The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum
   Latvia
Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region



Next Page



INTRODUCTION

The Latvian national report "Education for All" (EFA) contains information and statistical data pertaining to the development of the educational system in Latvia from 1991 to 1999. This report complies with all EFA requirements.

In reading and evaluating this report, it must be remembered that Latvia did not participate in the 1990 World Conference on Education for All as a free and independent country and thus did not sign the Declaration on Education for All.

Although "Education for All" is not run as a separate educational project in Latvia, the goals and objectives set forth by the World Conference on Education for All have been incorporated into various ongoing educational programs. The national report will give Latvia the opportunity to inform the other participating countries about the issues addressed by its "Education for All"-related projects; the report also provides a common framework of problem solving in the field of education.

The time period in question, 1991 – 1999, has been one of radical change in all aspects of Latvian life. Latvia’s independence was renewed in 1991 and one of the top priorities of the newly- independent nation was to get its system of education in order. Concurrently with political changes, extensive educational reforms have been ongoing. However, in evaluating the progress to this point it must be remembered that any reform is a process over time, which is significantly affected by the overall social and economic idiosyncrasies of the nation as well as changes in the social dynamics of a society in transition to a market economy and personal initiative.

Educational developments in Latvia since 1991 can be characterized by three main factors:

The educational reforms underway are very extensive and touch every level of education in Latvia;

The reforms since 1991 have been very rapid as compared to similar reforms in politically established democratic countries;

The reform process consists of both national policy and social initiative.

As a supplement to the "Education for All" report, the report "General Information about Latvia" has been included to provide a more complete picture of the changes in Latvia since 1991.

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT LATVIA

The Republic of Latvia

Area – 64,600 sq. km.

System of government – parliamentary republic

Capital – Riga

Population – 2,458,403 (1998)

Population density – 38 people per sq. km.

Ethnic composition (%) in 1998:

Latvian – 55.5

Russian – 32.4

Byelorussian – 3.9

Ukrainian – 2.9

Polish – 2.2

Lithuanian – 1.3

Hebrew – 0.4

Gypsy – 0.3

Others – 1.1

Official language – Latvian

National currency – Lats (Ls)

Lat exchange rate (1998 avg.) for US$ - Ls 0,589

Actual GDP in 1998 increase 3,6% against the preceding year.

Latvia was proclaimed as a free and independent country on November 18, 1918. The "Declaration of Latvia" ratified in 1920 proclaimed it to be an independent and sovereign republic with a democratic form of government, with the power being held by the people of Latvia.

From 1918 to 1940 Latvia existed as a sovereign country and a member of the League of Nations. It lost its independence in 1940 when it was annexe by the Soviet Union. During World War II, from 1941 to 1944 Latvia was occupied by the Germans, Soviet rule was re-established in 1945. Unlawful annexation and over 50 years of Soviet occupation resulted in the halting of Latvia’s constitutional development, which was renewed on May 4, 1990, when the ruling legislative body of Latvia ratified the declaration "Of the renewal of Latvia’s independence". Latvia regained its independence in 1991 following the fall of the Soviet Union.

The name of the country, the Republic of Latvia, was renewed in 1992.

Since 1991 radical changes have taken place in Latvian government, the economy and Latvian society.

The system of government changed from a Soviet Socialist to an independent, democratic, parliamentary republic.

The 1990s in Latvia were spent ridding the country of the consequences of a totalitarian system. Political stability has returned, the political parties that have been established function successfully (Latvia has a multi-party system), non-government organizations are flourishing, all of which attest to Latvia’s democratic development. The parliament, the Saeima, has been renewed along with the national constitution, the Satversme.

A significant decentralization of power has taken place, with increased responsibility being given local and regional jurisdictions.

Local power is distributed among 594 local jursidictions: 7 major cities, 26 regions, 69 cities, and 492 parishes. Each jursidiction has its own council, which is elected in general and special elections. Regional governments are responsible for planning, organizing and coordinating city and parish efforts in the area of social services.

Latvia has joined the nations supporting international human rights initiatives, including the General Human Rights Declaration, the International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Pact on Citizens’ and Political Rights and the United Nations Convention on Childrens’ Rights. In 1991 Latvia joined European Security and Cooperation Organization and the United Nations. Latvia is a member of the Baltic Sea Council and a founding nation of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. In 1994 Latvia became a Partner for Peace and in 1995 Latvia became a member of the European Council.

One of the main political goals of Latvia is membership in the European Community.

