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   Mozambique
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PART II Analytic Sections

Education Coverage

    1. Apparent (gross) intake rate
    2. Apparent (gross) intake rate (AIR): new entrants in primary grade 1 as a percentage of the population of official entry age.

      Table 1: Evolution of Apparent intake rate

       

      Apparent intake rate (AIR)

       

      Total

      M

      F

      1992

      57,0

      50,7

      63,2

      1993

      64,1

      56,7

      71,6

      1994

      64,3

      56,1

      72,6

      1995

      67,9

      59,9

      76,0

      1996

      76,0

      66,1

      85,8

      1997

      81,3

      71,0

      91,6

      1998

      81,5

      72,9

      90,1

      1999

      86,7

      79,0

      94,5

      Graph 1: Evolution of Apparent intake rate

      Graph 2: Evolution of AIR Parity index

      The number of new entrants in Grade 1 have progressed between 1992/99 by 10,9 on average per year and 104,7 in total.

      The AIR increase from 57,0 in 1992 to 86,7 in 1999. The rate of increase of new female entrants was higher than that of male. The gender parity index was in the same period 1,26 on average varying between 1,30 in 1996 and 1,20 in 1999.

    3. Net intake rate
    4. Net intake rate (NIR): new entrants in primary grade 1 who are of the official primary school-entrance age as a percentage of the corresponding population.

      Table 2: Evolution of Net intake rate

       

      Net intake rate (NIR)

       

      Total

      M

      F

      1992

      30,7

      33,4

      28,1

      1993

      8,7

      9,1

      8,3

      1994

      9,4

      9,8

      8,9

      1995

      10,2

      10,7

      9,8

      1996

      11,9

      12,9

      11,0

      1997

      14,4

      15,1

      13,8

      1998

      16,4

      17,0

      15,8

      1999

      19,6

      20,2

      19,1

      Graph 3: Evolution of Net intake rate

      Graph 4: Evolution of NIR Parity index

      After a decrease in 1993 due to change in the official primary school-entrance age from 7 to 6 years old, the number of new entrants in Grade 1 who are of the official primary school-entrance age progressed 19,8% per year on average and 194% in total.

      The NIR increase from 8,7 in 1992 to 19,6. The rate of increase of new female entrants who are in the official primary school-entrance age was lower than that of male. The gender parity index was on average 0,90 between 1992 and 1999, showing a trend to improve (0,94, in 1999).

    5. Gross enrolment rate
    6. Gross enrolment rate (GER): total enrolment in primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official primary school-age population in a given school-year

      Table 3: Evolution of Gross enrolment rate

       

      Gross enrolment rate (GER)

       

      Total

      M

      F

      1992

      55,6

      63,3

      48,0

      1993

      54,2

      62,5

      46,0

      1994

      54,7

      63,5

      46,1

      1995

      57,7

      67,1

      48,4

      1996

      62,4

      73,0

      51,9

      1997

      68,2

      79,7

      56,7

      1998

      71,4

      82,5

      60,2

      1999

      75,6

      86,3

      64,8

      Graph 5: Evolution of Gross enrolment rate

      Graph 6: Evolution of GER Parity index

      Table 4: Gross enrolment rate per province and region, 1992, 1999

      Province/Region

      Gross

      Enrolment Rate

       

      1992

      1999

      Cabo Delgado

      56,6

      67,2

      Niassa

      53,9

      55,9

      Nampula

      38,3

      63,5

      Zambézia

      45,9

      68,6

      Sofala

      41,7

      62,6

      Tete

      43,9

      75,3

      Manica

      58,5

      96,4

      Inhambane

      71,0

      93,4

      Gaza

      77,4

      85,1

      Maputo província

      75,5

      102,8

      Cidade de Maputo

      112,1

      93,0

      North

      44,9

      62.9

      Centre

      46,1

      71.8

      South

      82,9

      92.6

      Total

      55,9

      74.4

      The total enrolment in primary education progressed 8,4% on average per year and 75,8% in total. Between 1992 and 1999 the GER for both male and female increased from 55,6% to 86,3%. The gap between male and female is significant but reveals a slight improvement between 1997 and 1999.

      There are important differences concerning GER in primary education per province and region. The GER is generally higher in the South. However, the gap between the South and the North and the South and the Centre is decreasing considerably (the gap between the South and the North was 21,0% in 1992 and 11,4 in 1999, the disparity between the South and the Centre was 20,7% in 1992 and 5,4 in 1999.

    7. Net enrolment rate

Net enrolment rate (NER): enrolment in primary of the official primary school-age group expressed as a percentage of corresponding population.

