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   Lybian Jamahiriya
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g- Academic Koranic schools:

They are traditionally called Koranic schools affiliated to mosques. They admit pupils without imposing any age or educational level and ensure teaching outside official school hours in order for the pupil to join them without affecting his school learning. The pupils can thus study Koran and religious subjects considered as educational studies that help to spread basic education and eradicate illiteracy.

h- Koran education:

This type of education is considered as a part of education and aims at inculcating the Holy Koran as a basis of all other fields of specialization related to Holy Koran studies. The pupil who wants to enroll in this kind of education must have spent three years in the basic education stage. The choice of such pupils is also made according to their tendencies and competencies of memorizing the Holy Koran. These studies spread over six years in which the pupil acquires necessary courses with basic education pupils in order for him to enroll in intermediate and secondary education stages in addition to the Holy Koran memorization and the related studies principles. Koran education is considered one of the efforts exerted to spread and diversify education and eradicate illiteracy in a way that conforms to the youths multiple talents (7).

Third: Spending on basic education. Indicators (7,8).

Spending on basic education indicate the scope of the state interest in this level of education. They are considered as a percentage of the overall gross national product. As for the spending pertaining to one pupil in basic education, they are considered as a percentage of the individual’s gross national products in a specific year.

This indicator is calculated according to the following equation:

% PC X Etgnp = PC x Etp x 100

GNP

This means that public spendings on basic education in a specific year are divided by the gross national product of the same year and the result is multiplied by 100.

The increase of the percentage of the spendings on basic education from the gross national product and the percentage of the spendings on one pupil in one academic year indicate an increase in the rates of spendings on basic education.

However, the high spendings rate may not indicate a high rate of enrolment in basic education especially if we compare the spendings to international rates. Therefore, the comparison is made on a local level to estimate the spendings rate in order to show the scope of interest in basic education in a specific country.

Public spending on education represent a high percentage in the Jamahirya if we make a comparison with the state public expenditures as the percentage approximately reached 10%* in the academic year 1998. Anyway the committee could not obtain the information related to the spendings on basic and public education except for some data shown in table (12).

Therefore, the committee couldn’t calculate the percentage of spendings on primary education without making a comparison with the public budget nor the gross national product in the great Jamahirya which lead to disregard indicators (7,8). Table (12) shows the spending on education in general, as well as the national product for some years, the number of pupils in basic education and the overall population of the Jamahirya.

* Percentage compared to the gross local national product, according to the speech of the secretary of the public popular committee for education and vocational training delivered in the seminar on high education, 27-28/11/1999.

Table (12) shows the public spending on education, the number of pupils in basic education, the national product and the overall population until 1993.

Year

Spendings on basic education

Spending on education in million dinars

Number of pupils in basic education

National product in million dinars

Overall population

1990

530.6

1,197,229

9284.5

3,739,273

1991

-

783.0

1,138,986

10612.5

3,917,083

1992

-

677.2

1,254,242

10789.0

4,099,621

1993

-

644.6

1,357,040

11353.5

4,202,537

Fourth: Qualified teachers and the authorized * teachers.

Indicators (9,10):

The qualified teacher is the one who was scientifically trained in his field of specialization and was educationally prepared to engage in the teaching profession. Educational qualifying means that the teacher studies during his pre-training period psychological and educational subjects alike teaching methods, educational means, curricula, psychology, development and other behavioral studies which familiarize him with the human communication operation and the personality characteristics. Educational faculties, teachers’ institutions and trainers’ high institutions undertake the training of teachers and qualified trainers in the Jamahirya. As for those who are authorized to teach, they are the graduates of high institutions and languages and applied faculties which curricula do not include the vocational subjects necessary to engage in the teaching profession.

* The teachers with whom a contract was signed locally to teach in basic education and do not have educational or vocational qualifications but a level of teaching experience which enables them to teach in grade 1 of primary education, in addition to the graduates of non educational scientific institutions.