Transition from a totalitarian to a civil society started in the 1990s.

The national economy has undergone serious changes as it moves from a centralized planned economy to a free market economy characterized by competition and international cooperation on the one hand and by the development of a democratic and open society on the other hand. Inflation has decreased, the national currency, the lats, has been stabilized.

The time period since 1996 has been marked by significant and positive economic changes. The bank and finance system has been strengthened, structural reforms have increased, the business climate has improved, the gross national product is slowly growing, inflation and interest rates continue to decline. Latvia’s membership in the World Trade Association will favourably affect its acceptance into the European Community.

The development of a Baltic market in compliance with European Community standards continues.

1.1. Guarantees of the all-round development of pre-school age children

The protection of children’s rights, education of pre-school age children

The goal – to establish a viable system for the protection of children’s rights in Latvia.

Steps necessary to attain the goal:

Every local and regional jurisdiction will guarantee pre–school educational opportunities for all five- and six-year olds in the respective jurisdiction;

Pre-school education must be expanded to include play groups and consulting centres at kindergarten facilities;

Pre-school educational programs must be formulated;

Parental involvement must be increased at the pre-school level

A National Pre–school Education Centre must be established to formulate the content of pre-school curricula and to inform teachers and parents about new methodology.

1.2. Basic education for all by the year 2000

The goal – the guarantee of availability of basic education to all children ages 7 – 16 and the completion of the basic program of all by the age of 18.

Steps necessary to attain the goal:

A system of accounting for all school age children must be established;

Educational opportunities must be guaranteed to those children previously thought to be impossible to educate;

Programs of social and pedagogic correction and equivalency programs must be established for school age children who for some reason have been outside the system;

Social correction facilities must be established for school age children with socially deviant behavioral problems.

1.3. The development of curriculum content

The goals of basic educational curricula are set forth in the National Standard of Basic Education. They are:

-To promote the harmonious development of the child’s personality;

-To encourage the development of a healthy relationship between the child and himself, his family, his fellow students, his country, humanity and higher moral values;

-To lay the foundation for continuing education;

-To guarantee the level of knowledge and skills necessary to live as a successful individual in today’s society.

Neither adult illiteracy nor gender discrimination in education is an urgent problem in Latvia. More details available in the section "Equal educational opportunities". No special goals have been established pertaining to either situation.

1.5. The expansion of basic education to include all necessary skills and capabilities for children and adults.

1.6. The expansion of opportunities to attain all necessary skills and capabilities for an improved quality of life for individuals as well as families; taking advantage of all available educational opportunities to attain these goals.

Both of these "Education for All" goals can be viewed together within the system of education in Latvia.

Educational legislation provides for life-long continued education and the diversification of educational programs.

The goal – to guarantee each individual’s opportunities to continually supplement his education regardless of prior educational background, and to meet the changing demands of the current job market.

Steps necessary to attain the goal:

The formulation and co -ordination of an adult education strategy;

The development of family education opportunities;

The popularization of adult education and continuing education opportunities and guaranteeing the availability of these opportunities;

The mastery of information technology and the effective use of this technology in education.

2. EVENTS AND ACTIONS WHICH CORRESPONDS TO THE GOALS OF "EDUCATION FOR ALL" PROGRAMM 1990 – 1999

The time period of the "Education for all" report has been one of significant reform in the educational system of Latvia. Two education laws have been ratified during this time; the first Education Law was passed on June 19, 1991 and ratified on July 1 of the same year, the new Education Law was passed on October 29, 1998 and ratified on June 1, 1999.

The 1991 law was passed shortly after Latvia regained its independence during a time wrought with uncertainty regarding both national and educational development. Therefore, during the time that this law was in effect, modifications and amendments were being formulated to improve it.

2.1. The most significant legislation

The Latvian Educational Concept – 1989.

The Educational Concept set forth the goals of education in Latvia – to create the necessary conditions for the physical and emotional development of free and creative individuals.

The Latvian Language Law – 1989.

The Language Law states that Latvian is the national language and guarantees ethnic minorities the right to an education in their native language.

The establishment of minority educational facilities was underway.

The Education Law – 1991.

The Education Law significantly changed the educational system in Latvia:

The national educational monopoly was abolished, opening the door for the development of a system of private schools;

The law provided for increased educational responsibility on the part of local and regional jurisdictions;

The law set forth the educational responsibilities and increased autonomy of individual facilities in the educational process;

New subjects were added to programs of study;

A system of alternative education was established;

A new system of the production and distribution of text books and other educational materials was established; the use of various and alternative materials was encouraged; a transition from a centralized to a free market in textbook publication and distribution took place. The law stated that the Ministry of Science and Education defined the mandatory subjects to be taught, but each school developed its own program of study.

