|The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports|
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CHAPTER 4: EFA GOALS AND TARGETS
This chapter aims at giving a brief description of the goals and targets decided by education authorities in Malawi in respect to each of the six "target dimensions" of EFA Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs. In each dimension, an attempt will be made to indicate the authority behind the targets; whether it is presidential decree, development plan, education reform act etc.
THEME I: EXPANSION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES (ECCDA):
1990 - 1995
The goals and targets in this period come from some of the 1985 – 1995 Education Development Plans. The target population in ECCDA includes children in general (from conception to age 5), Women, especially the pregnant and disadvantaged women, disadvantaged and special needs children. These goals and targets include the following: -
1995 – 2005
Following the formulation of the new U.D.F government in 1994 and the commitment to expand basic education, the Ministry of Women, Children, Community services and Social Welfare (now Ministry of Gender) came up with a policy document on ECCDA. This document states that the arm of ECCDA. in Malawi shall be :-
To provide high quality and improved coverage of Early Childhood Education Programmes by :-
Through this Policy Document GOM shall endeavor to: -
THEME 2: UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO, AND COMPLETION OF, PRIMARY EDUCATION BY THE YEAR 2000
The goals and targets for this period basically come from the second Education Development Plan (1985 – 1995) and it targeted children of primary school going age 6 – 13. The plan aimed to: -
The goals and targets for this period basically come from the MOE Policy Investment Framework (1995 – 2005) and the UDF party manifesto. In these two documents it is stated that Government of Malawi shall: -
Before the end of the plan period 1995 – 2005 GOM plans to: -
THEME 3: IMPROVEMENT IN LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT
The goals and targets for this period come from the second Education Development Plan (1985 – 1995) the World Bank – Republic of Malawi Education Sector Credit I and II (1985 –1995) and Policy Investment Framework (1995 – 2005, and 1999 – 2009). From these documents it is indicated by 1995 government of Malawi would have
(i) Improved education quality, through various measures such as :
OBJECTIVES / TARGETS
1990 – 1995
Objectives/targets for this period included the following :
Parental views of opportunity cost between school and farming.
1995 – 2000
THEME 4: EXPANSION OF BASIC EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN OTHER ESSENTIAL SKILLS REQUIRED BY YOUTH AND ADULTS:
This theme targets out of school children of 10 – 14 and youth of 14 –25 years especially the:
1990 – 1995
The 1991 EFA PPM and POA outlines the goals and targets for this area as follows:
THEME 5: REDUCTION OF THE ADULT ILLITERACY RATE, ESPECIALLY THE DISPARITY BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE ILLITERACY RATES:
From the 1991 EFA PPM and POA it is indicated that the National Adult Literacy Programme (NALP) Aimed at realising the following goals and targets by the year 2000.
(ix) To integrate functional activities into the literacy programme
(xi) To provide adequate instructional materials
(6) INCREASED ACQUISITION BY INDIVIDUALS AND FAMILIES OF THE KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND VALUES REQUIRED FOR BETTER LIVING, MADE AVAILABLE THROUGH ALL EDUCATION CHANNELS:
This theme mainly targets the use of the electronic and print media for educational purposes. These media include radio and television broadcasts, street, stage and air theatre, magazines, newspapers, social mobilisation campaigns, libraries and book fairs.
1990 – 1993
There were no EFA specific goals and targets in this area except the already referred to attempt to establish a PSBU considered under Quality targets. But Generally the broad goals of the print and electronic media in this period would be outlined as having been to :
The broad goals of the print and electronic media have been to :
The National Library Service
The core activities of the National Library Service are targeted at children, pupils, students, youths, teachers, parents, researchers and workers.
Establish District Branch Libraries
Establish and service library centres/units in primary and secondary schools, Community Day Secondary Schools and densely populated areas including peri- urban centres.
chapter 5: EFA STRATEGY AND/OR PLAN OF ACTION
The initial EFA agreed strategy in 1991/92 constituted gradual phasing out of School Fees in the Primary School sector. This started with Free Education in standards 1 and 2, Free Education to all non repeating girls in all grades (GABLE), the training of 5,450 teachers under a three year programme called MASTEP and one year In-Service Training course for temporary teachers aimed at training 540 teachers a year.
An EFA Task Force comprising sectional directors in the Ministry of Education, Stakeholder Ministries of Health, Gender, and Agriculture together with education support institutions of MIE, MANEB, CERT, NSO, National Library Service and National Commission for UNESCO was formal in 1990 to oversee EFA progress. However this task force did not do much. This is because of political unrest which was caused by the nation wide agitation against one party rule.
