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Gender relations in education

Equality of men and women in education issues was foundational in soviet education system. The Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic also grants equality in education. According to the numerous data, women in Kyrgyzstan have education at least the same, if not better, as men. Unlike other Central Asian countries, Kyrgyzstan women are highly educated, and their level of professional preparation is equal to that of men in all spheres of economy.

The analyzed period in the system of education is specific by gender parity, which corresponds to gender relations in the Republic. Conditional cohort confirms gender parity throughout.

Unlike other Central Asian countries, boys in Kyrgyzstan miss classes more often than girls, because parents ask for their help in farming in the garden or in the field. Boys often work in bazaars (markets) or in production-oriented private sector. Therefore, many analysts believe, that a worsening education system will first affect boys, not girls.

Language of Teaching.

In public schools teaching is conducted in four languages: Kyrgyz (state), Russian, Uzbek an Tajik.

At present there are 1259 schools with Kyrgyz language of teaching, 133 with Russian, 138 with Uzbek and 2 with Tajik. Creation of mixed schools with parallel classes having different language of teaching is welcomed. There are 385 of such schools in the republic.

Number of schools with different languages of study has changed. For the last seven years 138 new schools appeared with Kyrgyz teaching language, 22 with Uzbek, and 47 mixed schools. Russian school number is 47 down. Tajik school number had no changes.

In 385 mixed schools teaching is performed mainly in two languages: Kyrgyz and Russian.

Public schools by the teaching language (without specialized boarding schools)

Year

School number

By languages

Kyrgyz

Russian

Uzbek

Tajik

Mxed

schools

%

schools

%

schools

%

schools

%

schools

%

1991

1764

1121

63,5

187

10,6

116

6,6

2

0,1

338

19.2

1992

1796

1122

62,5

143

8

120

6,7

2

0,1

404

22,8

1993

1832

1171

63,9

126

6.9

128

7

2

0,1

405

22,6

1994

1840

1189

64,6

122

6.6

132

7.2

2

0,1

395

22,4

1995

1843

1206

65,4

121

6,5

133

7,2

2

0,1

381

19,1

1996

1867

1223

65,5

123

6,6

134

7,2

2

0,1

385

20,6

1997

1889

1232

65,2

133

7

133

7

2

0,1

389

20,6

1998

1918

1259

65,7

133

6,9

138

7,2

2

0,1

385

20,1

 

The majority of schools in the republic teach in Kyrgyz. In the analyzed period continuous growth of pupils in these schools was observed. In 1991 share of Kyrgyz language learners amounted to 63.5% of all pupils, in 1998 to almost 66%. Number of pupils studying in Kyrgyz classes grew 118,700. An increase of 29,000 Uzbek, and 500 Tajik learners occurred in this period.

Pupil body of day school by languages of teaching (‘000s of pupils)

Year

School number

By languages

Kyrgyz

Russian

Uzbek

Tajik

schools

%

schools

%

schools

%

schools

%

1991

941,7

575,4

61,1

248,7

26,4

114,9

12,2

2,6

0,3

1992

937,7

587,9

62,7

230,7

24,6

116,4

12,4

2,7

0,3

1993

933,1

593,6

63,6

218,6

23,4

118,2

12,7

2,7

0,3

1994

934,5

605,3

64,1

213,6

22,6

121,7

12,9

2,8

0,3

1995

968

613,9

63,4

223,8

23,1

126,9

13,1

2,9

0,3

1996

1002,4

633,9

63,2

234,2

23,3

131,3

13,1

3,0

0,3

1997

1039,9

671,9

64,6

225,0

21,6

136,8

13,4

3,0

0,3

1998

1074,5

694,1

64,6

233,4

21,7

143,8

13,4

3,1

0,3

Diversification of education programs

After the Kyrgyz Republic became independent, much work was directed at implementing a person-oriented teaching approach. Most noticeably this approach is exemplified in the diversification of education programs. A good example of progress in the Kyrgyz Republic of accessibility of education through diversification of education programs is the development of multiple types of schools.

Today in the republic about 10 types of schools perform optional education programs:

This typology developed in the period of 1990-1999. In the practice of the majority of schools lyceums, gymnasiums, authorial schools have been called innovation schools. These gymnasium and lyceum types of school education have functioned successfully.