The Latvian Education Concept – 1995.

The Education Concept defined the following:

Fundamental educational approaches;

Educational goals;

The steps necessary to attain these goals;

Educational curricula content

National Program of Science and Education – 1995.

The document evaluated the educational reforms and changes that had been implemented and defined the direction of further educational development.

The National Program of Science and Education consists of various sub-programs pertaining to issues set forth in the main document:

The optimizing of the national network of educational facilities;

The development of a viable system of continuing education and professional mastery for educators;

Modifications in the Basic education program;

Readying children for school;

The education of national and ethnic minorities;

The use of new methods and technology in education.

National Program for Latvian Language Training started in 1997.

The goal of the program is to instruct all non-Latvian speaking residents of Latvia in the national language – Latvian.

The strategic educational program "Education 1998 – 2003" – 1998.

This strategic program provided the first significant evaluation of the reforms that had been implemented since 1991 and defined future goals in all areas and levels of education in Latvia. The most noteworthy are the following:

The de-politicization of education;

The guarantee of choice in education;

The abolishing of the national educational monopoly;

The decentralizing of the board of education;

The development of new curricula and educational materials for a democratic society in a market economy;

Instruction of certain subjects in Latvian at minority facilities;

The development of a system of certification for school directors;

The development and implementation of a centralized system of national examinations; development of an objective and international system of rating the quality of education in Latvia.

The Education Law – 1998.

The law was ratified on June 1, 1999; it provides for the following:

Transition to a program-of-study approach in general education;

Mandatory school attendance until the completion of the basic program or until the student turns 18;

Establishment of equivalency programs and classes for students over 18 who have not completed the basic program of study;

Financial reforms in education based on enrolment.

The General Education Law – 1999.

The Vocational Education Law – 1999.

2.2. Significant "Education for All" activities

A new system of curricula organization was implemented in 1992.

The Educational Curricula and Examination Centre was established in 1994.

The free market approach in the publication and distribution of textbooks was implemented in 1995.

The decentralization of facilities of general education was completed in 1995.

School accreditation started in 1995.

The National Centre for the Protection of Children’s Rights was established in 1995.

The Pedagogic Educational Support Centre was established in 1995.

The "Educational system development project" was developed in 1996 – 1999

A unified system of quality control in education was implemented in 1997.

The Information Technology in Education Project was implemented in 1997.

Financing education based on "cost per student" was initiated in 1997; local and regional governments are responsible for the upkeep of schools.

The accreditation of directors of facilities of general education was started in 1998.

The National Standard of Basic Education was developed and approved in 1998.

A unified set of requirements was developed and approved in order to guarantee a qualitative Basic educational program.

The Special Education Concept was developed in 1998.

The main goal of this program is the gradual integration of special needs children into general education schools.

Latvia was awarded a World Bank educational loan in 1999.

3. "EDUCATION FOR ALL" DECISION MAKING AND MANGEMENT

Latvia does not have a special board or group overseeing rules pertaining to the resolutions adopted to attain the goals of the "Education for All" program. Thus, this section will review the work of the National Board of Education as it pertains to the "Education for All" program.

The national level

The Saeima

The Saeima has final approval of all acts of legislation and the national budget, including the budget of the Ministry of Science and Education.

Competence in education of the Cabinet of Ministers

The Cabinet of Ministers shall

establish forms of graduation certificates recognised by the state and the procedure and criteria for issuing them;

establish a procedure according to which the state or a municipality may finance private institutions of pre-school, primary , secondary and higher education;

establish the procedure of registering children who have reached the age of mandatory education;

establish, re-organise and close state educational institutions at the proposal of the Minister of Education and Science or other Minister;

establish the procedure for registering and accreditation of educational institutions;

establish procedure for licensing and accrediting of educational programmes implemented by an educational institution;

set requirements for necessary education and professional qualification of teachers corresponding with pedagogical professions;

establish a procedure according to which the state finances supply, approbation and purchase of teaching materials;

once in four years prepare and submit to the Saeima for approval education development programme for next four years;

establish state standards in education;

establish a minimum of financing and material provision for education institution;

establish pedagogue’s work load.

