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   Mongolia
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Part I: Descriptive Section

FOREWORD

We are in the edge of the new century, which is offering us a belief and trust in development and prosperity.

Nine years ago, from now, in the World Conference conducted in Jomtien, Thailand, the world declaration "Education For All" was approved. The goal was to provide education for all, using both the values that have been accumulated throughout the history of human development and achievements gained in education sectors in many countries of the world.

The Declaration from the Jomtien Conference was evidence of efforts from UN and international organizations and the countries in the world on the implementation of "Human Rights Common Declaration", which implies social, economic and cultural rights along with civil and political ones. It also included a "Children Rights Convention", which refers to the children’s rights to live healthy lives, to develop and to be protected. It also emphasized the importance of provision of the "basic learning requirements" for children, ways to reach to it, and its quality as well. The Declaration has made a change in the general tendency of the world towards education.

Today, the "Education For All – Assessment 2000" activity is being conducted in many countries with support from UNDP, UNESCO, The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), The United Nations Population Fund and The World Bank, in order to implement the goals and objectives of the "Education for all" World Declaration; assess the outcomes of world efforts on provision of rights to everybody for education, giving priorities to children and youngsters; strengthen the efforts and activities; and identify education strategies and goals for the new century.

The "Education for All – Assessment 2000" has been successfully organized in Mongolia with a great deal of participation and support from all levels of education institutions, ranging from the school – the basic education organization, to public administrative authorities, including non-governmental organizations, media and United Nations organizations. In the frame of the activity, the most realistic evaluation and assessment were given to the activities planned and executed in order to implement the Jomtien Declaration, and next strategies were determined.

The action for the Education for All assessment was not limited by merely writing the National Report. It was a motivation to draw government and community attention to the provision of basic learning for all, to intensify activities, and to make each aimag prepare a local report, which adds assessment to their own activities and determines goals and objectives for the future.

National and local reports on implementation of the goal and objectives of the "Education for all" Declaration were provided, which have been executed in accordance with the guidance by project officials of "Education for all – Assessment 2000" in UNESCO.

The "Education for All – Assessment 2000" National Report implies basic issues in pre-school children’s development, primary and secondary education, adults’ education and it also addresses the difficulties and problems the sector faced during the transition period, with some results and positive outcomes and future objectives as well.

There is no doubt that the National Report is to be one of the main sources for our country to determine new policies and strategies, and make decisions for the new century. It is hoped that the Report will make a contribution to determination of the world strategies in Education for All for the 21st Century.

Thank you for all support and promotion from international organizations, which made the "Education for all – Assessment 2000" possible in Mongolia, and everybody who participated in the activity.

National Coordinator for EFA Assessment 2000

D. Munkhjargal

INTRODUCTION

The assessment activities of the "Education for All-2000" had began in December 1998. The national working group for organizing the assessment activities of the "Education for All-2000" was established in December, 1998 and headed by the State Secretary of the Ministry of Science, Technology, Education and Culture. This working group included the representatives of policy-makers, officers of the public administration sector and was financed by the UNDP Local office, UNICEF Representative, UNFPA, Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO and other representatives of the non-governmental organizations. From the assessment working group the planning of the assessment implementation activities in Mongolia were worked out and "Education for All-Assessment-2000" was adopted through organizing a meeting of the representatives of financing supporting organizations, governmental and non-governmental institutions. During this meeting three sub-groups were organized: report and dissemination; training and research; and information database assessment. In January 1999, local commissions on assessment activities were established within the local Governors administration.

"Education for All-Assessment-2000" is implemented by the following steps:

The development and discussion of the National assessment report (to evaluate and monitor the local information and reports, to discuss and finalize the draft of the national report by the national working group, participation in the assessment work by other interested groups, in developing the technical indicators from UNESCO)

The report was prepared following the basic purposes of the Jomtein Declaration, Including:

This report is deals with nine years ( of changes and reforms) since 1990 in pre-school education, primary and adults education, including:

 List of participants

R. Bat-Erdene State Secretary, Ministry of Science, Technology, Education and Culture /MOSTEC/
D. Munkhjargal Director, Policy Implementation Coordination Dept. MOSTEC
A. Batjargal Vice Director, Monitoring and Evaluation Dept. /MOSTEC/
D. Monkhor Senior officer, Monitoring and Evaluation Dept. /MOSTEC/
N. Nergui Senior officer, Strategic Management and Planning Dept. /MOSTEC/
D. Erdenechimeg Officer, Strategic Management and Planning Dept. /MOSTEC/
Ch. Purev-Ochir Officer, Strategic Management and Planning Dept. /MOSTEC/
G. Uyanga Officer, Monitoring and Evaluation Dept. /MOSTEC/
Ts. Myagmarsuren Officer, Monitoring and Evaluation Dept. /MOSTEC/
Yo. Nyamdavaa Director, Non-Formal Education Center
D. Gundegmaa Researcher, Non-Formal Education
D. Oyunsaikhan Officer, UNICEF Local office
B. Bayarmaa Officer, UNFPA Local office
Ts. Undrah Executive Director, Non-Formal and Distance education project
G. Batsukh Director, Education and Culture Center, Bayankhongor province
D. Purevtseren Officer, Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO
Tsolmon Director, education and Culture Center, Dund-Gobi province
Pie Meulenkamp Officer, UNDP Local Representative
Boloroo Officer, World Bank Permanent Representative

MONGOLIA

By year 1998

Area 1.566.500 km
Major physical feature Landlocked country, continental climate
Average annual temperatures 25C
Population 2.4 million
Annual growth rate of the population 1.4%
Population density 1.6 inhab/km
Annual GDP growth rate 3.5%
Per capita GDP 377 USD
Annual inflation rate 6%
   
Infant mortality rate 35.3%
Unemployment rate 5.8%
Life expectancy 64
Literacy rate 97.2% / 1996 /
Gross enrollment rate / primary education / 103%
Official language Mongolian


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