Table 5: Evolution of Net enrolment rate

 

Net enrolment rate (NER)

 

Total

M

F

1992

37,8

42,3

33,2

1993

31,3

34,8

27,7

1994

31,5

35,2

27,8

1995

33,0

36,8

29,2

1996

35,9

40,2

33,0

1997

38,5

42,9

34,1

1998

40,2

44,2

36,2

1999

43,6

47,4

39,8

Graph 7: Evolution of Net enrolment rate

Graph 8: Evolution of NER Parity index

Table 6: Net enrolment rate per province and region, 1992, 1999

Province/Region

Net

Enrolment Rate

 

1992

1999

Cabo Delgado

42,0

41.3

Niassa

40,7

37.4

Nampula

27,9

36.9

Zambézia

32,6

41.7

Sofala

30,7

38.0

Tete

33,2

49.2

Manica

42,4

56.5

Inhambane

44,8

50.3

Gaza

50,9

43.1

Maputo província

48,6

54.9

Cidade de Maputo

75,3

54.9

North

33,1

38.0

Centre

33,4

44.0

South

54,1

49.4

Total

39,0

43.6

 

The enrolment in primary of the official primary school-age group after a decrease in 1993 due to change in the official primary school-entrance age from 7 to 6 years old progressed 9,3% on average per year and 70,7% in total. Between 1993 and 1999 the NER increase from 31,3 to 43,6.

The gap between male and female is significant but reveals an improvement. The gender parity index increase from 0,78 in 1992 to 0,84 in 1999.

Table 7: Percentage overaged and in official age primary enrolment by gender, 1992, 1994, 1999

Overaged

Total

Female

Male

1992

96,5

96,0

96,9

1994

93,1

92,0

93,9

1999

90,0

89,2

90,7

Official age

Total

Female

Male

1992

3,3

3,8

2,9

1994

6,7

7,7

5,9

1999

9,8

10,6

9,1

The percentage of overaged primary enrolment decreased for both male and female from 96,5% in 1992 to 90,0 in 1999. The decrease was slightly higher for female.

Only 0,3% of the primary enrolment occur in official age (6 years old). The enrolment in official age increased from 3,3 in 1992 to 9,8 in 1999. .Female enrolment in official age is slightly higher than for male.

Pupils teacher ratio

Pupils teacher ratio: average number of pupils per teacher in primary education in a given school-year.

Table 8: Pupils/teacher and pupils per class ratio

 

Pupils/teacher ratio

 

Pupils/class ratio

1990

54,5

46,6

1991

54,7

47,9

1992

53,4

46,4

1993

54,7

46,9

1994

57,7

47,9

1995

57,6

47,8

1996

59,4

47,4

1997

60,8

47,9

1998

58,6

47,4

1999

62,2

46,9

Graph 9: Pupils/teacher and pupils per class ratio, 1990-1999

The pupils per class ratio increase considerably less than the pupils/teacher ratio. In 1990 the pupils/teacher ratio was 54.5 and in 1999 had risen to 59.3. In order to cope with this growth more teachers are working in two shifts. Between 1991 and 1999 the number of teachers working two shifts changed from 17 to …%.

Although there has been an attempt to recruit new teachers who have at least completed Grade 10, the number of uncertified teachers continues to expand because of the lack of certified teachers. There is not enough institutional capacity at the teacher training centres.

Percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards.

Percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards: number of primary school teachers who are certified to have received the minimum organized teacher-training (pre-service or in-service) required for teaching in primary education, expressed as a percentage of the total number of primary school teachers.

Table 9: Percentage of teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards (1992-1999)

 

1992

 

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Total of teachers

21.776

22.342

22.542

24.599

26.503

28.705

30513

33.363

Increase

-2,6

2,6

0,9

9,1

7,7

8,3

9,4

9.1

Certified

73,3

74,6

75,7

75,3

73,3

70,4

68,1

65,0

Grade 7+1year

51,6

51,6

51,3

48,6

42,8

38,4

34,9

30,7

Grade 7+3 years

16,2

17,7

18,9

21,5

25,6

26,6

27,2

28,3

Other training

5,5

5,4

5,5

5,2

4,9

5,4

5,5

6,0

The percentage of certified teachers decrease from 73,3 in 1992 to 65,0 in 1999 due to the need to contract teachers more qualified (generally with Grade 10) but without training, in order to respond to the need of expanding system.

Apart from the high percentage of serving uncertified teachers the scenario results more complex if we add teachers with only one year of training (with 7 years of schooling plus one year of teacher training). Nowadays, this training is considered to be insufficient. However, this percentage of uncertified teachers, plus teachers with 7 years of schooling and one year of training has been decreasing from 78.3% in 1992 to 65.7% in 1999.

Internal efficiency of the system


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