A clearer and more comprehensive policy came after change of government in May 1994. Following the UDF manifesto, Malawi primary school education became free for all in September 1994. Teaching and Learning materials were to be provided by the government free of charge. The mother tongue of the school’s local environment became the medium of instruction in grades 1to 4. A lady Minister was appointed to head the Ministry of Women, Children, and Social welfare and Community Services (now Ministry of Gender Youth and Community Development). The radio station started broadcasting news bulletins in the Six major languages of the land (Chichewa, Chiyao, Chitumbuka, Chilomwe, Chisena and Chitonga) and a lot more programmes on Civic Education, democracy, Human Rights, the environment and HIV/AIDS were launched. Thirty-eight thousand classrooms were to be constructed, 2,000 classrooms and 400 teachers houses to be rehabilitated 75,000 desk benches to be provided and 22,000 teachers to be recruited and 16,000 of them to be trained.
In 1995 Malawi Education For All (MEFA) initiative was launched by some urban individuals interested in Education to mobilise funds and materials for the cause of Free Primary Education in Malawi. This initiative however did not last long, but the EFA Task Force was revived the same year. After this revival the Task Force with approval from the Minister of Education, Sports and Culture has been making the decisions for EFA. At executive level the Minister of Education collaborates with the other concerned ministries. Progress is monitored by the National Co-ordinator in collaboration with the leaders of the Thematic Technical Committees.
The basic learning needs identified included Literacy, Numeracy, Life Skills pertaining to major life occupations in Malawi like farming, fishing, environmental care, HIV/AIDS, democracy, Human Rights, Political, tribal, and Religious tolerance, peace and conflict resolutions, adolescent health management and respect for people with special needs.
Particular age groups were identified and these include children of age 0-5, from 6-13, youth from 14-25, children with special needs, girls vis-à-vis boys, adults who included pregnant women, women vis-à-vis men, Small Holder Farmers, Fishermen, the disadvantaged, teachers, and rural communities.
The EFA strategy and/or plan has over the decade been reviewed from time to time through Development Plan, Policy Implementation Framework fora, public information campaigns, legislative acts (law, budget) education reform measures, EFA Task Force seminars cabinet committee meetings special EFA programmes and initiatives (e.g. MEFA) and literacy campaigns (see annex ----).
CHAPTER 6:EFA DECISION-MAKING AND MANAGEMENT:
Major EFA policy matters are decided by the EFA Task force with the approval of the Principal Secretaries of the government Ministries concerned. As already stated in the foregoing chapters a good number of EFA policies were already part of the routine periodic education development plans and as such their decisions and management have been done by Policy Implementation Framework (PIF) teams. Coincidentally, most of the EFA taskforce members are also member of the PIF. EFA actions are managed and coordinated by the National commission for UNESCO in liaison with other UN agencies and the National EFA coordinator. The National coordinator chairs an EFA National Consultative Committee that comprises senior officers from stakeholder departments. The consultative committee meets time to time to review strategies, assess progress and make suggestion to the National task force on future progress.
COOPERATION IN EFA
Government of Malawi has since independence succeeded to woe cooperation in Education from various local and foreign organisations, agencies and institutions. In the Education for All endeavors cooperation has come from families and communities who have supplemented government efforts in the provision of teaching and learning materials. Parents have borne the expenses of extra- pens and notebooks where government supply has fallen below normal requirements. Parents have also contributed towards the payment of other domestic school related expenses.
Before 1994, communities using the concepts of self help and youth week contributed their labour, fully processed bricks and other locally available building inputs to the construction and rehabilitation of classrooms and teachers houses. From 1994 when Malawi became a multi party state, this self help spirit has been revitalised by the World Bank funding for local development projects including school construction. This funding initiative is called Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF). MASAF requires that a community contributes bricks, river sand and any other locally available building inputs and formulate a gender – balanced school management committee to quality for funds to enable it construct classroom blocks. Using this method, the MASAF initiative and other donor funded initiatives have mobilised the communities in Malawi in the construction of 6000 classrooms and 400 teachers’ houses and rehabilitation of 2000 classrooms between 1990 and 1998. Ofcourse most of the construction and rehabilitation has taken place between 1994 and 1998.
Although Primary Education is highly subsidised by government, the private sector also give a lot of assistance. Religious organisations, Local authorities, Community Association, Non-governmental organisations and community organisations all belong to this sector.
Among the Religious organisations, Government of Malawi has received cooperation from the Christian service committee, the Christian council of Malawi, The Roman Catholic Secretariat, the C.C.A.P Church Synods of Blantyre, Livingstonia and Nkhoma, The Anglican Diocese of Southern Malawi and many more others are running Primary schools, Early Childhood Care and Development centres, Technical Skills Training Colleges and Vocational Skills training schools.
