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11.1 Malaysia is fully committed in providing EFA. It is also determined to eradicate illiteracy by the year 2000, if not earlier. Malaysia’s continued emphasis and efforts to expand and improve education and training for its people augurs well in meeting these goals. Priority given to education and training will meet the country's demand for human resource who are functional-literate and who are knowledgeable, resilient and disciplined.

11.2 The various programmes carried out in meeting these demands are also geared towards fulfilling the importance and goals of life-long education. The multi-pronged approach taken to eradicate illiteracy, to extend universal education to 11 years of schooling and the emphasis towards the acquisition of knowledge will prepare Malaysia towards the realisation of a literate and a learning society.

11.3 In the remaining period of the implementation of the 7MP, programmes undertaken in providing EFA and combating illiteracy through education and training and other related programmes have been identified as those to be prioritised.

Early Childhood Care And Development

11.4 With respect to ECD, the various ministries and agencies involved will continue to work closely together and to step up co-operation and collaboration. Among the efforts undertaken are i) structuring of the pre-school programmes, ii) developing evaluation mechanisms, iii) producing guidelines for the teachers and helping teachers to provide children with varied experiences, and iv) planning campaigns that will draw inrecreased enrolment into childcare centres and pre-schools.

11.5 With the setting up of the various ECD centres, there is a need for close monitoring and regulating so as to ensure quality of such programmes is not compromised. Further to that, there will be a need to enhance co-ordination and co-operation among the agencies involved in such programmes to ensure continued progress for the benefit of young children. There is also further need for ECD programmes to be formulated to keep abreast with the current advent of IT and global developments taking place.

11.6 KEMAS will continue its community development programmes that have been planned and this includes in-service training for pre-school teachers. This is important so as to upgrade the knowledge and skills in early childhood education of these teachers.

11.7 Future plans for pre-school education includes its expansion to cover at least 65 per cent of children in the 4+ through 5+ age group by the year 2000. The quality of pre-school education will further be enhanced with the implementation of the curriculum guidelines. Consequently, the end of the 7MP period will see an increase in the number of trained teachers from 12,140 in 1998 to 15,340 in 2000.

Universalisation of Primary Education

11.8 It is anticipated that enrolment in primary education will see an increase from about 2.89 million in 1998 to 2.94 million students by the year 2000. With this development, there will be a need to expand infrastructure to accommodate the increase. Up to the year 2000, 6,685 new classrooms will be built, improving the class-classroom ratio from 1:0.87 in 1998 to 1:0.90. Measures will be taken to reduce the attrition rate, especially among students in rural areas. Towards this end, 59 new hostels will be provided in small schools in the rural areas to accommodate 11,120 students.

9 At the secondary education level, there is an increase from 1.63 million in 1995 to 1.74 million in 1998 and is expected to increase to 1.86 million in the year 2000. In order to increase the performance of students in science and mathematics, the teaching of these subjects will be strengthened with improved teaching and learning materials and methods. In addition, about 2,250 science laboratories will be built while 3,750 trained science and mathematics teachers will be recruited.

11.10 The conversion of SVS into STS will also see an increase in the number of students in technical education. Apart from the technical courses, the STS will also offer vocational and skill training, to accommodate the less academically inclined students. To improve the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in the STS and SVS, the contextual learning method will be extended to include technical subjects.

11.11 The current education programmes will be continuously expanded and reviewed to improve the quality and excellence of EFA. To that effect, computer education and training programmes will be further intensified and expanded. Initially, this involves providing 222 primary schools and 110 secondary schools with computers to enable them to conduct the computer literacy programme.

11.12 The use of computers in education was further expanded in efforts to enhance computer literacy in schools. Under the computer-in education programme, a total of 90 secondary and 20 primary schools were provided with computer laboratories. The implementation of smart schools will enhance these efforts.

11.13 Recognising the importance of education in the creation of a knowledge-based economy, the smart schools initiative was launched during the Mid-term Review of the 7MP period. The objective of this initiative is to produce a new generation of IT-literate Malaysians who are creative and innovative, adept with new technologies and able to access and manage information to enhance the competitiveness and productivity of the economy.

11.14 The smart schools pilot project involved the construction of nine new schools and the upgrading of 81 existing schools to provide a 'smart learning' environment. This entails the provision for new teaching methods and curriculum as well as the use of computers and applications to access learning and teaching materials.

Quality Delivery System

11.15 To ensure quality of the teaching workforce is maintained and enhanced, the in-service training programmes will be intensified. Opportunities for teachers to pursue further studies at the diploma and degree levels will also be expanded. The relaxation of the conditions of service such as study leave will also allow teachers seeking higher qualifications to study on a full- or part-time basis.

