering children found difficulty in finishing the school year. These seemed to decide to stay another year for the first grade. This accounts for the rates of repetition for the first class in 1998 becoming prominent

Reliable data for regional difference were not available. It seems reasonable to speculate that differences among regions (provinces) might not be significant. The absolute low rates do not allow much room for regional variance.

The low repetition rates in Korea are mainly due to ‘the social promotion policy.’ The Korean schooling system allows all children of a certain grade to go on to the next grade at the end of the year without formal screening. Repetition of a grade is made formal only on a voluntary basis. It would not be easy to find a child who repeats because of insufficient achievement.

(9) Indicator 13: Survival rate to grade 5

Korean children in primary schools mostly survive until graduation at sixth grade. They rarely drop out or repeat. As mentioned in the previous section, the repetition rates are negligible. The rates of drop-outs are also virtually nil. The drop-out rates are shown in the following Table 10-1:

Table 10-1 Drop-out rates in primary school by grade

Year Grade
1 2 3 4 5 6
1990-91 1.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.5 NA
1991-92 1.0 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.6 NA
1992-93 1.1 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.5 NA
1993-94 0.9 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.7 NA
1994-95 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.8 NA
1995-96 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 NA
1996-97 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.5 NA
1997-98 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 1.0 NA

Note: ‘NA’ shows where the calculation was not possible because of the data problem.


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