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   Mozambique
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    1. Repetition rates by grade
    2. Repetition rates by grade: proportion of pupils enrolled in a given grade in a given school-year who study in the same grade the following school-year.

      Table 10: Evolution of repetition rate by grade

      Grade

      1992

      1993

      1994

      1995

      1996

      1997

      1998

      1999

      1

      28,6

      26,3

      27,3

      27,6

      26,4

      26,6

      27,3

      25,4

      2

      27,0

      27,4

      25,4

      25,1

      24,9

      24,6

      25,3

      24,5

      3

      26,8

      27,2

      27,1

      26,1

      25,7

      25,6

      25,5

      24,4

      4

      21,3

      22,4

      23,0

      22,9

      21,9

      21,8

      21,2

      20,2

      5

      21,2

      20,4

      20,3

      22,1

      20,7

      20,1

      20,0

      18,8

      Total

      26,2

      25,6

      25,6

      25,6

      24,8

      24,8

      25,0

      23,7

      Graph 10: Evolution of repetition rate by grade

      Graph 11: Evolution of repetition rate by gender

      The repetition rate has been declining from 26,2% in 1992 to 23,7% in 1999. The repetition rate is higher in the lower grades, particularly in Grade 1 (25,4% in 1999). The repetition rate is higher for females than for males.

    3. Promotion, repetition and dropout rates (cohort)

    4. Table 11: Promotion, repetition and dropout rates, 1992/93, 1994/95, 1998/99

         

      1992/93

      1994/5

      1998/9

      Grades Rates

      Total

      M

      F

      Total

      M

      F

      Total

      M

      F

      1 Promotion

      60,2

      64,0

      55,4

      61,3

      65,3

      56,3

      61,8

      64,4

      58,6

        Repetition

      28,0

      27,4

      28,6

      27,3

      26,6

      28,2

      27,3

      26,9

      27,7

        Dropout

      11,8

      8,6

      15,9

      11,4

      8,1

      15,5

      10,9

      8,7

      13,6

      2 Promotion

      60,9

      62,1

      59,3

      64,2

      66,0

      61,5

      63,5

      65,1

      61,3

        Repetition

      26,7

      26,6

      27,0

      25,4

      24,9

      26,2

      25,3

      24,8

      25,9

        Dropout

      12,4

      11,4

      13,7

      10,4

      9,1

      12,2

      11,2

      10,1

      12,8

      3 Promotion

      57,3

      58,7

      55,4

      57,3

      59,2

      54,6

      59,6

      60,9

      57,8

        Repetition

      25,4

      24,4

      26,8

      27,1

      25,8

      28,9

      25,5

      24,5

      27,1

        Dropout

      17,3

      16,9

      17,8

      15,6

      15,0

      16,6

      14,8

      14,6

      15,2

      4 Promotion

      60,1

      61,7

      57,9

      63,5

      65,7

      60,4

      63,4

      64,7

      61,2

        Repetition

      20,4

      19,7

      21,3

      23,0

      22,1

      24,3

      21,2

      20,1

      23,0

        Dropout

      19,5

      18,6

      20,8

      13,5

      12,2

      15,3

      15,4

      15,2

      15,7

      5 Promotion

      59,6

      59,8

      59,3

      58,1

      58,8

      57,1

      63,3

      63,8

      62,5

        Repetition

      20,4

      19,7

      21,2

      20,3

      19,5

      21,5

      20,0

      19,4

      21,1

        Dropout

      20,0

      20,4

      19,4

      21,6

      21,8

      21,3

      16,7

      16,8

      16,4

      1 – 5 Promotion

      53,7

      55,4

      51,4

      55,6

      57,8

      52,6

      56,6

      57,9

      54,9

        Repetition

      25,3

      24,7

      26,2

      25,6

      24,7

      26,7

      25,0

      24,3

      26,1

        Dropout

      21,0

      19,9

      22,6

      18,8

      17,5

      20,7

      18,3

      17,8

      19,1

      Table 12: Promotion, repetition and dropout rates, 1992/93, 1994/95, 1998/99

      Despite the decreased observed in repetition and dropout rates between 1992 and 1999 the primary school system (Grade 1 to 5) still have a very high wastage ( repetition 25% and dropout rate 18,3). Female fail and drop-out more than male.

      Table 13: Efficiency Indicators

      1992/93

      1994/95

      1998/99

      Total- Male and Female

      Survival rate at grade 5

      40,0

      46,7

      46,2

      Years per graduate

      15,5

      14,2

      13,1

      Coefficient of efficiency

      32,3

      35,2

      38,1

      Male

      Survival rate at grade 5

      43,7

      51,5

      48,9

      Years per graduate

      14,8

      13,4

      12,7

      Coefficient of efficiency

      33,8

      37,4

      39,4

      Female

      Survival rate at grade 5

      35,3

      40,6

      42,8

      Years per graduate

      16,6

      15,6

      13,8

      Coefficient of efficiency

      30,1

      32,0

      36,2

      The data presented above illustrate that the efficiency has been improving in recent years.

