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Math test’s result by sex







50 and over



80 and over
























Even though by law the education system is to financed at no less than 20% of the state budget, it cannot reach that amount due to budget deficiency. (Chart 33)

85% of our schools have the structure of 1-10th grade and 1-8th grade, therefore the primary education expenditures, among the total expenditure of education, is not calculated separately. The primary school expenditure from the state budget, which is one of the indicators of primary education provision, is calculated on the basis of class numbers, lesson hours, and teachers’ salary and variable expenditure. In 1998, 24.4% of total state education expenditure, and 1.7% of gross national product were spent on primary education.










Percentage of primary education expenditure in education budget










Percentage of primary education expenditure of gross national product










Primary school expenditure, which is included in secondary school expenditure, has been increased constantly over recent years. (Chart 34)

In the last 3 years, approximately 50% of the total financing on secondary schools from the state budget has been spent on primary schools (grade 1-4).

Of all primary education expenditure, 30% of the total was spent on heating and electricity, 48% on teachers’ salary and 3%, which is very low, on teaching materials. (Chart 35)

Starting from the 1998-1999 academic year, it becomes possible to calculate the current part of primary education expenditures, according to the transfers to finance schools by their current expenditure per pupil. In 1999, 56% of all pupils in primary and secondary schools are primary school pupils, and 48% of total constant expenditure spent on education is on primary education. (Chart 36)


Physical environment for pre-school and primary school education

Almost 80% of total schools in our country are schools, which have grades ranging from primary to upper secondary. Therefore it was not possible to make analysis separately on the physical environment for primary education, instead, efforts were done to present the general analysis of supply basic education training material.

The decrease in state budget income during the transition period caused a shortage of budget expenditure and in 1991-1996 education expenditure per person was declined by 53%. The fall in the state budget expenditure effected directly the investment in schools and instructional materials.

Education sector investment (year, percent)








Investment percent in educational budget







No school and dormitory building was built in 1990-1998. However, school buildings with totally 4300 seats in eleven aimags1 are under the construction to be completed in 1999-2000 academic year. 2

The total amount of budget for capital maintenance in school, kindergarten and dormitory buildings was 0.3% of total education sector budget in 1990. Nonetheless, the figure has reached 1.9% in 1998. During 1999-2000 it is being planned to conduct capital and preventive maintenance for 20.6% of total schools.

Certain amount of the donor organizations’ loan and support is devoted to the maintenance and improvement of school, dormitory and kindergarten buildings, and grants and loans from international organizations have been used for the same purpose.

In 1997 - 1998, 4.1% of all primary and secondary schools have been covered by preventive and capital maintenance with assistance of ADB Education Sector Development Program. In addition the same maintenance was done in 2.6% of total school buildings in 1998 by support from UNICEF grant, while 14.4% of total schools, 9.9% of total dormitories, 11.0% of all kindergartens have been reconstructed in the frame of the Poverty Alleviation National Program.3

A project funded by a Japanese Government grant is being implemented to provide solar generation in schools of five aimags’ in the Gobi-regions and a Danish-Mongolian joint-project, which started in 1998 with the same purpose to supply solar generation for schools in 15 aimags and more than 50 somons4 is under way.

Current situation of school buildings

Until 1990s the expenditure for building construction used to take most of the expense of education sector investment. The school, dormitory and kindergarten buildings which were built during this period had consistent constructional standards and the basic material for the wall of school, dormitory and kindergarten buildings was done by concrete with reinforce and baked red bricks which made the buildings last for 30-40 years.

By an estimate in 1998, school buildings with 280.0 thousand seats, kindergarten buildings with 70.3 thousand seats, dormitory buildings with 57.3 thousand seats are being used currently. About 80.0% of total capital property in education sector is school buildings.

Estimates on school building (0.000 children; seats)







Primary and secondary school students






Total seats used in primary and secondary schools






From this: capacity of out-of-use buildings






Number of students per seat






Even though the number of seats of primary and secondary schools in 1990 increased by 35.1% from the number in 1980, the number of seats under operation in 1990-1997 decreased by five thousand. The number of total students in schools increased by 18.3% in comparison to 1980’s situation and the number of students per seat decreased by 20.3%. The increase of seats is still less than the enrollment icrease. However, the capacity and use of urban and rural school buildings varies and the consentration in urban areas is greater.