Since the number of computer, mathematics and physics teachers is insufficient, some engineers who graduated from engineering, sciences and electronics institutions were allowed to teach for temporary periods of time on a cooperation level instead of official employment level. These persons often teach in training institutions.

  1. Indicators (9,10)

Table (13) and figure (7) clearly show that the number of authorized teachers represents a small percentage which ranges from 5,1% in academic year 90/91 to 2,6% in academic year 98/99 which indicates a regular decrease in the last nine years. Since indicator (9) shows the high quality level of the human capital invested in education, we can consider the rates and the numbers shown in table (13) as a positive indicator in the advantage of the educational system in the Jamahirya. As for indicator (10), it shows the authorized teachers according to national standards which state that they must acquire the minimum level of training before and during their engagement in the teaching profession. In fact, these teachers (as far as the technical committee knows) do not teach now in any basic education school and their contract was not renewed since the beginning of the eighties.

As for the sessions held to increase the level of competence and the qualified teachers’ animation and qualification sessions, they are invested in computer fields as well as in up-to-date teaching techniques.

Table (13) shows the percentage of primary schools teachers having acquired the required educational qualifications and percentage of authorized primary schools teachers according to the national standards.

Col 1

 

Col 2

Col 3

Col 4

Col 5 =

Col 2 / col 4

Col 6 =

Col 3 / col 4

Year

Education qualified persons

Authorized teachers

Total

Percentage of primary schools teachers having acquired educational qualifications

Percentage of primary schools teachers authorized to teach

91-90

81,217

4,320

85,537

94.9%

5.1%

92-91

95,408

4,215

99,623

95.8%

4.2%

93-92

99,674

4,117

103,791

96.0%

4.0%

94-93

101,132

4,006

105,138

96.2%

3.8%

95-94

103,189

4,095

107,284

96.2%

3.8%

96-95

122,002

4,018

126,020

96.8%

3.2%

97-96

124,575

3,987

128,562

96.9%

3.1%

98-97

130,445

3,948

134,393

97.1%

2.9%

99-98

142,546

3,840

146,386

97.4%

2.6%

Indicator (9) was calculated according to the following equation:

% Tt p,q = Tt p,q x 100

Tt p

This means:

Number of primary schools teachers

Having acquired the minimum of

Percentage of educationally required qualifications

Qualified persons =----------------------------------------- x100

Total of primary schools teachers

Indicator (10) was calculated according to the following equation:

T tp,c

% T t p,c = ---------

Ttp

 

This means:

Number of primary schools teachers

certified to having acquired the

Percentage of authorized teachers = minimum required training

Total of primary schools teachers

5- The pupils / teachers ratio (11):

The low pupils / teachers ratio is a positive indicator in the advantage of the educational system. Research underline in fact the importance of this ratio and that of the classroom density since they affect the quality of education by defining the opportunities of interaction between the pupil and his teacher on one hand, and the pupil and a more or less dense group on the other.

Indicator 11:

Table 14 represents indicator 11 and shows that the pupil / teacher ratio is encouraging. In 98/99 it dropped to 8 pupils / teachers in public education from an original average of 14 pupils / teachers in 90/91. The same ratio reached 4 pupils teachers in private education (free social education) in 93/94, the year in which private education was introduced in the Jamahirya. This ratio rose to 5 pupils / teachers in 98/99.

