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   Mozambique
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  A Caixa Escolar

The Caixa Escolar (School Fund) emerged in the context of the measures undertaken by the Government to reduce the negative effects of the implementation of the Programme of Economic Rehabilitation (PRE), in particular on the most vulnerable population. The Caixa Escolar prioritises the school textbooks given its impact as an important teaching/learning source. The Fund covers all basic public and community schools of the country, that is, about two million students that attend Grades 1 to 7. the School Social Welfare Fund not only counted with the State Budget but also with donations from Canada, Denmark, Holland and Sweden.

O Modelo Osuwela

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In 1999, Osuwela Project has started its activities in Nampula, Marrere in CFPP. Its initial objective was to transform the institution into a decentralised and functional infrastructure in order to guarantee in-service teacher training, continuous pedagogic support to schools and curriculum reform.

The project has been carrying out its activities in Marrere in CFPP and in four (4) Areas of Pedagogic Influence (ZIP’s) that incorporate 42 schools.

In Osuwela Model, the 7 years + 3 teacher training model currently in use, has been substituted by 7 years + 2 +1, and its in service training component has been substituted by distance education.

In-service teacher training through distance education is done according to the Program of the Instituto de Aperfeiçoamento de Professores (IAP). However, Osuwela Model has enriched the Program with Pedagogic Baú that aims to enable trainees to apply the theoretical knowledge acquired in the course through the use of various specific materials such as books, dictionaries, maps, kits of various subjects, puzzles in the classroom.

As previously planned, the Osuwela Model also integrates continuous training, carried out through training cycles that constitute the strategy of the project for the revitalisation of ZIP’s. These cycles have been developed in ambit of Portuguese, Mathematics and Integrated Sciences, giving priority to initial Grades. Modules and didactic materials with local means have been produced for the learning cycles.

The Osuwela Model also integrates a Centre of Educational Resources (CRE) constituted by Documentation and Information Systems, Audio-visuals and Pedagogic Workshop, in order to make the pedagogic activities and the management of the project viable.

At the level of pre-service training, since the beginning, there were 550 beneficiaries of the project, 125 of which entered the 7 years+2+1 course. 2100 teachers have benefited from in-service, continuous and distance education. It is considered that the fact that teachers can benefit from continuous education enables them to conclude the distance education modules and consequently the modules faster.

The introduction of the 7 years+2+1 course reduces two thirds of the training time and boarding costs, thus, accelerating the possibility of placing teachers.

The introduction of distance education in Osuwela Model enables teachers to remain in schools, eliminates boarding costs and creates opens space for new teacher trainees.

The relationship between the project and the community has been a successful experience. The construction of Escola da Comunidade (Community House) has substantially contributed for the intervention of the Community in the training of future teachers regarding the learning of basic arts and crafts skills, traditional games, local music, the sensitisation of families that have girls in schools and to CFPP and a participative management of the environmental.

The project was subject of international evaluation in September/October 99 and was considered to be very positive from a pedagogic point of view despite some insufficiencies in administrative and financial aspects.

Table 1: Existing Nucleons, enrolled teachers, graduates, failers and in process of training teachers through distance learning

Nucleons

Enrolled

Graduates

Failers

In training

Total

H

M

Total

H

M

Total

H

M

Total

H

M

Gaza

25

712

372

340

395

210

195

62

42

20

250

118

132

Inhambane

5

132

97

35

0

0

0

11

11

0

121

86

35

Maputo cid.

19

580

216

364

353

162

191

28

17

11

222

85

127

Maputo prov.

18

481

252

229

303

141

162

19

8

11

135

69

66

Nampula

4

136

106

30

0

0

0

1

1

0

135

105

30

Sofala

27

698

620

78

395

210

195

51

44

7

248

215

33

Tete

7

132

89

43

0

0

0

0

0

0

132

89

43

Zambézia

27

843

651

192

360

260

10

51

44

7

248

215

33

TOTAL

132

3714

2403

1311

1806

983

753

223

167

56

1419

982

499

Graph 3: Percentage of enrolled teachers, graduates, failers and in process of training teachers through distance learning

17 basic-education superior technicians participated in the Masters course in Basic Education, 8 of which were women and the majority are central structures of the Ministry of Education.

The tables that follow show the number of participants per province, and sex in each of the mentioned courses, being notable concern with their geographical distribution. Although there was concern in achieving gender balance, the levels achieved were not satisfactory.

Table 2: Participants in Masters Degree in Basic Education, Bachelor in Adult Education, Continuous Pedagogic Trainers’ Training and Training in ambit of the Consolidation of Education Systems.