The basic indicator of the availability and supply of a school building is the number of students per hundred seats. In 1990 this number was 141 which increased up to 160 in 1998. It was caused firstly by the fact that increasing enrollment eliminated over 5.000 seats during the period and partly.

Dormitory building estimates in primary and secondary education (0.000 children; beds)







Number of students in dormitories






Number of beds






From this;Building capacity do not meet operation requirements






Number of students per 100 beds






The number of students in dormitories of primary and secondary schools in 1990 fell by 5.3% from the 1980’s figure; in 1998 it increased sharply by 70.2% from 1990. The capacity of dormitory buildings in 1990 increased by 24.9% from 1980, and in 1998 by 3.6% from 1990. Nevertheless, the estimate shows that dormitories are not working in their full capacities. Therefore, the number of students per hundred beds fell to 33 in 1998.

Estimates on kindergarten buildings (0.000 children; beds)







Number of children in kindergarten






Number of total beds in kindergarten under operation






From this: Building capacity out-of-use






Number of students per a hundred beds






The number of children in kindergarten in 1990 increased by 1.9% than 1980’s figure; however, in 1998 it fell by 23.9% compared to 1990. The number of children per hundred seats in 1998 decreased by 20.9% from 1990.

On the basis of 1998 survey done concerning primary and secondary school, kindergarten and dormitory buildings, the following conclusions can be made:

The basic building materials for kindergartens and schools built before 1970, is unbaked bricks, stone and wood which is supposed to last for 10-15 years and such buildings make up 20% of total school buildings.

Most of the kindergarten and school buildings, which are under operation at present, were built between 1970-1985.

Kindergarten, school and dormitory buildings except bag5 schools had a centralized heating system; however, because of the financial constraints most buildings are being heated by other means including wood or cool stoves in classrooms.

According to the estimate done in 1998, 13.7% of the total kindergarten and school buildings with 52.7 thousand bed-seats are out of operational condition. In more detail, 17.4% of total school buildings with 35 thousand seats, 11.7% of total dormitory buildings with 5.4 thousand beds, 4.1% of total kindergarten buildings with 1.9 thousand beds can not meet normal operational requirements.5

Current situation of primary and secondary school tools and equipment

The tools and equipment used in primary and secondary schools has are as follows:

Classrooms and laboratories for natural sciences such as math’s, physics, chemistry, biology and social sciences and language subjects, with necessary tools and equipment

Instructional technology, computer and computer labs

In 1980, requirements for tools and equipment, techniques and technology for primary and secondary schools were approved and each school should have overhead projector (1-5), slide projector (2-3), film projector (1-2), cassette player (2), phonograph record player (2), public address system and boards display (5-8), and each upper secondary school is to have at least one language laboratory. However, since 1990 no tools and equipment have been provided to a school and the schools buy the necessary things for instruction from market from income from their profit making activities and/or support and contributions from outside. In the frame of the ADB Education Sector Development Program, thorough rehabilitation and equipping of about 150 natural and social science classrooms is under way.

MOSTEC is working on development of environmental standards for primary and secondary education. Nonetheless, provision of tools and equipment for primary and secondary schools remains a pressing issue in next few years. In fact, at least more than US$ 10.000 is required to renovate and equip the classrooms and laboratories of physics, chemistry, biology and language subjects in each primary and secondary school.

Literacy rate of people aged 15-24

Primary education plays an important role in increasing the number of literates of a country. Therefore, the literacy rate of adults becomes one of the important indicationrs of primary education results.

Mongolia during socialism to supply the opportunities to enroll all children of primary and basic education age in schools; thus all received basic education. By 1990 almost 100% of them had become literate.

According to the 1989 Census, 20.2% of the population are between 15-24 years old. Of these people, 99.0% were literate, and the percentage of male literacy was 98.7% and female literacy was 99.2%.

In accordance with the transfer to the new social and economic system since 1990, the normal activity of education system has become inadequate, the number of secondary school enrollees has dropped, and dropouts have become a negative social consequence of the transition period.

In order to find out more about the problems of the education system in the transition period and deficiency in human sources influenced by the literacy rate of population, a survey to determine the literacy rate of the population, aged 15 and above, was conducted in 1996.