Table 14 – Pupil / teacher ratio

Col 1

Col 2

Col 3

Col 4

Col 5

Col 6

Col 7

Col 8

Col 2/5

Col 9

Col 3/6

Col 10

Col 4/7

The year

The total of enrolled pupils

Total of teachers

Pupil / teacher ratio

Total

Private

Public

Total

Private

Public

Total

Private

Public

91-90

1,179,229

-

1,179,229

85,537

-

85,537

13.997

-

13.997

92-91

1,138,986

-

1,138,986

99,623

-

99,623

11.433

-

11.433

93-92

1,254,242

-

1,254,242

103,791

-

103,791

12.084

-

12.084

94-93

1,365,668

8,628

1,357,040

107,136

1,998

105,138

12.747

4.318

12.907

95-94

1,318,199

11,612

1,306,587

109,713

2,429

107,284

12.015

4.781

12.179

96-95

1,349,417

15,738

1,333,679

125,137

3,117

122,020

10.784

5.049

10.930

97-96

1,277,317

20,815

1,256,502

132,173

3,611

128,562

9.664

5.764

9.774

98-97

1,236,963

21,988

1,214,975

138,321

3,928

134,393

8.943

5.598

9.040

99-98

1,184,917

24,602

1,160,315

150,980

4,594

146,386

7.848

5.355

9.926

This indicator was calculated by the following equation:

PTRt = Et

Tt

This means Pupil / teacher ratio = nb of pupils enrolled in primary education  nb of teachers in primary education

As in regards to both private and public education, the ratio dropped from 13 in 93/94 to 8 in 98/99. Although this ratio is encouraging on the quantitative level, it is not on the qualitative one as we have mentioned that the average density per classroom is highly superior. The reason is that there is no balance between the various faculties of education and teachers schools. In fact, there is a large number of graduates in arts and social majors with a big deficiency in language and applied majors graduates. This lead to a disparity between the classroom density in one hand, and the pupil / teacher ratio on the other.

This disparity is also due to other factors alike the number of classrooms in the cities in high density areas.

Table 14 and graph 8 show a gradual drop in the pupil / teacher ratio especially for the last 4 years. Besides the above mentioned reasons, we believe that the increase in education faculties and teachers schools, and the fact that some unqualified teachers are allowed to practice teaching in remote areas to fill the gap in certain majors, were additional reasons leading to the decrease of this ratio.

Another reason may be that the statistics include teachers and trainers as well as pupils in both educational institutions and training centers.

b- Training teachers in the Jamahirya:

Due to the increase in entrants to education and in accordance with the legislation pertaining to compulsory education and the need to follow the scientific and technological progress, the teachers training programs witnessed a tangible progress in the beginning of the 90s after an appraisal of teachers schools and education faculties which lead to establishing the high institutes for teachers training in 1995 with the following aims:

  1. Develop the teacher’s personality, on a scientific, educational, social and professional level.
  2. Respond to the needs in basic education teachers in all majors.
  3. Adopt a selective method to accept teacher students in these institutes.
  4. Provide the teachers with the adequate specialized, educational, professional and cultural training.
  5. Underline the importance of pre and post training by organizing training sessions for teachers during their work.
  6. In the light of this tendency, the Jamahirya expended the number of these institutes to reach 44 institutes in 98/99 gathering 25518 students and specializing in applied and conductive sciences in addition to preschool and special education.

    GRAPH 8 PUPIL/TEACHER RATIO

  7. Repetition rate (indicators 12,13,14):

Since the committee was unable to collect the required data needed to calculate the 3 indicators 12,13,14, it conduct a survey on 300 female and male pupils in 10 schools from various urban or remote rural areas.

a- The survey:

In order to be scientific in its research, the committee chose the approach based on random samples. Thus, the areas were chosen at first, followed by the schools and classrooms. Table 15 shows the repetition rate of the pupils included in the sample enrolled in basic education for 90/91 –

Table 15: Repetition rate in basic education.

The year

Grade

Number of pupils

Repetition rate

Percentage

91-90

1

300

0

0%

92-91

2

300

0

0%

93-92

3

300

0

0%

84-93

4

300

16

5.3%

95-94

5

284

25

8.8%

96-95

6

259

16

6.1%

97-96

7

243

11

4.5%

98-97

8

232

23

9.9%

99-98

9

209

18

8.6%

4.8%

Table 15 shows that the repetition rate which reached 4.5% for grade 7, 9.9% for grade 8 and 4.8% for basic education taking into consideration that there is success is unconditional in the first 3 years and that starting grade 4, the pupil cannot pass to the next grade unless he passes the exams and tests set by the school.

