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6. CORE EFA INDICATORS

6.1 Dimension 1: Expansion of Early Childhood Care And Development

6.1.1 Early Childhood Care and Development

6.1.1.1 Core Indicator 1: Gross Enrolment Ratio in Early Childhood Development Progammes.

In the Basic Education Project of the 1992-96 Government of Lao PDR/UNICEF Master Plan of Operation, Early Childhood Development (ECD) pilot project started in 10 villages in Houaphanh province. To date the project has expanded to 55 villages in 2 province (Houaphanh 35 villages, Xiengkhuang 20 villages).

In the 1998-2002 Children’s Basic Education Project, Early Childhood Development is one of the main project with two sub-projects: Media and Child Development and Village Based Child Development.

The Village Based Development project target to expand to 450 villages in 20 districts of 6 provinces, namely Houaphanh 90 villages, Xiengkhouang 90 villages, Khammouane 67 villages, Savannakhet 68 villages, Champasak 68 villages and Attapeu 68 villages.

Redd Barna is also supporting this project in 30 villages of 2 provinces, namely Borikhamxay 15 villages and Saysomboune 15 villages.

The objectives of the project are:To assist the Ministry of Education to design and deliver cost-effective, village-based child development programmes; in the context of the village development, assist villages to design and implement more integrated and comprehensive child development programmes.To increase the capacity of parents and caregivers to help children in impoverished areas learn basic language and psychomotor skills and prepare for success in school; increase the health and nutritional status of children in the project villages through training of parents and caregivers. Through linkages with the village planning committees, set goals for food security and labour distribution to increase mothers’ time with children. Assist villagers to plan for the well-being of children under age 6 during change brought by projects, new government policies, or emergencies.

To date 52 ECD trainers have been trained (target of 176) and 165 volunteer caregivers (target of 1440) are working in 35 villages of Houaphanh province and 20 villages of Xiengkhouang province with about 4000 children age 0-5 years.

The Gross enrolment ratio in early childhood in the formal system for 1997-98 is 7.7 with Gender parity index of 1.1. This figure does not include the children in the ECD project. Therefore the GER for early childhood development will increase if they were included. The GER in 1997-98, differs by province, from high 14.9 in Vientiane Municipality to low 1.3 in Saravane. This indicated that Pre-schools develop mostly in urban districts, cities and in more well off communities.

Table 5: GER of children age 3-5 years in Preschools and Kindergartens in the formal system (1991-1998)

 

91-92

92-93

93-94

94-95

95-96

96-97

97-98

National

6.0

6.2

6.4

6.8

7.3

7.7

7.7

Vientiane Mun.

7.5

9.2

10.8

11.7

13.2

15.0

14.9

Phongsaly

3.7

3.9

3.2

3.7

2.8

3.5

3.1

Louang Namtha

3.4

5.6

4.1

3.5

3.0

5.1

6.0

Oudomxay

5.7

1.4

2.1

1.9

1.7

2.8

1.8

Bokeo

3.0

1.9

2.7

3.0

3.6

3.0

4.1

Louang Prabang

6.1

6.1

5.3

6.3

6.2

6.5

6.6

Houaphanh

6.2

6.3

6.3

5.7

7.4

6.5

6.3

Sayaboury

10.2

9.3

8.1

8.2

10.3

12.1

11.2

Xiengkhouang

5.2

5.1

5.6

4.6

3.8

3.9

3.9

Vientiane Prov.

7.2

7.3

8.0

8.1

9.2

9.6

9.5

Borikamsay

4.6

3.6

3.9

5.0

4.8

5.0

4.6

Khammouane

4.3

3.3

5.3

6.4

7.3

7.2

4.8

Savannakhet

9.5

10.5

10.1

12.2

12.3

12.8

13.0

Saravane

0.8

0.9

0.8

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.3

Sekong

2.1

2.6

2.4

3.5

3.0

3.2

2.5

Champasak

4.8

4.6

4.8

5.7

6.2

6.4

8.3

Attapeu

4.0

4.6

7.8

3.9

5.4

4.1

4.3

Saysomboune

16.4

2.3

0.7

2.0

2.4

Source: EFATAB 91-97, MOE 1999

The table shows progression in early childhood gross enrolment nationally from 6.0 in 1991-92 to 7.7 in 1997-98. Though most provinces have GER increased, but some provinces such as Oudomxay and Saysomboune decreased significantly from 5.7 in 1991-92 to 1.8 in 1997-98 and from 16.4 in 1993-94 to 2.4 in 1997-98 for the later province. There are inconsistency in early childhood development. The 1998-99 MOE reported that the preschools and Kindergarten total 727 ( government 632 increase 4 more places, private 95 closed down 10 places if compare with the 1997-98 statistics). Therefore the tendency of early childhood GER may decrease if there is no intervention in the next decade, as indicated in the table that some provinces started to decline since 1996-97 such as Khammuane, Borikhamsay, Oudomxay, Sekong. High GER existed only in well off provinces with high Lao ethnic populations such as Vientiane Municipality, Sayaboury, Savannakhet and Champasak. According to the 1997-98 Bulletin, of all the early childhood enrolment 90.1 % are children of Lao-Phuthai ethnic group and 9.9% are of other ethnic origins.