872090 people from 13 aimags, including the capital, Ulaanbaatar, were involved in this survey. They were 60.04% of all people aged 15 and above in the aimags surveyed. For the people between 15-24, 306757 people were covered, which were 62.3% of this age-group. 51.6% of the people aged between 15-24 who were involved in the survey were male and 49.1% were female.

According to the survey, 0.8% of the 15-24-year-olds involved in the survey, were illiterate, 1.3% were semi-literate and 97.9% were literate. According to the survey, 0.7% of the females, aged 15-24, were illiterate, 1.1% were half-literate and 98.2% were literate, and 0.9% of males were illiterate, 1.5% were semi-literate and 97.6% were literate. According to the survey, the literacy rate of the population, aged 15-24, was 96.7% in the countryside and 99.6% in the city.


Total female

Total male




Percentage of illiterates

Percentage of half-literate

Percentage of literate

Percentage of illiterates

Percentage of half-literate

Percentage of literate

Percentage of illiterates

Percentage of half-literate

Percentage of literate

Total (aged between 15-24)










Countryside between 15-24)










City (aged between 15-24)










According to the 1996 survey the literacy rate was 1.4% lower than in 1989., For the males it went down by 1.1% and for females by 1.0%, compared with the 1989 Census literacy rate of the population between 15-24.

It cannot be said that primary education achievement of our population is at a satisfactory level, because most of the children,who dropped out or who were not enrolled in school, during the first years of transition may not be included in the classification of 15-24-year-olds in the 1996 survey.

The national Census will be held in 2000 and more definite information on the population literacy will be available.


The general picture of current primary education

Positive trends:

Enrollment in primary education has reached a sufficient level and has stabilized.

School drop out percentage is decreasing every year.

Number of first graders has reached sufficient level and it is tending to increase every year.

Government policy on primary education has been set and content standards reformed.

Last three years all textbooks have been renewed and distributed.

School independence and self-promotion in decentralization has been developed.

A new student evaluation system was introduced.

Teacher workload, class size and number of students per hundred seats are within normal range.

A sufficient number of qualified teachers exists

Negative trends:

Enrollment rate in rural areas is lowering than in urban.

School budget deficiencies and delays in school budget distribution.

Inadequate learning environment in schools of rural areas.

Unreliable operation of heating systems and electricity, insufficient conditions of building construction.

Traditional instructional methods to merely transfer information is still dominating.

Lack of evaluation and monitoring activities for instruction

Lack of modern instructional tools and equipment and functioning information network.

Lack of sufficient environment for in-service teacher training.

Further goals and strategy

Positive tendencies are happening in the current education sector including a wider range of enrolment in the primary and secondary education and a reduction in the number of drop-outs; but still the improvement of education quality and renewal of a curriculum and methods are not being happening fast enough. Therefore, in the next five years the primary and secondary education sector will be defined as a priority area.

The next medium-term major target is to develop the quality and outcomes of primary and secondary education.

The Ministry of Science, Technology, Education and Culture is defining the following purposes within the medium term strategy of primary and secondary education:

to train and retrain teachers, to improve the mechanism of raising qualifications and stabilishing teacher this supply.

to improve training materials,

to work on structure of curriculum and methodology,

to improve and stabilize the monitoring and evaluation system and its activities,

to increase and improve the quality of research on primary and secondary education,


As changes appeared in the society and economy and progress in technology made changes in the labor organization of the society, professions emerged with multi-sided characteristics, increasing information demand and expanding people’s education needs.

In accordance with these changes covering all fields of social life, education needs of the population, especially adults, have increased greatly amount. It was required to meet the increasing education demand of the population, to provide open conditions to make the population literate, which is the basis for their further learning and to get ability and skills focussed to make them live and work capably in the market system, and to change the education system into one which will give them possibilities to be retrained and trained continuously, in systems that are public, flexible and based on the learners interests and needs.

The issue of providing adults with continuous training cannot be solved in the frame of formal education, through schools. Therefore, it was confirmed legally that ‘The education system in Mongolia consists of formal and non-formal education systems.’ The legal provisions were changed to encourage individuals, organizations, government and non-government organizations, and interested groups to other adult education services. Flexible and open forms based on needs of adult were encouraged.

The main document that set the policy to improve Mongolian adults’ education is ‘The national program to develop non-formal education’.