Competence in education of the Ministry of Education and Science

The Ministry of Education and Science shall:

implement the unified State policy in education and the strategy for development of education;

draft normative acts in education;

create and update registers of educational institutions and educational programmes as well as the register of pedagogues;

carry out licensing of educational institutions;

carry out accreditation of education programmes and higher education institutions according to procedure set by the Cabinet of Ministers;

organise educational and professional improvement of pedagogical work, co-ordinate research-methodological work;

prepare state standards of education;

draft proposals and submit a request for the financing of education, science, sports and the youth affairs by the state budget in accordance with the set procedure;

control the use of finances allotted for education from the state budget in education institutions under its supervision;

prepare samples of educational programmes, subject or course programmes in accordance with the requirements of the state standards for education;

organise the preparation of standard statutes for educational institutions, institutions of educational support;

establish and co-ordinate the procedure for acquiring of pedagogical education and professional improvement;

organise the state’s evaluation of professional qualification of teachers and directors of educational institutions;

establish the procedure for state examinations of the accredited educational programmes;

organise work on the content of text books corresponding with the educational standards;

control the results of the study process of state financed educational institutions, prepare and implement the undertakings for improvement of the study process quality;

establish, maintain, and supervise state institutions of educational support;

implement state policy in education;

approve of the samples of educational programmes corresponding with the requirements of the state standards in education;

approve of the classification of registers of educational institutions, educational programmes and the register of pedagogues;

submit to the Cabinet of Ministers the proposals concerning the establishment, re-organisation and liquidation of education institutions and state institutions of educational support by co-ordinating it with the corresponding municipalities;

confirm the statutes of education institutions and institutions of education support founded by the state;

employ and dismiss directors of education institutions which are under supervision of the Ministry of Education and Science (except for higher education institutions), as well as co-ordinate employment and dismissal of directors of municipal administrative institutions of education.

The Competence in education of other ministries (ministries of other branches)

Other ministries [ministries of other branches] shall:

after co-ordination with the Ministry of Education and Science, submit to the Cabinet of Ministers proposals concerning the establishment, re-organisation and liquidation of educational institution;

approve of the content of specialised subjects, prepare the programmes and standards of a specialised subjects or courses;

prepare and approve of the standard of the programmes for the vocational education, and control their implementation in the educational institutions under their supervision;

ensure the work of the educational institutions under their supervision.

The Competence in education of municipalities

Every municipality has the obligation to provide children residing on its administrative territory with a possibility to acquire pre-school, primary education at educational institution which is closest to the place of residence, and to provide youth with the possibility to acquire secondary education as well as to provide possibilities to implement education in sphere of interests, and to support extra-curricular activities, including camps for children.

In order to provide children residing on its administrative territory with a possibility to attend an education institution upon one's free choice, the municipality, according to the procedure set by the Cabinet of Ministers, shall sign a contract with those municipalities which supervise education institutions attended by the aforementioned children and participate in covering expenses related with maintenance of education institutions.

Municipality of a region shall:

in agreement with the Ministry of Education and Science establish, re-organise and close boarding schools, the specialised schools and groups for children with special needs, institutions of vocational education, institutions for education in the sphere of interests, except the private educational institutions and institutions of national importance. Educational institutions founded by the regional municipality shall be under the supervision of that particular municipality.

employ and dismiss the heads of educational institutions which are under its supervision, after co-ordination with the Ministry of Education and Science;

finance the educational institutions which are under its supervision to the extent no less than set by the Cabinet of Ministers, and supervise management of the financial resources;

guarantee the transferring of financial means allotted for the pedagogues' salaries from the State budget into the accounts of the educational institutions and the institutions of educational support under its supervision;

provide catering in the specialised educational institutions and the boarding-schools according to the procedure and in amount set by the Cabinet of Ministers;

provide students with prophylactic medical care, first medical aid at the educational institutions under its supervision according to the procedure and in the amount set by the Cabinet of Ministers;

provide students with the professional guidance;

organise education for adults;

organisationally assist the educational institutions located on its administrative territory with the provision of teaching and methodological literature, and other teaching materials;

organise the improvement of professional qualifications of pedagogues and co-ordinate and provide the methodological work;

co-ordinate registration of children who have reached the age of mandatory education, according to the procedure set by the Cabinet of Ministers;

establish and maintain a data base on education

state the number of students of higher education whose tuition is paid by the municipality budget.