      The coefficient of efficiency improved from 32.3% in 92/93 to 38.1% in 1998/99.

      The average number of years per graduate decrease from 15.5 in 1992 to 13.1 in 1999.

      Comparing the coefficient of efficiency by gender, it may be confirmed that is higher for male. The average number of years per graduate is also higher for female.

      Expenditure on education

    5. Public expenditure on education
    6. Table 14: Total public expenditure on Education (PEE), 1990-1997

      1990

      1991

      1992

      1993

      1994

      1995

      1996

      1997

      Total public expenditures(in 109 MT)
      Recurrent expenditures

      342,5

      457,4

      764,7

      1.170,8

      1.322,0

      2.558,0

      3.120,0

      3.704,0

      Capital expenditures

      323,9

      464,9

      694,0

      1.097,0

      1.211,0

      664,0

      769,0

      918,0

      Total

      666,4

      922,3

      1458,7

      2267,8

      2533,0

      3222,0

      3889,0

      4622,0

      Education (in 109 MT)
      Recurrent expenditures

      42,4

      65,2

      103,9

      145,2

      190,2

      355,7

      541,7

      636,6

      Capital expenditures

      26,2

      10,3

      21,3

      26,3

      60,6

      52,3

      61,0

      76,4

      Total

      68,6

      75,5

      125,2

      171,5

      250,8

      408,0

      602,7

      713,0

      Education (in % of total public expenditures)
      Recurrent expenditures

      12,4%

      14,3%

      13,6%

      12,4%

      14,4%

      13,9%

      17,4%

      17,2%

      Capital expenditures

      8,1%

      2,2%

      3,1%

      2,4%

      5,0%

      7,9%

      7,9%

      8,3%

      Total

      10,3%

      8,2%

      8,6%

      7,6%

      9,9%

      12,7%

      15,5%

      15,4%

      Education (in % recurrent expenditures if debt serving burden)
      Recurrent expenditures

      14,2%

      15,9%

      16,1%

      14,9%

      17,3%

      16,3%

      21,2%

      23,8%

      In % of GDP
      Recurrent expenditures

      3,2%

      3,2%

      3,3%

      2,7%

      2,2%

      2,6%

      2,7%

      2,6%

      Total

      5,1%

      3,7%

      4,0%

      3,1%

      2,9%

      3,0%

      3,0%

      2,9%

      Education in USD (millions)
      Total

      73,8

      52,6

      51,5

      46,1

      42,4

      45,9

      53,3

      55,5

      Despite the increase in recurrent public expenditures, its value (converted in American dollars) sharply decreased between 1990 and 1994, then it started to recover again. However, the total amount for 1997 reflects only 75% of that of 1990. Considering that enrolments increased steadily in the last 4 years (1994-1997), the unit expense per student has been decreasing.

      Graph 12: Evolution of education public expenditures as a percentage of total public expenditures and GDP, 1980-1997

      Although the increase of the expenditures percentage with EP1 and EP2 (from the total of education expenditures in general) has increased from 53% in 1990 to 59% in 1997, expenditures per student decreased from US $16 in 1990 to US $9 in 1995 and increased to US $11 in 1996. In EP1, more than 90% of the expenditures are in salaries while in EP2 that percentage is 76%.

      The structure of the expenditures per level of education has changed significantly between 1990 and 1997 as a result of the relative reduction of the weight of central and provincial administration. All levels have increased their relative weight in expenditures particularly regarding Primary Education which reflects the priority given to Basic Education. At sectorial level, 74% of the expenditures are related to salaries and 26% to services. Primary Education spends about 60% of the total expenditures on Education salaries.

      Table 15: Structure of expenditures per level of Education, 1990, 1997

      Education Level

      1990

      1997

      1st Level of Primary Education

      41,0%

      46,0%

      2nd Level of Primary Education

      8,5%

      10,0%

      1st Cycle of Secondary Education

      5,1%

      8,0%

      2nd Cycle of Secondary Education

      1,6%

      4,0%

      University Education

      24,0%

      20,0%

      Central and Provincial Administration

      20,0%

      12,0%

4. External Financing

External financing is particularly important to the financing of the educational system of Mozambique, representing about half of all the resources spent in the sector between 1990 and 1994.

External assistance to the sector varied with time declining either in real terms or as a proportion of the total assistance to the country during 1991/93 (from US $67.9 million, 6.9%, in 1991 to US $56 million, 6.4% in 1993).

In 1994, after the first multiparty elections, foreign assistance increased again to about US $76 million (7.4% of total foreign assistance). In 1995, the volume of foreign assistance declined to about US $60 million, a level which will maintain until 1998.

The main beneficiary areas of foreign assistance are the construction and rehabilitation of educational institutions, accommodation, technical assistance and institutional capacity building. As a consequence of the priority given to Basic Education foreign aid to Primary Education has increased substantially (US $181 thousand in 1990 to US $4.2 million in 1995) while assistance to Secondary Education declined to nil.


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