This program is being implemented between 1997-2004 and the objective of this program is ‘To give the population necessary education outside school in a form suitable for them in a appropriate timeframe and to provide the conditions to continue it uninterruptedly outside school.’

Through this program, the issues of improving literacy and general education of the population, providing life skills and professional training and supervising, organizing and financing the training to give professional abilities have been defined.

The Diagram of the Non-Formal Education Structure (not available)

The center for non-formal education under the control of the Ministry of Science, Technology, Education and Culture is responsible for organizing implementation of the national program, working in cooperation with the professional organizations of other fields, conducting surveys on adult education, preparing handouts and training materials, running training for the staff, and evaluating the national program implementation.

In aimags and the capital the administrators are responsible for adult education and the commissions, headed by the head of the social policy department of the aimags and the capital, operate under their control. The Education and Culture center and the non-formal education office are responsible for the administration and organization of non-formal education and adult education. In sums and districts, the administrators are responsible and the enlightenment centers and secondary schools run the training under their control.

The literacy of the population above 15

According to the 1989 Census, the literate rate of the population above 15 was 96.5%, for males 98.2% and for females 94.3%.

According to the 1996 survey on adult education level (the population above 15), the adult literacy rate was 97.2%, for males 97.2% and for females 97.1%. Also by the survey, adult literacy rate was 99.0% in the city and 96% in the countryside.



Total: Female

Total: Male


Percentage of illiterates

Percentage of half-literate

Percentage of literate

Percentage of illiterates

Percentage of half-literate

Percentage of literate

Percentage of illiterates

Percentage of half-literate

Percentage of literate

Total (aged

above 15)










Countryside (aged above 15)










City (aged above 15)











60.2% of the population, above 15, were involved in the survey. 44.5% of them were from the city and 55.5% were from the countryside. Even though this survey could not involve 40% of the population, it can show the literacy rate of adults, because the survey involved almost 2/3 of all the adults.

According to the ‘Report on world education’, which was published from UNESCO in 1995, the literacy rate of our country’s adults was 81.6%, but the calculating method and, source of the data and statistical information might be wrong. However, the lower literacy rate of children, who are not enrolled and dropped out, due to the losses during transition period in the 1990’s, education, might decrease the achieved literacy rate of adults by the census in 2000. For many children, who dropped out or are not enrolled during the 1990,s transition period, the knowledge and education that are ‘lost’ blockade their further education. Therefore, the Government is focussing on increasing their education level, especially improving their literacy, and reeducating them.

The improvement of literacy is one of the main parts of the adult education structure. The Government is focussing mainly on educating adult illiterates and is paying for the expenses of the secondary schools and Education and culture centers for literacy training. In 1998, the government to educate the children implemented the project ‘literate’ and youth aged, 10-18, who were illiterates. In implementing this project, workers in youth and women’s organizations, teachers in secondary schools, and the workers in aimag and local non-formal education centers were involved. As a result of this project, 7686 children were educated.

Since the 1990’s, when the transition period happened, many non-enrolled and dropout children’s lack of education became a problem for their further education. Therefore, the Government turned its attention to improving their lowest educational level, particularly, to develop their literacy and to increase their capacity to utilize knowledge and in accordance with their need for re-education.

Improving the population’s literacy is becoming the most important part of the adult education system. The State puts most attention on educating the illiterate adults. The expenses of literacy training courses provided by general education institutions and education and cultural centers are covered by the State.

Nowadays joint projects are implemented by the initiatives of non-governmental and international organizations and the range of these projects including activities to make dropout children and youth literate, and to give them primary education.

In 1998, "Community Based Education" funded by UNICEF provided literacy training to 4505 children, "Cattle-breeder Children’s Education" project funded by the Norwegian "Children’s Fund" served 1288 children, and "Children in Difficult Conditions" project by the "World Vision" Youth Organization provided 450 children with re-education in primary education. These activities are continuing.

In 1998, the "LITERATE" project and project supported by other public and international organizations enrolled 9424 children and youth. In same time, 15.2% of dropout children from the primary education level were enrolled into programs by 1998, 87.7% of children were enrolled into the basic education level.


Academic years










Number of children in schools/in thousand/



















Number of 8-15 years old population / in thousand/  


















Cross of enrolment










Life skills and vocational training

The next step after literacy education is the provision of living ability skills for youth and adults to give them the necessary skills to be employed by widening fundamental education.