7- Mastering basic learning skills indicator 15:

Indicator 15 shows the level reached by pupils in their mastering of basic learning skills agreed upon on a national level. It aims at evaluating the internal efficiency of the educational system for which the pupil’s level is an essential criteria. In the educational system, these basic skills should be mastered by the student starting grade 4. The rate of the students who have mastered these skills reflects the quality of the educational system.

Since the pupil cannot pass from grade 4 to grade 5 unless he succeeds the official exams of the school, and since the basic learning skills i.e. reading, writing and calculating and others are included in the syllabus of this grade, the committee set the success in grade 4 as the criteria for evaluating the level of basic skills among pupils.

Table 16 shows that the rate of those who mastered these skills reached 93.7% in 92/93 and 97.1% in 98/99. This underlines the efficiency and quality of the first grades of basic education in the Jamahirya. Graph 9 shows, in fact, the gradual increase of this rate.

Table 16- percentage of pupils who have reached grade 4 and master basic learning sills:

Col 1

Col 2

Col 3

Col 4

Year

Grade 4 pupils mastering the basic learning skills ACS

Pupils registered in grade 4 or equivalent

Percentage of student with ACS

90-91

-

-

-

91-92

-

-

-

92-93

128589

137300

93.7%

93-94

134988

143200

97.3%

94-95

135318

142900

94.7%

95-96

141731

148720

95.3%

96-97

147891

154750

95.6%

97-98

154720

161020

96.1%

98-99

162588

167530

97.1%

  1. Literacy rate among the population of the Jamahirya, indicators (16-17-18).
  1. Literacy rate for the citizens between 15 and 24 years old.
  2. Indicator 16 refers to the literacy rate among the citizens aged between 15 and 24 years old. The guidelines issued by the international council on education for all define literacy as such:

    "Citizens aged between 15 and 24 years old who can read, write and understand a brief summary of their daily life".

    The high literacy rate among this age group underlines the efficiency of the educational system and the efforts exerted to eradicate illiteracy and spread basic education. Although the majority of the citizens belonging to this age group are still pursuing their intermediate and higher education, table 17 indicates that around 3.1% do not possess still these basic skills.

    Table 17- literacy rate among citizens aged 15 to 24, literacy rate among citizens of 15 years old and above, gender parity ratio for 95

    Col 1

    Col 2 Col 3

    Col 4 Col 5

    Col 6

    Col 4/2

    Col 7

    Col 5/3

    Col 8 %

    Col 9

    Population

    Number mastering reading and writing

    Literacy rate

    Gender parity ratio

    15 and above

    15-24 years old

    15 and above

    15-24 years old

    15 and above

    15-24 years old

    15 and above

    15-24 years old

    Males

    1360737

    552477

    1189594

    545517

    87.4%

    98.7%

    Females

    1314739

    537522

    882796

    510972

    67.1%

    95.1%

    Total

    2675476

    1089999

    2072390

    1056489

    77.5%

    96.9%

    0.8%

    1%

    Indicator 16 was calculated according to the following equation:

    LITt (15-24) = Lt (15-24) x 100

    Pt (15-24)

    Indicator 17 was calculated according to the following equation:

    LITt (15t) = Lt (15t) x 100

    Pt (15t)

    Indicator 18 was calculated according to the following equation:

    LGPIt (15t) = FLITt (15t) x 100

    MLIT (15t)

    GRAPH 9 THE PERCENTAGE OF PUPILS WHO HAVE REACHED GRADE FOUR OF BASIC EDUCATION AND MASTER A SET OB BASIC EDUCATION SKILLS (ACS) AGREED UPON ON NATIONAL LEVEL

    The table indicates that literacy rates among females are very close to those among males of the age group (15-24). In fact, this rate reached 98.7% for males and 95.1% for females. The disparity is mainly due to the fact that females marry at an early age compared to males. The beginning of this material life often means the end of education in rural areas mainly leading thus to a drop in literacy rates, education opportunities and chances of self-education.