Similarly, NGOs like Save the Children Federation (US) and (UK), Plan International, World vision International, Action Aid, Development Aid from People to People (DAPP), the Parents – Teachers schools Association. Press Trust, the Samaritan and many more others have also contributed by providing primary school, Early Childhood, Youth out of school and Adult Literacy education.
United Nations Agencies and other overseas organisations and government which have cooperated with the government of Malawi in EFA include the following: UNESCO, UNFPA, UNDP, UNICEF, World Bank, International Monetary fund (IMF), Overseas Development Agency (ODA), International Development Agency (IDA) The Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) Swedish CIDA, German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ/KFW) European Union (EU), African Development Bank (ADB), African Muslim Agency, United states Agency for International Development (USAID), the Norwegian Agency for Development cooperation (NORAD), Department for International Development (DFID)/British High commission/British Council, Australian and Canadian governments. There agencies and government have offered government of Malawi financial and technical assistance towards the planning, management, monitoring and assessing the EFA programmes.
CHAPTER 7: INVESTMENT IN EFA SINCE 1990
1. Early Childhood Care and Development Activities (ECCDA)
It has been difficult to establish investment in this area because of lack of data.
2. THE PRIMARY SCHOOL SUB-SECTOR
Public Expenditure: Primary School Education
Following the Jomtien Conference, budgetary allocation for Primary Education doubled from 1991 to1992 academic year. In 1995, Malawi ranked eighth among African nations in terms of government expenditure allocated to education (GOM-FPEPAS-1998)
During the 1996-97 fiscal year, more than a quarter of total public expenditure was directed towards the education sector and 50 per cent of this went to Primary Education.
Public Current Expenditure on Primary Education as a percentage of GDP has risen from 1 per cent in the 1990/91 year to 3 per cent in 1997/98 year. It is expected to remain there as we enter the new millennium.
Public Current Expenditure on Primary Education per pupil as a percentage of GDP per capita rose from 7 per cent in the 1990/91 academic year to 11 per cent in the 1994/95 year and then declined to 9 per cent in the 1998/99 year. It is projected to lower down further to 8 per cent by the year 2000. (MOESC, Education Statiatics, 1999).
Public Current Expenditure on Primary Education as a percentage of Total Public Expenditure on Education has also shifted upwards from 46 per cent in 1990/91 to 60 per cent in 1997/98 year. It is expected to lower down to 55 per cent as we enter the year 2000.
Unit Public Expenditure increased from –4.35 per cent in 1991/92 to 281.6 in 1995/96 (FPE-PAS, 1994-98). Among Social Sector Spending, education ranks first, and education spending has consistently increased over the past nine years (FPE-PAS, 1994-98). Let it be noted however, that although Primary Education seems to be the priority, at the per unit expenditure level, University Education seems to be given priority. In 1995-96 year for instance, unit expenditure on University students was 219 times that of Primary pupils (FPE-PAS, 1994-98).
Early Childhood Care and Development Activities
Coming up with a consolidated account of Public Expenditure on all the programmes and activities involved in this sector is proving to be an extremely difficult encounter. This is because the programmes and activities are managed by a diverse spectrum of departments with considerable overlaps.
For Pre-Schools, government has been giving a flat subvention of MK28,000 per annum to the Association for Pre-School Play Groups to enable the Association meet the cost of honoraria for the Voluntary Instructors. This however, has not been forthcoming for the past two years -1997-1998(APPG Workshop Paper, Capital Hotel, 1999).
Early Childhood Care and Development Centers benefit government payment of salaries and transport costs for the District Social Welfare Officers responsible for supervision and coordination of the centers activities. Government also distributes picture/reading materials through the Malawi National Library Service-a parastatal organization.
It has so far proved difficult to get data on Public Expenditure on Adult Literacy Programmes between 1990 and 1995. The available data however, (for 1996 to 2000) indicate that government expenditure towards Adult Literacy Programmes rose from MK7.9 million in 1996 to MK14.9 million in 1999/2000. This covers Personal Emoluments and ORT (MOGYCS-Paper on EFA 2000 Assessment, Capital Hotel, 1999). However, the funding trend has been far below the 1990 projected expenditure requirement of MK20.22 million per annum. This has consequently affected the performance of the National Adult Literacy Programme (GOM-TEFA, 1990).
Education for the Youth Out of School is also another area which has suffered low consideration in the allocation of public funds. Government organs responsible for this area like the National Youth Council Established in 1996 work mainly as appendages of the Ministry of Gender, Youth and Community Services. As such their programmes are more often than not overshadowed by those of the mother Ministry. Thus for the National Youth Council the only programmes that are operational at the moment are those funded by UN agencies especially UNICEF, which unfortunately serve more to meet donor conditions than the interests of the Malawian youth.