The specialized vocational training institutions are providing the professional qualification for adults based on their needs. This service is implemented through open forms. For the improvement of adults’ general education level and to increase family income, vocational education institutions and educational and cultural centers of the local areas are organizing training programs. This training is including with literacy program for adults and expenses are completely covered by the State.

The "Poverty Alleviation National Program" and "Green Revolution" have been implemented by the Government of Mongolia to support people to increase their family income and to encourage small and medium size enterprises. These Programs’ major attention is to alleviate poverty and improve the families’ income through education, which means raising the level of basic education.

Under these two programs, training was organized on how to grow vegetables, providing these people with small scale techniques and equipment and possibility to rent the land and to borrow a small loan. In 1999, within the "Green Revolution"program, 2.5 thousand of enterprises and 114.4 thousand families (of which 33.9 thousand were poor families and 14.1 thousand were lower poor families) were enrolled. Vegetables and wheat were planted on 43.1 thousand hectares of land, 6.5 thousand hectares for potato, 3.9 thousand hectares of vegetables and 0.2 thousand hectares for fruit.

Since 1994, UNESCO has implemented a non-formal education project "To provide education for the women in the Gobi region". Within this project new technology and experiences were transferred to the local people to prepare cattle products, how to relate to the market, and how to make a profit from these activities. Also, this project contained many methods of training for the women on women’s and children’s health, healthy environment and literacy. In 1994-1996, the project enrolled a total of 15000 women cattle-breeders, and from 1996, the number of families included in this project increased to 35000.

For the improving the way of life and general educational general level, TV, radio and public information forecasting are utilizing widel. For our country the radio training method is most suitable way for the distance education for the people in local areas.


The general picture of current adult education


Adult literacy rate has reached a sufficient level and has stabilized.

Women’s literacy rate has reached a sufficient level and has stabilized.

Non-formal education system is being established and new methods and forms have been introduced.

Policy on non-formal education has been set.

A non-formal education project is being implemented with assistance of UNESCO.

The number of non-formal education centers are increasing.


Non-formal training activities are not sufficiently related to labor market requirements.

Non-formal education programs, especially distance education systems, have not yet been fully operationalized to the extent needed established and operated entirely.

Non formal education spesialistss are in short supply.

Non-formal training content and methodology is not yet fully developed.

Non-formal training manuals and materials are insufficient.

Community, local and institutional participation in non-formal education is inadequate.

Furture purposes

The legal basis for a life long education system for adults was established since 1995. Within the continuing education system, non-formal educational has been established with the help of interested groups, such as governmental and non-governmental as well as public organizations. Despite the positive achievements, this system requires more improvements.

The following medium term strategic decisions have to been made to increase the quality and accessibility of educational services for adults:

creation on of better non-formal distance education structure,

work out training curriculum and methodology,

prepare qualified personnel

establish a more complete non formal education infrastructure

broaden training facilities,


The following general picture can show the current Mongolian "Education for All" situation.


The literacy rate of the population has achieved a sufficient and sustainable level

The enrollment rate of primary education has achieved a sufficient and sustainable level

Educational policy and relevant legislation has been adopted

The educational system has been decentralized.

Non-formal education system has been established and non formal education of enrollment increases

The resource of qualified teaching personnel is sufficient

The is are sufficient enrollment rate of girls and females


Low enrollment rate in the pre-school education

Insuitable pre-school education system for herdsmen family’s children

Insustainable enrollment rate in compulsory education

Insufficient financial resources for Education for All programs

Inadequate school environment

Insustainable and insufficient learning achievement of pupils

Unsuitable teaching methodology for child development

Low participation of non-governmental organizations and stakeholders

Increasing disparities between urban and rural areas

Low enrollment rate of male students in rural areas

Future goals under the "Education for All’ in the first decade of the new century are following:

To establish a suitable structure of pre-school education to is provide education for herdsmen family’s children, to upgrade the enrollment rate of the pre-school education and to create a suitable learning environment in the family

To keep the previous level of enrollment rate of primary education, to achieve a sufficient level of enrollment rate of the compulsory education

To improve school facilities and equipment in the rural area, to take a measurements to increase the investment in facilities and equipment.

