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   Lybian Jamahiriya
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PART II : EDUCATION FOR ALL FUNDAMENTAL INDICATORS

  1. Early childhood care :

Care for early childhood in Lybia consists of a series of organized activities, aiming at meeting children’s needs and their knowledge from birth to age 6. The government carries out children’s care programs through educational and medical institutions, social welfare and children’s nutrition.... and other approaches aimed at poor families, children in need and handicaped who have specific needs.

Programs aimed at children vary depending on the countries and their economic, political and social systems. In Lybia, the private sector collaborates with public authorities to implement some programs aimed at children, through a system called : Free Education System. Other private service and production institutions also take part in this activity.

We will present hereafter an overview of these different institutions :

  1. Public preschool classes

They are part of the education scale. Preschool classes care for children on the physical, mental and social levels before they start fundametal education. They make sure they adapt to their environment, using all educational means, and with the help and cooperation of the child’s family.

The goals of preschool classes are as follows :

  1. Provide an adequate environment for developing the child’s personality, and for his emancipation, and prepare the necessary conditions to encourage creativity, independence, and the aptitude to depend on one’s self in order to meet one’s social needs while having correct relations with individuals and groups.
  2. Orientation of the child’s instinctive behaviour to turn it into something regular.
  3. Give the child good habits and try to develop them with positive encouragement.
  4. Encourage the child’s curiosity and his craving for learning, and help him discover natural and social phenomena suitable for his intellectual level.
  5. Stir up the child’s intelligence and develop his learning capabilities.
  6. Develop the child’s language, facilitate communication with others, reinforce good expression, and sharpen his sense of beauty.
  7. Try to develop the child on the linguistic, social and behavioural levels in order to prepare him to fundamental education.
  8. Try to develop the child’s spiritual and religious side.

To reach these objectives, preschool classes undertake many activities to develop the child’s personality at all levels : intellectual, social, emotional and physical. By giving special attention to spiritual, religious and ethical aspects, and to sensitivity to beauty, artistic taste, enthusiasm for life, and interaction with the environment.

Preschool classes extend 2 years. The child who has reached age 4 at the end of the academic year may join the first preschool class. The child automatically passes to the preparatory class the following year.

The following table shows the number of preschool classes that has been communicated to the committee :

TABLE (5)

Number of formal preschool classes

Their sections and registered children in some regions

region

Number of institutions

Number of sections

Number ofteachers

independant

Autonomous*

1

Sabha

1

0

12

24

2

Sart

1

0

4

24

3

Al Kobbeh

1

0

3

-

4

Nalout

1

10

11

90

5

Al Wahat

1

4

5

78

6

Mesrata

5

0

27

61

7

Marzouk

12

3

58

92

8

Wadi El Hayat

4

0

24

30

9

Darna

3

0

22

94

10

Benghazi

8

0

53

257

11

Al Markab

3

0

30

67

12

Tripoli

9

0

38

209

13

Al Jafra

7

0

34

111

14

Al Chatek

6

0

46

62

15

Sahl El Jaffara

2

0

6

26

16

Al Noukat Al Khams

0

2

8

41

TOTAL

68

19

381

1266

*"Autonomous institutions" means preschool classes in elementary schools.

Officially admitted Children in age group 4 to 5, Indicator (1) :

This indicator represents the percentage of children age 4 to 5 who were admitted in the programs for children development and care in Lybia.

Table (6) includes percentages of children admitted during the past 9 years : from 90/91 to 98/99

It should be noted that these numbers represent official programs that are part of the official educational system and the numbers for free public education.

Figure (3) also represents this ratio during the past 9 years.

TABLE (6)

Ratio of registrations in the development programs In early childhood

1

2

3

4 = 2/3

year

Total number of registrations

Number of inhabitants in the age group

(4 5ans)

Registration ratio/number of inhabitants

90-91

7,909

315,470

2.5 %

91-92

7,906

327,770

2.4 %

92-93

9,579

340,550

2.8 %

93-94

12,739

353,785

3.6 %

94-95

13,699

367,555

3.7 %

95-96

13,958

365,114

    1. %

96-97

14,004

360,342

3.9 %

97-98

13,249

285,554

4.6 %

98-99

14,210

201,339

7.1 %

99-00

18,153

187,212

9.7 %

This table has been calculated according to the following equation :

Which means

General percentage of registrations total registrations

____________________________ = ____________________ x 100

number of inhabitants in age group number of inhabitants

4 to 5 age 4 to 5

The summary of the Arab Ministers of Education Congress’ main document (1998 F) underlined the importance of the development of early childhood and preschool programs.

 "Child development is a multi-dimensional operation, it is general and continuous, it is carried out through communication and interaction with natural phenomena and society. The child’s capacity for learning depends largely on his age at the time of registration in preschool education, the number of years he spent at that level, and the education’s quality and experience. In spite of that, preschool education has not been the main concern for arab governments and seldom does it occupy an important place in education.

Preschool classes do not need to be miniature elementary school, equipped with classes and fixed programs. They must represent a complete environment and a transitory institution which offers the child an opportunity to play, learn, and develop both body and senses, to adapt to society and to express his intellectual, affective, and social aptitudes.... One should mention the important role of modern media, especially television, in the development of children’s mind and mentality. It also constitutes an obvious danger due to the regression of the broadcast material level and the absence or the limited presence of preschool education." (3)

The presence of woman in most production sectors has led to the creation of a special kind of childcare centers in schools, factories, compagnies and institutions and in all sectors where woman is present. An adequate area is reserved for the childcare center where qualified teachers care for children whose age varies from birth to schooling age. These efforts are part of official actions to sustain early childhood.