    Graph 10 shows literacy rates among females and males of 15 years and above, and of 15 to 24 years old. This rate is considered to be high for the age group 15-24 compared to other developing countries.

  3. Literacy rate among 15 years old and above:
  4. Literacy is defined as the capacity to read, write and understand a brief summary of one’s daily life. It is also the capacity to conduct simple mathematical operations known also as mathematical literacy. It reflects the results of basic education, literacy training and adult education programs, showing the capacity of the population to use basic skills in their daily life which enables them to pursue their intellectual development and contribute in developing their society on a social, economic and cultural level.

    The literacy rate for the age group 15 and above in table 17 reflects a gender disparity it reached 87.4% for males and only 67.1% for females. The total rate for this age group reached 77.5%.

    As a developing country, the Jamahirya may be better than most developing countries concerning literacy rates. However, our financial resources and revolutionary ambitions in spreading knowledge for all in accordance with the principle stipulating that "knowledge is a right for every human being", do not match the current literacy rates among adults who were deprived of their right to knowledge at the dawn of the 3rd millenium. This urges the educational authorities of the Jamahirya to reexamine the strategies of literacy training and adult education and pursue the implementation of the legislation pertaining to compulsory education.

    GRAPH10 LITERACY RATES AMONG AGE GROUPS

  5. Gender parity ratio concerning literacy rates:

Indicator 18 evaluates the equality of chances given to both genders to have access to education by calculating literacy rates for each gender. Table 17 shows that this ratio reached 0.8 in the males’ advantage for the age group 15 and above. This implies that males literacy rate is better than females. In fact, it reached 87.4% for males and only 67.1% for females.

In the age group (15-24) the literacy rates are equal for males and females despite the disparities shown in table 17 which do not constitute a statistic proof. "The understanding of the size of illiteracy and its negative incidence was the incentive which lead to the efforts aiming at eradicating it since the early days of the revolution in 1969. In fact, many measures were taken to achieve this objective alike the implementation of the legislation on compulsory education and the efforts to eradicate the phenomena of dropout and repetition, and the obstacles which hinder some pupils from pursuing their education. Although illiteracy is the main concern of the educational authorities, the Libyan Jamahirya has gone a long way on the road leading to the eradication of illiteracy especially during the last 2 decades. In fact, illiteracy rates among 15 years old and above reached 6% in 1973 with 38.7% for males and 85.2% for females. Thanks to literacy training programs and compulsory education legislation, this rate dropped to 39.9% in 84 for both genders and to 3% only for the age group (15-24) for both genders in 1999. The literacy rate for 15 years olds and above reached 77.5% for both genders in 95 as shown in table 17.

General recommendations

In order to achieve the objectives of the revolution of the great conqueror which are to spread knowledge by diversifying educational methods, and expand educational institutions, and in order to realize the principles of the new educational tendencies in accordance with the needs and preferences of the pupils, as well as with the objectives set for the various stages of learning and the best interest of the society, the authorities in the Jamahirya launched a new project dubbed the horizontal spreading of education aiming at developing the educational services.

Since educational institutions are already spread throughout the Jamahirya, the first aim of the project was the create new branches for scientific majors on a university level in all the regions.

This report, in addition to the various research, recommendations, conferences and symposiums related to higher education in the Jamahirya prompts us to present the following recommendations:

  1. It is essential to spread university education horizontally and take into consideration the quantitative and qualitative aspects.
  2. It is also of urgent need to coordinate and cooperate with the local councils and planning institutions in the planning to spread university in all areas.
  3. All new universities must have the approval of the population general office for education and vocational training.
  4. Conference and symposiums must be held to tackle the horizontal spreading of universities in cooperation with specialists from the economic, social, administrative levels.
  5. It is a must to expand the partnership with the private sector to establish private faculties and universities.
  6. The report shows that the Jamahirya has gone a long way towards spreading basic and intermediate education. however since university education relies on these 2 foundations, it is a must to pursue their development to guaranty the success of any higher education project.


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