Local municipality shall:

in agreement with the Ministry of Education and Science establish, re-organise and close pre-schools, basic schools and secondary schools. Educational institutions founded by the district municipality and city councils shall be under the supervision of that particular municipality;

provide children who have reached the age of mandatory education and who reside on its administrative territory with an opportunity to attend the pre-schools, primary schools, and secondary schools;

employ and dismiss the heads of the educational institutions under its supervision, after the co-ordination with the Ministry of Education and Science;

establish the procedure for the financing of educational institutions under its supervision from the municipality budget; in accordance with contracts, participate in the financing of the state educational institutions, educational institutions of other municipalities and the private educational institutions; divide and allocate the financial means from the municipality budget for the educational institutions and supervise their rational management;

maintain pre-schools, basic and secondary schools and other educational institutions under its supervision, considering that their financial provision should be no less than amount set by the Cabinet of Ministers;

guarantee the transfer of funds allotted from the State budget for the pedagogues salaries and the State subsidies into the accounts of the educational institutions under its supervision;

provide financing for the technical staff of the educational institutions under its supervision;

provide the transportation to and from schools, if it is impossible to use public transportation;

provide the children rights protection in the education sphere.

provide families with the consultative assistance in child care;

promote the education in the sphere of interests and the professional guidance and issue licences for the implementation of the educational programmes in the sphere of interests;

register the children who have reached the age of mandatory education in accordance with the procedure set by the Cabinet of Ministers.

Municipal Board of Education

Municipal board of Education is established by a regional and city municipality to carry out its competence in education.

The head of education board should have experience in education or in administration of education.

The municipal board of education shall be financed by the particular municipality.

The education board shall operate in accordance with the Statutes approved by the particular municipality.

Educational Support Institution

Educational support institution is an institution founded by the state, a municipality and other legal entity and natural person whose goal is to provide persons to be educated, pedagogues, parents and educational institutions with methodological, scientific, informative and other type of intellectual assistance.

Educational support may be carried out also by such legal entities which in their statutes have included educational support as one of activities.

State Inspectorate of Education shall:

control correspondence of educational process with normative acts at all educational institutions and enterprises (companies) which implements education programmes regardless of its subordination, and provide implementation of state and public interests there;

analyse activities of education institutions and prepare proposals for amendments to normative acts and improvement work of educational institutions.;

propose employers to disciplinary punish or terminate employment contracts with director of education institution or a pedagogue in cases when a violation of law or other normative acts has occurred.

Participation of the public in education

The public participates in organization and development of education by popularizing all types of education, by educating and promoting improvement of education quality, by forming educational programmes, protecting rights and interests of persons to be educated and pedagogues in education acquiring process and work process, by establishing educational and education supporting institutions and public organizations.

State and municipalities may delegate particular education administration and support functions to public organizations according to procedure set by law by providing them with appropriate financing.

School autonomy

School autonomy is defined by the Education Law, which states that each school has the right to establish its own educational program of study, to hire all personnel, and to take care of all financial and operational matters in compliance with this law and other related legislation and its own constitution.

Programs of study are established by each school in cooperation with its founder.

The school director is responsible for:

The academic and operational functioning of the school;

Implementation of all pertinent educational legislation;

The rational use of all financial, and material resources at his disposal.

Instructor autonomy

Instructors are responsible for the organization of the educational process in their classroom; it is their responsibility to be actively involved in all school related decision making.

4. CO-OPERATION IN EFA

The principal institution implementing management of basic education is the Ministry of Education and Science.

The Educational Strategies Department of the Ministry of Science and Education is responsible for the development of educational strategies on a national level.

The Department of General Education of the Ministry of Science and Education guarantees the creation of a national educational policy.

The Educational Personnel Division of the Department of General Education of the Ministry of Science and Education shapes the national policy and strategy of teacher training and continuing education.

The Teacher Training Support Centre is responsible for implementing and supporting government policy for promoting of teacher training and the development of teaching skills.

Division of Adult Education was established at the Ministry of Education and Science until mid – 1999 it coordinated the adult education programs in Latvia.

The Educational Curriculum and Examination Centre of the Ministry of Science and Education develops curriculum standards, which are mandatory for all schools, and suggests specific programs of study.

The National Centre for the Protection of Children’s Rights oversees the enactment of the national law and other pertinent legislation in the area of children’s rights; in accordance with its authority it oversees and coordinates national children’s rights efforts.

The educational committee of the Association of Latvian Local and Regional Governments develops regional educational policy.