Today more than 46,000 pupils are studying in 94 gymnasiums and 19,700 pupils in 70 lyceums. The total number of innovation schools is 344 (17.9%) with 109,000 children enrolled, that is 10.1% of total number of pupils. Innovation schools as a rule enroll children with good childcare (pre-basic) and basic preparation, high academic records. Many innovation schools choose development of gifted children as a target.

Attention is also given to providing accessibility of education for "hazard children" – orphans, children left without parent’s patronage, and children with asocial behavior.

At present there are 37 institutions for children orphans, children left without parent’s patronage and children with development problems.

Information about education of special children contingent (ill children, orphans, etc.)

Boarding schools for children:

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1. Born deaf and acquired deafness

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

Children in them

860

818

1231

651

685

673

726

722

2. Blind and low visibility

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Children in them

252

224

190

170

166

185

180

185

3. Paralalia (speech problems)

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Children in them

252

285

240

220

220

234

251

262

4. Mind disabled

20

14

10

9

9

13

13

13

Children in them

3465

1836

1367

1070

984

1768

1705

1775

5 Sanatorium forestry schools

2

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

Children in them

200

120

161

111

351

177

331

320

6. With poliomyelitis and cerebral palsy consequences

1

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

Children in them

135

112

71

43

-

-

-

-

7. Asylums

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

7

Children in them

347

383

401

413

415

528

586

720

8 Boarding schools for children orphans

3

2

3

3

3

3

4

4

Children in them

420

307

442

523

525

445

617

615

9 Boarding schools

34

38

32

26

24

26

26

14

Children in them

11710

11211

8968

6309

707

7900

7900

2303

10. Schools with day care groups

1105

826

499

102

12

5

5

7

Children in them

137875

90107

50896

12111

890

294

285

579

In the meantime, as was already mentioned, a number of boarding schools for mind-disabled children have reduced for the last several years. In 1995 a specialized institution for children with poliomyelitis and cerebral palsy consequences was closed. The seizure of the said institution network is caused by financial hardships.

In connection with that, it is preferred to create special correction classes within massive public schools, so that children may continue to attend regular schools and not be taken away from the family. At present there are special classes for 835 children. The work of rehabilitation center for 25 pupils has begun in Naryn town.

Close attention is given to identifying young children and troubled families who could represent potential problems. These families are registered and preventive work with them commences. In the majority of schools, children from the "hazardous group" are registered and put into special cards, casebooks. The practice of personal monitoring has also been restored. Juvenile commissions and various non-governmental organizations (women associations, councils of aksakals) are attracted to work with parents, who are not caring for children properly. Forms of work with children-orphans and children needing orphanage are polished.

According to 1998 official statistics, more than 17,000 biological and social orphans were living in the republic. 8,905 children were given to families for adoption, 6,300 were given under guardianship and custody. 1,250 are being brought up in 12 state asylum institutions. In November, 1998, two more asylums were opened in Naryn for 100 children on the basis of public boarding school "Cholpon" of Kochkor region for 50 children.

Dynamics of development of asylums by regions:

Number of Institutions

Beds available

Beds available

Number of children

1997

Operative data for 1998

1997

1998

1997

Operative data for 1998

Asylums

Osh oblast

1

1

100

100

112

114

Jalal-Abad oblast

1

1

200

200

130

130

Chui oblast

2

2

350

350

234

239

Issyk-Kul oblast

1

1

100

100

110

125

Naryn oblast

-

2

-

150

-

150

Subtotal

5

7

750

900

586

758

Boarding schools for children-orphans

Osh oblast

1

1

200

200

153

165

Chui oblast

3

3

600

600

464

471

Subtotal

4

4

600

600

464

471

TOTAL

9

11

1550

1700

1203

1353

Alternative forms of patronage and custody – family asylums and custody families – are widely implemented now. But the number of such institutions is very small. A total of 10 family asylums with 62 children operate in the republic.

The whole network of family asylums is presented in this table:

Region

Total family asylums

Children in them

1997

1998

1997

1998

Osh oblast

-

-

-

-

Jalal-Abad oblast

1

1

9

9

Chui oblast

1

2

5

7

Issyk-Kul oblast

-

 

1

 

Naryn oblast

2

2

15

15

Talas oblast

1

1

3

3

Bishkek city

4

4

4

28

TOTAL

9

10

37

62

A permanent commission was created under the Ministry of Education Science and Culture of the Kyrgyz Republic to coordinate work on organizing alternative patronage. The commission selects candidates of parents – mentors, studies their living situation and social life, and provides psychological and pedagogical assistance to the adoptive parents in raising and educating children.



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