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   Mozambique
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Primary education

Moving rapidly toward universal primary schooling and improving the quality of education in primary schools are the central objectives of the Education Sector Strategic Plan. Ensuring that all Mozambican children have access to basic educational opportunities of acceptable quality is of fundamental importance for the achievement of the Government’s broader development goals, including the encouragement of labour-intensive economic growth, poverty reduction, and increased social equity within and beyond the educational system. Providing places in primary schools for all children will reduce present regional and gender disparities in enrolment and attainment, and will help to equip young Mozambicans with the literacy and other skills they will need to obtain sustainable livelihoods in the future.

The gross enrolment rate in EP1 has increased substantially in recent years, from 54 percent in 1994 to 67 percent in 1997. The Government aims to sustain the current pace of expansion until all Mozambican children have access to places in primary schools. To achieve this goal, the Ministry plans to construct 10,779 new classrooms for EP1, and 1,860 for EP2 during the next five years (1997-2001). These new classrooms will create school places for approximately one million additional students in EP1 and 167,400 in EP2. A similar number of new classrooms will have to be constructed in the following five years (2002-2006) if progress toward universal primary schooling is to be maintained. Innovations in teacher training including a rapid expansion in capacity for in-service training will also be essential if the supply of teachers is to keep pace with the demand for school places. The Government will simultaneously seek to increase the quality of education by reviewing and revising the primary school curriculum, by expanding and improving pre-service and in-service teacher training programs, and by providing all classrooms and students with basic learning materials.

Ensuring that all Mozambican children have access to educational opportunities of acceptable quality is the state’s main responsibility in the educational system, and the Government will make every effort to provide the financial and other resources needed to accomplish the key goals of the Education Sector Strategic Plan. At the same time, it is apparent that the Government’s resources will not suffice by themselves, and responsibility for expanding educational opportunities will therefore have to be shared with a wide range of domestic and international partners. An increased role for communities in constructing schools and classrooms and supporting local teachers is especially critical in this regard, but increased participation by religious organizations and the private sector in expanding the supply of school places and increased participation by parents in acquiring books and materials for their children will also constitute important contributions.

Special education

The Ministry assigns great importance to expanding educational opportunities for children with special needs. Many children suffered physical and emotional traumas during the war, which have prevented them from attending school or have undermined their ability to learn in traditional classrooms. Children with handicaps similarly find their opportunities to learn limited, both because their access to schools is restricted and because programs and services responsive to their special needs are not widely available. At present there are only four schools for children with special needs in Mozambique, which together serve fewer than 300 students.

The key to the Ministry’s strategy for improving the educational services provided to children with special needs is the principle of inclusion. To the greatest extent possible, those with special needs will be integrated into existing schools and classrooms rather than segregated in separate schools or excluded from school altogether. Successful inclusion will require training for pre-service and in-service teachers, to prepare them for the demands of teaching an even more diverse group of students. It will also require efforts to prepare parents and communities for the changes in their schools that may accompany inclusion, along with the development of teaching strategies and materials appropriate for use in inclusive classrooms.

Non-formal and adult educations to non-formal and adult education and training opportunities in Mozambique, which is identified as a priority in the Política Nacional de Educação. The illiteracy rate among adults is estimated at 60 percent, with a significantly higher rate (77 percent) among women. Moreover, because of the steady decline in the rate of primary school enrolment in the years between 1981 and 1994, the number of young people who have never attended school is very large. Even today, nearly half of all children of primary school age are not enrolled, which means that the number of illiterate and uneducated Mozambicans will continue to increase for some time to come. Providing them with alternative opportunities to acquire knowledge and skills is an essential complement to the Ministry’s strategy for expanding access and improving quality in primary schools. Priority in the provision of non-formal education will be accorded to programs serving women, girls, and out-of-school youth.

Opportunities for non-formal and adult education may encompass a wide variety of learning activities, with potentially extensive overlap among different kinds of courses. For example, community health or AIDS education programs sponsored by NGOs may simultaneously provide opportunities for learners to enhance their literacy skills. Courses organized by employers or private sector bodies that seek to provide unemployed or unemployable young people with skills that will enable them to support themselves may also incorporate literacy or citizenship training. Catechisation or Koranic education in religious organizations often provide occasions for participants to acquire basic literacy skills. The Ministry recognizes the value and importance of educational and training opportunities provided by these and a host of other agencies.

Non-formal and adult education programs can either be provided on a face-to-face basis, or via distance technologies. The self-paced and flexibly-structured learning that distance technologies make possible may be especially appropriate for many varieties of education and training. They also make it possible to provide training at a relatively low cost when learners are widely dispersed, as IAP’s teacher training project has demonstrated. The Ministry will support feasibility studies and pilot projects undertaken by NGOs and international donors that seek to develop national capacity for or expand local implementation of distance education programs.