Teacher Recruitment and Training
Roughly about 36,300 teachers have been recruited by the government of Malawi since 1990. About 21,300 of these 36,300 have been trained through both residential and distance education programme.
Between 1987 and 1993, UNICEF supported a one-year programme which enabled untrained primary school teachers to upgrade and acquire a Teaching Certificate Through this programme a total of 2,000 teachers qualified for a Teaching Certificate.
In 1990, the Malawi Accelerated Special Training Education Programme (MASTEP), a ‘sandwich’ programme based on distance education materials combined with short residential courses and school-based supervision started. Funded by the World Bank, the programme enrolled 4,500 teachers per intake. The programme ran for three years(one intake) and ended up producing 4,300 teachers. In 1994 with the change of system of government and the declaration by the new government of Free Primary School Education, 20,000 untrained new teachers were recruited. These were to cope up with the sudden rise in the enrollment of pupils. Through a donor funded programme-Malawi Integrated In-service Teacher Education Programme, (MIITEP) started almost 75 per cent of these have received a three-week orientation course to teaching and about 3000 of them have already obtained a Teaching Certificate. By the end of the programme it is expected that 18,000 teachers which have been trained and certified to teach. And between 1989/98 and 1993/94 a total of 12,000 teachers were trained through the six normal residential colleges of Mzuzu, Kasungu, Lilongwe, St Josephy, Blantyre and St Montfort which have a total annual intake of 3,000. The combination of these different programmes of Teacher – Training raised the total number of teachers to a level that lowered down teacher pupil ration to 1:61 by 1995.
Three hundred and fifteen Primary Education Advisers were recruited and consequently the same number of School Clusters was established through a donor funded Malawi Schools Support Systems Project (MSSP). Since then the teachers have received several courses in School supervision and School-Cluster management. So far only about 10 of the School-Clusters have their physical infrastructures (including Teacher Resource Center building and PEA’s house) constructed. Through the same programme, School Heads and their Deputies have, from 1996, also received both residential and school-based training in pedagogy, School Management and utilization of Teacher-Resource Center.
Between 1994 and December 1998, 5038 classrooms have been constructed together with 2000 teacher-houses. In 1996 a national Supplies Unit was established in Lilongwe, the capital and Central city geographically with branches in Blantyre for the Southern region schools and in Mzuzu for the Northern
ANNUAL EXPENDITURE ON NATIONAL ADULT LITERACY PROGRAMME
government spending on adult literacy has been decreasing over the years. Table 2 below indicates Government expenditure (MK) on Adult Literacy for the period 1996/97 to 1999/2000 (ie a 4 year period) inclusive.
Table 2 : Annual Expenditure on Adult Literacy
Source : Estimates on Revenue and Expenditure on Recurrent Accounts and Budget Estimates, Ministry of Gender, Youth and Community Services,
From the annual expenditure figures presented above, several inferences can be drawn. For instance, the reduction in funding from MK1.9 million in 1997/98 to 1999/2000 respectively on ORT which includes fuel and allowances, procurement of printing paper, honoraria etc and may impact negatively on the performance of the NALP.
Private Sector Expenditure on Basic Education
This has obviously risen over the decade. Practical evidence is indicated by the mushrooming of private institutions, both in the Pre-school and Primary school sectors. This is true especially from 1994 when government announced political willingness to have vigilant private sector contribution towards the task of universalizing Basic Education.
There is however, still no data on how much these private schools spend annually towards the provision of their services. This is so because most of the institutions have just mushroomed and are operating without actually following the required legal procedures. The available Education Act that is supposed to regulate the establishment and operation of these institutions is itself too out-dated to serve the purpose to any national benefit. Being, in the main, business entities, these institutions also tend to give cosmetic pictures on their financial flows for fear of government intervations.
Religious organisations both Christian and Islamic; individual businessmen and women; and NGOs like Action Aid, Plan International, Save the Children UK and USA, Development Aid from People to People (DAPP) and the Samaritan stand out as the providers of this service in the country.
Community and Family Expenditure
There are clear signs of positive change in community and family expenditure towards Basic Education.
In the rural areas many more people than before in trading centers, areas around educational institutions and district headquarters have responded positively towards paying a token fee towards the education of their Pre-School children in the Early Childhood Development Centres and/or the Pre-School Play Groups. In addition to the token fee families have gone to the extent of contributing foodstuffs to keep the Pre-school children confined to the centres for the required time.