Since Latvia regained its independence, there has been renewed activity on the part of non-government community organizations in the field of education. The Centre for Non-government Community Organizations compiles information about the involvement of these organizations in education and it oversees the training of organization leadership.

The Press Corps of the Ministry of Science and Education and the Educational Information Centre are responsible for informing and educating the public about educational issues and innovations.

Implementation of basic education is mainly the task of primary education schools. These are local government’ schools, private schools, Christian schools (controlled by local governments) and schools supported by parishes or religious confessions. Mandatory education standards are required in all of these schools. All the schools should have licence to operate and to go through accreditation.

There are also such social organisations responsible for implementation of basic education as Association of adult Education, Association of Economic Adult Education, Adult Education Centre.

5. INVESTMENT IN EDUCATION WHICH CORRESPONDS TO THE GOALS OF "EDUCATION FOR ALL" PROGRAM 1991 – 1999

Latvia does not have a special "Education for All" policy and thus, does not have special investments for this purpose. The report compiles and analyses the system of investments and financing in general education at the following levels: pre-school, basic school the first stage (grades 1 – 4), basic school the second stage (grades 5 – 9), and secondary school. General education includes minority education, special education as well as social and pedagogic correction.

The economic classification of the national budget does not provide a breakdown of educational funding by educational level. At the time of writing the national report, statistics were not available regarding the extent of investment in mandatory educational programs.

It must be remembered that at the start of economic and social transition in 1991 there was no accurate statistics system in place.

During the time period covered by the "Education for All" report, 1990 – 1999, significant changes have taken place in the financing of education in Latvia:

Education is funded by monies from a number of different sources;

All schools, except those run by the federal government, are the responsibility of local and regional jurisdictions;

A transition is underway to a system of financing based on cost per student;

The money for teachers’ salaries comes from a fund earmarked for this purpose in the national budget transferred to local budgets.

The most significant sources of educational financing

The main sources of educational funding are:

The national budget;

Local and regional budgets;

Individuals and corporations;

Foreign assistance (for specific programs).

The national budget provides 61% of necessary funding, local governments contribute 37%, all other sources provide proportionally little financial support.

Contributions by private individuals

Although national and regional budgets continue to be the main sources of educational financing in Latvia, the contributions by private individuals have increased since the early 1990s.

This increase is directly related to the establishing of private schools; tuition expenses are paid by private individuals. However, private schools encounter financial difficulty much of the time. To guarantee a quality education paid for exclusively by private funds results in an extremely high cost per student. For this reason private facilities are in part funded by the national and local budgets, usually in the form of teachers’ salaries.

The most significant private fund assisting with education in Latvia is The Soros Fund – Latvia; this fund has been very instrumental in the development of education in Latvia. The Soros Fund started working in Latvia in 1992, educational investment has always been its priority. In 1991/1993, for example, 80.6% of Soros Fund resources funded educational reforms.

The Soros Fund – Latvia has always set educational development as its priority, understanding and supporting the need for meaningful contemporary educational models and diversity of programs of study. New methods and curricula in higher education and teacher education programs, the use of information technology in education, the production of educational materials, student exchange programs and teacher education have been the main areas of support. Teacher education programs funded by The Soros Fund – Latvia all concentrate on modern methodology and its use in the classroom. There are two main education programs in Latvia funded by The Soros Fund "Open School" ("Atverta skola") and " Changes in Education" ("Parmainas izglitiba").

In 1997, Soros Fund – Latvia education programs totalled 37% ($1,082,271) of overall funding and their contribution to regional programs was 39% ($437,225).

Investments in "Education for All" programs

In 1994 the National Investment Program was established by government decree. The goal of the program was to assure the effective use of rather limited financing for optimal infrastructure development. The National Investment Program is concerned with financing priority projects, which are funded by the national budget, foreign loans, regional budgets and various other sources such as grants and subsidies, direct investments and corporate contributions.

These investments are usually used to finance structural repairs and renovations. The amount of support from the National Investment Program for building construction and renovation has grown since 1995.

In 1997, the proportion of educational funding increased slightly, but it decreased in 1998 and a slight decrease is predicted for 1999 as well.

The Regional Creditation Fund, overseen by the Ministry of the Environment and Regional Development, also contributes to the renovation and construction of school buildings. The number of projects submitted for support has grown considerably during 1998 and 1999, most requests being for athletic facilities.

The most significant investments in education and directly related to "Education for All" programs, are the World Bank Education Loan and the Latvia Information in Education project. More details in the section "Funding of "Education for All" programs".


Contents Next Page