6.1.1.2 Core Indicator 2: Percentage of new entrants in primary grade 1 who have attended some form of organized early childhood development programme.

The calculation for this indicator, we assumed that the new entrants to Grade 1 with ECD experience were those who enrolled in Kindergarten (Year 3 preschool children) of the previous school year. Therefore, the percentage in total is low. As stated before that the exact number of children benefiting from the UNICEF ECD projects at the grassroots level were not available as yet, the figure indicated only those who were in the formal preschool system that have been reported to EMIS. In reality, in rural remote areas where there are no preschools, some under school age entrance children go to school with their brothers and sisters in Grade 1 and repeat Grade 1 again when they are of school age entrance. Therefore, there is the need to have some form of programmes for children willing to enroll early to prepare them for Grade 1. Kindergarten or Grade 1 Preparation classes could be organized in schools in ethnic minority areas.

Table 6a: Percentage of new entrants to Grade 1 who have attended ECD programme (1992-1998)

Percentage of new entrants with ECD experience Gender Parity
Year Total Public Private 2 Index GER
1997-98

8.6

7.6

43.5

1.2

1996-97

8.7

7.8

41.8

1.3

1995-96

8.4

7.8

25.6

1.3

1994-95

7.1

6.6

24.9

1.3

1993-94

7.8

7.4

20.4

1.4

1992-93

7.4

7.2

14.6

1.5

Source EFATAB92-97, MOE 1999

The GER of children with ECD experience shows progression as private schools increases. The table indicates that the private school system prepared more children for Grade 1 and that could be interpreted as private preschools and Kindergartens in big cities and well off provinces. Therefore in most rural remote areas most children enrolled Grade 1 without any ECD experience (except where there are ECD projects)

6.2 Dimension 2: Universal access to, and completion of primary education

6.2.1 Primary Education

6.2.1.1 Core Indicator 7: Public current expenditure in primary education (a) as a percentage of GDP and (b) per pupil, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Core Indicator 8: Public expenditure on primary education as a percentage of total public expenditure on education.

Phases I and II of the Public Investment Progamme (PIP) reflect the government emphasis on the importance of health and education, especially in rural areas. The actual government investment in the education sector increased from 1.561 billion Kips in 1991 to 4.83 billion Kips in 1996, and is planned to reach 13.73 billion Kips by the year 2000. According to the UNDP Lao Development Co-operation Report 1998, the external assistance in the education sector increased from $7.782 million US in 1992 to $41.458 million US in 1997. The Department of Planning and Cooperation of the Ministry of Education reported the status of Education investment to date totals $206.31 million US, of which loans make up $132.30 million US, grants contribute $53.38 million US, government budget is $19.06 million US, and community contributions total $2.90 million US. By percentage, the total investment is 64.1% loans, 25.9% grants, 9.2% government contribution, and 1.4% community contribution.

The Table 6b :indicates the Public current expenditure on primary education as percentage of total public current expenditure on education increases significantly (from 15 percent in 1990 to 44.8 percent in 1998). But in contrast, the public current expenditure on primary education as percentage of Gross Domestic Product is a clearly negative trend (increasing from 0.3 percent to 1.1 percent in 1995 and declined to 0.5 percent in 1998). Public current expenditure on primary education per pupil as percentage of GDP per capita has similar trends (increasing from 2 percent in 1990 to 6.9 percent in 1995 and declined to 3.2 percent in 1998).

TABLE 6b: Indicators 7 and 8 - Public expenditure on primary education as percentage of GDP and of total public expenditure on education (all levels); and
Public current expenditure on primary education per pupil as percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita
Country:

Lao PDR

Year:

1998

Col.1

Col.2

Col.3

Col.4

Col.5

Col.6

Col.7=Col.2÷Col.3

Col.8=Col3÷Col.5

Col.9=(Col.2÷Col.4)/(Col.5÷Col.6)

Public current

Total public current

Total enrolment

Gross Domestic

Total

Public current exp. on

Public current

Public current exp.

Year

expenditure on

expenditure

in primary

product (GDP)

Population

primary ed. as % of total

exp. on primary

on primary ed. per pupil

primary education

on education

education

public current exp. on ed.

ed. as % of GDP

as % of GDP per capita

1990

1,694

11,300

563,734

615,000

4,140,000

15.0

0.3

2.0

1991

4,596

12,665

576,472

722,000

4,261,400

36.3

0.6

4.7

1992

4,731

12,300

581,900

844,000

4,360,000

38.5

0.6

4.2

1993

5,964

14,026

637,359

951,000

4,474,000

42.5

0.6

4.4

1994

6,693

15,449

681,044

1,061,000

4,592,000

43.3

0.6

4.3

1995

12,690

26,220

710,702

1,200,000

4,714,213

48.4

1.1

7.0

1996

11,508

27,745

757,551

1,450,000

4,838,816

41.5

0.8

5.1

1997

17,089

35,505

786,334

2,086,700

4,963,941

48.1

0.8

5.2

1998

18,014

40,220

821,546

3,400,000

5,089,487

44.8

0.5

3.3

1999

58,847

827,664

8,700,000

5,215,585

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

2000 *

5,342,101

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

Note: Data should refer to actual expenditure in national currency. Please indicate by means of a footnote if otherwise. (Currency unit in Million Kips) * Forecast
Data sources : MOE 1999
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