Masters Degree in Basic Education

Bachelor in Adult Education

Province

Total

M

F

  Province

Total

M

F

C. Delgado

4

4

    C. Delgado      
Niassa

5

5

    Niassa      
Nampula

5

5

    Nampula

1

1

 
Zambézia

3

2

1

  Zambézia

3

3

 
Sofala

4

4

    Sofala

2

1

1

Tete

2

2

    Tete

3

3

 
Manica

5

3

2

  Manica

3

3

 
Inhambane

2

 

2

  Inhambane

4

4

 
Gaza

2

2

    Gaza

5

5

 
Maputo-prov

1

 

1

  Maputo-prov

1

1

 
Maputo-ci

7

3

4

  Maputo-ci

1

 

1

Total

40

30

10

  Total

23

21

2

 

Continuous Pedagogic Trainers’ Training

Training in ambit of the Consolidation of Education Systems

Province

Total

M

F

  Province

Total

M

F

C. Delgado

37

34

3

  C. Delgado

14

11

3

Niassa

5

4

1

  Niassa

13

9

4

Nampula

29

29

    Nampula

14

9

5

Zambézia

39

37

2

  Zambézia

13

10

3

Sofala

28

25

3

  Sofala

12

7

5

Tete

25

25

    Tete

15

8

7

Manica

21

20

1

  Manica

13

7

6

Inhambane

25

22

3

  Inhambane

13

9

4

Gaza

29

26

3

  Gaza

13

4

9

Maputo-prov

23

20

3

  Maputo-prov

22

11

11

Maputo-ci

24

21

3

  Maputo-ci

3

1

2

Total

285

263

22

  Total

145

86

59

It is worth noting that the values have been calculated on the basis of the averages of the American Dollar of the respective year .

Graph 4: Evolution of level "D" and level "A" teachers

Salaries of level "D" teachers

Salaries of level "A" teachers with and without subsidies

Salaries of level "D" and level "A" teachers with and without subsidies

Still in ambit of the improvement of the living and working conditions of the teacher, their houses have been built and rehabilitated. The tables below shows an example of the number of houses constructed and rehabilitated between 1995 and 1998. It is important to note that the 1998 information does not include data for 5 of the 11 provinces of the country, as it was not available. The efforts in order to construct/rehabilitate the houses of teachers are being carried out in all provinces.

Table 3: Constructed/rehabilitated houses of teachers

 

Houses of teachers

 

Constructed

Rehabilitated

1995

809

175

1996

513

85

1997

380

11

1998

257

17

Total

1959

288

Regarding the evaluation and monitoring of the learning, a System of Evaluation of Pupils Skills on the Basis of the Curriculum was established. In 1999, Grade 2 and 3 pupils were evaluated in Portuguese, Mathematics, and from Grade 3 and 4, in Natural Sciences, which is firstly introduced in Grade 3. Tests were given to two consecutive classes in order to enable progressive evaluation of the pupils in each. Apart from the tests, questionnaires were given in order to enable the identification of the factors that influence pupils’ attainment. The objectives, methodology, conclusions and recommendations of the evaluation are presented in session 5.4.1.

The evaluation of the pupils’ skills is still under experimentation in 3 and 4th Grades in Portuguese, Mathematics and Sciences.

The System of Evaluation of Pupils Skills on the Basis of the Curriculum has enabled the creation of evaluation and monitoring skills at national and regional levels and has provided important materials to the under-going curriculum reform and for the optimisation of the continuous evaluation system and exams (these take place at the end of Grades 5 and 7).

Apart from the Integrated Evaluation System in the education system, on the basis of the current curriculum in Basic Education schools, Mozambique participated in various projects/programs of pupils’ skills evaluation and of the learning-teaching conditions, such as the following:

    1. Early Childhood

In 1983 the Government of Mozambique introduced a new System of Education in which Primary Education had 7 schooling years instead of the former 4. Pre-schooling ceased to be under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education to be co-ordinated by the Secretaria de Estado da Acção Social, later transformed into the Ministério da co-ordenação da Acção Social.

The table that follows presents the evolution of the number of nurseries and enrolled children during the period 1992-1998.

Table 4: Nº of nurseries and enrolled children during the period 1992-1998

Nº of nurseries

Enrolled children

Public

Private

Total

Nurseries public

Nurseries private

Total

1992

24

2519

1993

23

2146

1994

22

2294

1995

18

1835

1996

16

41

57

1859

1838

3697

1997

16

61

77

1968

2043

4011

1998

14

56

70

1820

1702

3522

 

The number of nurseries and enrolled children decreased during this period due to various reasons mainly:

Community schools are the main types of pre-schooling in rural and semi-urban areas. These schools emerged in 1985 to accommodate children between 2 and 6 years old and have contributed in the following:

Table 5: Nº Table 2: Number of community schools and enrolled children during 1992-99

Community

schools

Enrolled children

 

1990

74

5000

1991

204

16000

1992

287

20008

1993

324

24296

1994

435

29985

1995

520

29038

1996

414

23829

1997

351

17488

1998

401

19819

 

The development of community schools has been negatively influenced by the war and later by the restructuring of emergency and Development Programs which were then supported by organisations as children attending these schools had almost direct access to Primary education.

The development of community schools has been positively affected during the period by

Community schools have contributed for the socialisation of the child, the development of communication skills in mother tongue and Portuguese (language of instruction from Grade 1), for the development of psychomotor and mental capacities, the acquisition of basic hygiene and social concepts, drawing, painting, modelling, theatre and various games.

The community is invited to participate in the life of community schools such as during the definition of the place for its functioning, their hours of activity and educational content. On the other hand, according to their capacity and skills, community members collaborate as promoters in the development of planned activities.

The studies carried out in Mozambique at the level of primary Education have shown that children that have gone through pre-schooling tend to have a better attainment than children who have not.


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