To refine curriculum, methodology and structure

To upgrade the teacher’s qualification, to increase teacher’s salary and to upgrade teacher’s dignity

To encourage non-formal and distance education system and to improve access to the internet

To encourage the involvement and cooperation of the family, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations educational activities

To encourage the decentralization approach of the education system

To improve the monitoring and evaluation system.


1. Altangerel, S. Strengthening Mongolian Education Sector Budgeting and Financing. Ministry of Science, Technology, Education and Culture, Ulaanbaatar, 1998.

2. Asian Development Bank. Country Review, Mongolia. August, 1998.

3. Carpenter, Julie. Education Sector Development Program, ADB TA 2749-MON: Institutional Strengthening of the Education Sector. March, 1996.

4. Government of Mongolia and United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report, Mongolia, 1997. Ulaanbaatar, 1997.

5. Government of Mongolia and United Nations Development Program. Mongolia Agenda XXI, Mongolia Sustainable Development in the 21st Century. Approved by Government Resolution No. 82. Ulaanbaatar, 27 May, 1998.

6. Government of Mongolia. Main Directive of the Government of Mongolia for the reform in Education Sector in 1997–2005, Government Resolution No.89. Ulaanbaatar, 1997.

7. Government of Mongolia. Medium-Term Economic and Social Development Strategy, 1999–2000. Ulaanbaatar, 21–22 June, 1999.

8. Government of Mongolia. National Non-formal Education Development Program 1997–2004, Government Resolution. Ulaanbaatar, 1997.

9. Government of Mongolia. National Program for Basic Education for All, Government Resolution 19. Ulaanbaatar, 1995.

10. Government of Mongolia. National Program on the Pre-School Strengthening, Government Resolution No.46. Ulaanbaatar, 10 April, 1995.

11. Government of Mongolia. National Program for Technical Education and Vocational Training, Government Resolution No. 41. Ulaanbaatar, 25 March, 1998.

12. Government of Mongolia. Primary and Secondary Education Law, 1995, amended 1998. Ulaanbaatar, 1995

13. Government of Mongolia. Procedure for Assessing a Outcome of State Budget Expenditure Spending, Government Resolution No. 106. Ulaanbaatar, 23 June, 1998.

14. Government of Mongolia. Renewing a Salary Minimum for Public Civil Servants, Government Resolution No. 131. Ulaanbaatar, 29 July, 1998.

15. Government of Mongolia. The Mongolian Education Law, 1995, amended 1998. Ulaanbaatar, 1995.

16. Government of Mongolia. The Mongolian Government Education Policy, Parliament Resolution No.36 of 1995. Ulaanbaatar, 1995.

17. Government of Mongolia. The Mongolian State Budget Law, 1992, amended 1998. Ulaanbaatar, 1992.

18. Government of Mongolia. Variable Costs Per Pupil in Secondary Schools, Government Resolution No. 91. Ulaanbaatar, 10 June 1998.

19. Ministry of Science and Education and Asian Development Bank. Mongolia Master Plan, Human Resource Development and Education Reform Project. Ulaanbaatar, 24 February, 1994.

20. Ministry of Science and Education and Asian Development Bank. Mongolia Sector Review, Human Resource Development and Education Reform Project. Ulaanbaatar, 21 December, 1993.

21. Ministry of Science, Technology, Education and Culture. Analysis of 1998 Education Sector Statistical Data. Ulaanbaatar, 1998.

22. Ministry of Science, Technology, Education and Culture. Education Sector; Science and Technology; Culture and Art; Sector Documents prepared for Donors Meeting. Ulaanbaatar, June1999.

23. Mongolian Foundation for an Open Society (Soros). School Based Reform –School 2001 Core Program.

24. National Council for Sustainable Development, PIU MAP 21. The Mongolian Action Program for the 21st Century. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 1998.

25. National Program for Reduction of Unemployment, 1995.

26. National Statistical Office of Mongolia. Mongolian Statistical Yearbook, 1997. Ulaanbaatar, 1998.

27. National Statistical Office of Mongolia. Mongolian Statistical Yearbook 1998. Ulaanbaatar, 1999.

28. Public Administration Reform Project. Draft of the Law, Public Finance Act. Ulaanbaatar, 1999.

29. Tseveendorj, J. Education Sector Budget Planning and Financing, paper presented at "Local Government Education Administration Workshop". Ulaanbaatar, 1998.

30. United Nations Children’s Fund. Mongolia. Annual Report 1998.


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