In the urban areas many more people have recognized the importance of Pre-School education and to them education for their children now begins at an earlier age (often 3 years) than before Jomtien. This implies more expenditure than in those days when for the majority of the urban dwellers, education started from Primary Standard 1.
In the Primary School Sector, there has been a two-way development in community and family expenditure towards Basic Education. The first one has been government attempt to reduce if not eliminate family expenditure towards tuition and the purchases of other school-related materials like uniforms. Beginning much earlier than 1990 government’s policy has been to heavily subsidize education in this area. Up to 1991, government provided desks, notebooks, slates and textbooks and families paid tuition fees of MK3.50 in the junior classes (Standard 1-5), MK5.50 in the senior classes (Standard 6-8) and purchase pens and school uniform for their wards.
From 1991 to 1994 however, government abolished tuition fees in phases beginning with Standard 1 going through to Standard 4 all non-repeating girls. School uniform ceased to be a prerequisite condition for a child’s attendance of classes at school. In 1994 when the UDF party won power and declared Free Primary School Education its instrument in the alleviation of poverty, Primary Education became free to all classes and both sexes and free provisions included even pens. This in essence meant reduced family expenditure on Basic Education in terms of tuition.
It should be noted however, that this reduced family expenditure on tuition is being greatly offset by government’s failure these teaching and learning materials regularly. This is in part due to the Teacher-Salary burden already alluded to. Families are more often than not forced to purchase these materials on their own. This put in the context of high inflation and hence high commodity prices is resulting in Basic Education being in reality more expensive than free. Annex 6 shows the average expenditure by households on Education related activities as found out by the field study on the Benefits of Learning sponsored by the World Bank, in 1998.
The second form of development is that of generally increased level of family and community participation in school-related self-help programmes. The spirit of community self help is almost a cultural heritage in Malawi. Having been abused by the former government, this cultural heritage became Centre of political agenda by pressure groups in the period of fight for Multi-Party Democracy. This made the rural masses believe that this practice is undemocratic (FPE-PAS, 1994-98). This therefore, meant a decline in community commitment to contribution towards Basic Education expenditure in the early 90s up to late 1994.
Soon after the political change in 1994, the governments commitment to universalisation of basic education led to the formation of local funding initiative supported by World Bank loans called Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF). Through this initiative, communities compete for funds for construction of classrooms and provision of teaching and learning materials on the basis of community’s own contribution of fully processed bricks, river sand, rocks, labour and /or any other building –related in-puts found in their local environment. Community contribution of building inputs alone in the 1998/99 school year was estimated at MK2, 435,483.87 (US $5412.97). Most of the 5038 classrooms completed by December 1998 have been built using such type of community participation.
Foreign Assistance in Basic Education
There has been an overwhelming increase in foreign assistance for Basic Education especially after the launch of the Free Primary Education in 1994. GOM was extremely successful in appealing to international donors for the necessary funds to undertake the FPE Reform. Upon noting the government’s political will, the donor community responded in force.
Between 1994 and 1998, major donors responded with contributions that amounted to over US$130 million (USAID, 1998) Statistics show that from 1995 to 1997 donors have financed 43 to 46 percent of the total government budget for all sectors of Education (USAID, 1998). The majority of donor funding is channelled through the Ministry of Finance, although some contributions go straight to schools or individual pupils as scholarships (FPE-PAS, 1994-98).
Major New Investments
There are a number of major new investments that have been made following Jomtien 1990. These include:
See Annex 7 for summary of agencies, projects and amount of assistance.
From 1991/92 year to 1996 the trend of recurrent expenditure shows constant rise. The increase in mainly due to the recruitment of the 20,000 untrained teachers in 1994. The teachers’ salaries were already a major burden to bear in Basic Education expenditure even before the 1994 crisis. For instance, teachers’ salaries alone in the 1990/91 year represented 87 per cent of total recurrent expenditure. In the 1994/95 year this rose to 97 percent (MOE, FPE-PAS, 1994-98).
The strain of teachers’ salaries on the budget has been so severe that it has either undermined or even displaced other expenses within the recurrent budget. Instructional materials like notebooks, pens and slates which government has to provide free if FPE is to be qualitative as well, are difficult to be distributed timely, regularly and in sufficient quantities. Due to this teacher salary pressure the percentage of financial resources allocated to quality cause at all levels declined form 11.5 percent in 1990/91 year to less than 3 percent in 1995 (World Bank, 1995). It is worth noting however, that though teachers salaries cause such budgetary strain, they are not in the least high enough to sustain the teachers’ morale. Annex 8 presents a summary of Primary school Teachers salary structure as of January 1998.
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