11.16 The number of graduate teachers will increase from 61,390 in 1998 to 68,150 in the year 2000, thus increasing the proportion of graduate teachers at the secondary level from 61.5 per cent in 1998 to 65.5 per cent in the year 2000.

11.17 In order to attract qualified teachers to serve in the rural areas, special allowances and additional housing facilities will continue to be provided. By the year 2000, a total of 28,720 new teachers' quarters will be built.

Literacy Programmes

11.18 Programmes aimed at inculcating and promoting the reading habit of the general public will be continued. The end of the 7MP will provide a total of RM86 million to build and equip 17 libraries at state and district levels and to upgrade existing library facilities. Seventy-eight additional village libraries will be established to promote reading habit of the rural population and mobile libraries increased to reach areas with no static library facilities.

11.19 To encourage and attract more people, particularly youths to frequent libraries, services will be improved and collection will be expanded. Access to these facilities by the general public will be made possible with the upgrading of information dissemination via electronic means. To facilitate this, computers will continue to play a major role and programmes involving the digitalisation and packaging of information will be considered.

Youths, Adults, And Community Development and Private Sector Participation

11.20 The youth population is expected to increase by 1.5 per cent per annum from 4.31 million to 4.39 million in the year 2000. On-going programmes devised will be expanded in order to mould youths with the prerequisites for positive contribution towards nation building.

11.21 Under the PPRTs and other skill training programmes, the various Ministries and agencies concerned with the development of youths and adults will further expand and improve their programmes to train them in employability skills.

11.22 Educational and training opportunities will be also focusing on women to enable them to participate more effectively in the labour market. In order to increase the enrolment of female students in science, engineering and technical education, motivational and counselling programmes will be intensified. This is also aimed at encouraging girls to choose careers in the sciences and technical fields. With respect to involvement in skills development, the proportion of female students will be increased from 20 to 30 per cent.

11.23 The increasing dynamic role played by the private sector in the provision of education and training facilities will be enhanced in view of the major contribution these sectors play in nation building and producing a literate workforce.


11.24 Programmes related to EFA in Malaysia will be continuously revised and expanded to improve the quality for long term investment of human resource development. Priority will continue to be placed on increasing the accessibility to education and training to enhance income generation capabilities as well as to improve the quality of life of Malaysians. Apart from expanding education and training facilities, financial assistance will also be provided to enable the low-income group to have greater access to education and training. The expansion of education and training opportunities will also make Malaysia a regional educational hub.


Advisory Board

Dr. Haji Azmi ZakariaDirector, Educational Planning and Research Division,Ministry of Education, Malaysia

Dr. Wan Chik Rahmah Wan Din(Deputy Director, Planning, EPRD

Dr. Haji Abdul Halim Ahmad(Principal Assistant Director, Macro Planning)

National EFA Coordinator:Ms Sahara Ahmad, EPRD

Technical Coordinator:Ms Zaljiah Abu Chik, EPRD

Data Contributors

Data Unit, EPRD

Mr. Hj. Mokhtar Sarbaini

Mr. Ahmad Kamel Abdul Rahman

Schools Division

Mr. Ahmad Zahari Mohamad

Curriculum Development Center

Dr. Sharifah Nor Puteh

Mr. Zainusham Yusuf

Examinations Syndicate

Ms. Marlin Abdul Karim

Mr. Khidir Zakaria

Finance Division

Mr. Rajagopalan Pillay

Techical Education Department.

Dr. Wan Azlinda Wan Mohamed

Department of Statistics

Ms. Esah Hussin

Ms. Hajah Azizah Nordin

Technical SupportMr. Azwan Abdul Aziz, EPRD

Mr. Mohd Burhan Ibrahim, EPRD

Working Group I: Early Childhood Development

Dr. Sharifah Nor Puteh

Mr. Zainusham Yusuf

Ms. Norhayati Mokhtar

Working Group II: Primary Education

Mr. Ahmad Zahari Mohamad

Mr. Zainusham Yusuf

Mr. Rajagopalan Pillay

Working Group III: Learning Achievement and Outcomes

Mr. Rosli Ghazali

Ms. Marlin Abd. Karim

Mr. Khidhir Zakaria

Working Group IV: Adult Literacy

Ms. Hajah Azizah Nordin

Ms. Esah Hussin

Mr. Rosham Abdul Shukor

Working Group V: Training in Essential Skills and Education for Better Living

Dr. Wan Azlinda Wan Mohamed

Mr. Mohd Sahar Darusman

Ms Fauzih Ayob

Ms Samsuri Yaacob


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