1

2

3

4

Year

Total number of specialists in earlychildhood programs

Total number of new recruts in the first grade

Ratio = specialists/new comers

90-91

3,732

142,900

2.6%

91-92

3,954

148,720

2.7%

92-93

3,953

194,750

2.0%

93-94

4,789

161,020

3.0%

94-95

6,369

167,530

3.8%

95-96

6,849

174,255

3.9%

96-97

6,979

181,300

3.8%

97-98

7,002

171,810

4.1%

98-99

6,624

176,538

3.8

development for at least one year (or for one registration period

Academic

Year

Number of schools

Number of classrooms

Number of pupils

Number of teachers

total

girls

boys

90-89

4618

46108

1254148

593921

660227

87833

91-90

3247

43225

1197229

558477

616752

85537

92-91

3271

45790

1138986

593594

645392

99623

93-92

3251

46789

1254233

607984

649249

103791

94-93

3422

55990

1357040

666920

690120

105682

95-94

3422

58186

1306587

632783

673804

107284

96-95

3159

59078

1333679

647177

686502

122020

97-96

3164

47919

1256502

625051

631451

128192

98-97

3151

49972

1214975

589485

625490

134393

99-98

3210

34778

1160315

576008

584307

136235

The most important changes that lead to this situation may be the economic circumstances that result from the economic embargo imposed on the great Jamahirya during the nineties, as well as the decrease of the oil rate. All this lead to the decrease of education expenditures and only (304) classrooms were built whereas the contract pertaining to basic education included 4885 classrooms.

c- Basic Training:

This stage was introduced by virtue of the public popular committee decision no. (206) for 1998. It lasts one year and includes the pupils having reached their 15 years and finished the second part of basic education. The basic training aims at fighting technical illiteracy, containing basic education dropouts and carry out their technical and handicraft training. The number of such centers reached in 98/1999 (80) centers that comprised (2249) trainees. Moreover, there are (288) trainees in fishing training centers distributed on (16) training centers. However, these centers are in this respect similar to basic education schools in terms of insufficiency of the number of buildings and their maintenance, as well as the insufficiency of the number of classrooms, workshops and equipment necessary for the training operation (6).

d- The apparent (total) and the net intake rates in primary education. Indicators (3,4).

Col 1

Col 2

Col 3

Col 4

Col5= col4/col2

Col6=col3/col2

Year

Population in school intake age

New intakes (official intake age)

New intakes from all ages

Apparent intake rate

Net intake rate

91-90

144,900

139,690

142,900

98.6%

96.4%

92-91

150,942

145,022

148,720

98.5%

96.1%

93-92

156,743

150,763

154,750

98.7%

96.2%

94-93

162,908

156,752

161,020

98.8%

96.2%

95-94

168,760

162,568

167,630

99.3%

96.3%

96-95

175,489

169,268

174,255

99.3%

96.5%

97-96

182,429

176,288

181,300

99.4%

96.6%

98-97

172,809

166,698

171,810

99.4%

96.5%

99-98

177,774

171,326

176,538

99.3%

96.4%

official age for primary school enrollment

Pat

number of children having reached the official age for primary school enrollment

official age for the enrollment in grade 1 of primary schooling

Col 1

Col 2

 

Col 3

Col 4

Col 5 =

Col 4 / col 2

Col 6 =

col 3/ col 2

Year

Population having reached the official age for primary education

Enrolment of the persons having reached the official age for primary education

Total of the enrolled persons

(all ages)

Gross enrol-ment rate GER

Net enrol-ment rate NER

91-90

144,900

139,690

142,900

98.6%

96.4%

92-91

150,942

145,022

148,720

98.5%

96.1%

93-92

156,743

150,763

154,750

98.7%

96.2%

94-93

162,908

156,752

161,020

98.8%

96.2%

95-94

168,760

162,568

167,630

99.3%

96.3%

96-95

175,489

169,268

174,255

99.3%

96.5%

97-96

182,429

176,288

181,300

99.4%

96.6%

98-97

172,809

166,698

171,810

99.4%

96.5%

99-98

177,774

171,326

176,538

99.3%

96.4%

GERtp = Etp x100 (1)

Ptp,a

This means:

Total enrolment for all ages

Gross enrolment rate = x100

in primary education Total of citizens having reached the official age for primary education enrolment

NERtp = Etp,a x100 (2)

Ptp,a

This means:

Enrolment of those who reached the Net enrolment rate = official age for primary education x100

in primary education Total of citizens having reached the official age for primary school enrolment

  • he net enrolment rate is more reliable than the apparent acceptance rate for intake opportunities in primary education for those who reached the intake age.
  • It was previously mentioned that the net and the apparent enrolment rates are considered as being high. This fact is ascertained in table (10) which shows that the lowest percentage reached in the past nine academic years 96.1% in the academic year 91/92 and the highest percentage reached 96.6% in the academic year 96/97. Figure (6) shows the net and the apparent intake rates in grade 1 of primary schooling.
  • f- Women training centers:
  • The efforts exerted by the Libyan Jamahirya to spread basic education and eradicate alphabetical and cultural illiteracy include several programs and activities like women training centers which aim at fighting women’s alphabetical and vocational illiteracy and do not impose academic qualifications nor a specific age as conditions for enrolment. These centers also aim at increasing the occupational and vocational level of urban and rural households and make them evolve from consumption into production. Women’s training on handicrafts and traditional industries aim at consolidating the cultural identity of these industries. The fields of specialization in these centers include modern crafts and professions that suit the woman’s nature like domestic appliances maintenance, flowers industry, ornament plants and couture… The following table shows the number of these centers, as well as the number of female trainers and trainees.
  • Table (11)
  • Shows the number of female trainers and trainees in women’s training centers
  • Number

    Statement

    302

    Centers

    1

    3332

    Female trainers

    2

    10500

    Female trainees

    3


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