Because of the magnitude and complexity of the problems to be addressed, the diversity of learning needs, and the Ministry’s other strategic priorities and obligations, the Ministry of Education cannot provide sufficient financial or human resources to support extensive public involvement in non-formal and adult education. The Ministry’s principal role will therefore include the development of curricula, learning materials, and standards for non-formal education programs, as well as the provision of incentives for participation by other agencies. In this connection, the Ministry will seek to strengthen INEA as a resource centre for non-formal and adult education, charged with training trainers and producing instructional materials for all agencies involved in the sector. Some schools, including elementary technical schools, may participate directly in providing literacy or skills training for non-traditional learners.

Other key actors will include domestic and international NGOs, religious organizations, local governments and community organizations, and employers. Private sector providers may also wish to offer some kinds of non-formal and adult education and training on a fee-for-service basis. The involvement of this diverse array of providers can maximize the local responsiveness and relevance of programs, and may help to encourage and support the commitment of learners as well. The Ministry will create a National Council that includes the principal actors in the sector, to coordinate, monitor, and support their efforts.

The Ministry of Education encourages the broadest possible participation in this sector, and can offer various kinds of support to providers of non-formal and adult education programs. For example, the Ministry can supply literacy materials in Portuguese and local languages produced by INDE, or help providers to gain access to school buildings and other public facilities for non-formal education and training courses. The Ministry will also examine the possibility of establishing some sort of equivalence between skills and credentials obtained in school and those obtained through non-formal education and training programs, in order to increase the chance that students who complete non-formal courses can subsequently find employment or re-enter the formal school system. In its support for non-formal and adult education programs the Ministry will not discriminate among legitimate providers.

TABLE 4: Scenario I, numbers of students, classes, classrooms and teachers

Base year
1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Lower Primary (EP1)
Gross admission rate

75,0%

75,5%

80,0%

85,0%

90,0%

95,0%

100,0%

105,0%

110,0%

115,0%

120,0%

Gross enrollment rate

61,7%

66,2%

70,8%

75,8%

80,9%

85,9%

90,8%

95,7%

100,4%

104,9%

109,3%

Students Total

1.573.957

1.728.442

1.902.010

2.114.965

2.343.993

2.586.110

2.841.982

3.111.515

3.392.102

3.683.167

3.985.854

Graduates

75.139

80.893

90.101

102.801

119.720

137.813

158.046

183.002

211.519

242.405

275.442

Classes Total

33.206

36.084

39.217

43.163

47.353

51.722

56.277

61.010

65.866

70.830

75.921

Classrooms Total

19.251

20.920

22.736

25.024

27.453

29.986

32.626

35.370

38.185

41.063

44.015

New

-

1.669

1.816

2.288

2.429

2.533

2.640

2.744

2.815

2.878

2.952

Teachers Total

26.503

28.807

31.700

35.249

39.067

43.102

47.366

51.859

56.535

61.386

66.431

New

-

2.834

3.469

4.183

4.523

4.816

5.126

5.440

5.713

5.982

6.273

Upper Primary (EP2)
Transition Rate, EP1-EP2

80,6%

81,0%

82,0%

83,0%

84,0%

85,0%

86,0%

87,0%

88,0%

89,0%

90,0%

Gross enrollment rate

14,8%

15,3%

15,9%

17,0%

18,7%

21,1%

23,9%

27,2%

31,0%

35,4%

40,3%

Students Total

136.773

144.652

153.950

168.275

189.297

218.394

253.926

295.168

344.278

402.208

468.248

Graduates

19.888

21.418

22.580

24.067

26.408

29.818

34.509

40.150

46.665

54.456

63.629

Classes Total

2.958

3.145

3.361

3.690

4.170

4.832

5.643

6.559

7.651

8.938

10.406

Classrooms Total

1.479

1.747

1.867

2.050

2.317

2.684

3.135

3.644

4.251

4.966

5.781

New

-

268

120

183

267

367

451

509

607

715

815

Teachers Total

2.656

2.809

3.007

3.306

3.741

4.342

5.079

5.903

6.886

8.044

9.365

New

-

206

254

359

501

676

824

926

1.101

1.296

1.482

TABLE 5: Scenario II, numbers of students, classes, classrooms and teachers

Base year

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Lower Primary (EP1)
Gross admission rate

75,0%

75,5%

79,0%

82,5%

86,0%

88,0%

90,0%

92,0%

93,0%

94,0%

95,0%

Gross enrollment rate

61,7%

66,2%

70,6%

75,1%

79,3%

83,0%

86,1%

88,8%

90,8%

92,2%

93,2%

Students Total

1.573.957

1.728.442

1.896.222

2.094.196

2.299.479

2.499.488

2.695.281

2.887.570

3.068.189

3.237.956

3.400.085

Graduates

75.139

80.893

90.101

102.801

119.720

137.813

157.508

180.749

206.256

231.866

257.081

Classes Total

33.206

36.084

39.097

42.739

46.454

49.990

53.372

56.619

59.576

62.268

64.764

Classrooms Total

19.251

20.920

22.666

24.778

26.931

28.981

30.942

32.825

34.539

36.100

37.547

New

-

1.669

1.746

2.112

2.153

2.050

1.961

1.883

1.714

1.561

1.447

Teachers Total

26.503

28.807

31.604

34.903

38.325

41.658

44.921

48.126

51.136

53.966

56.668

New

-

2.834

3.373

3.931

4.120

4.099

4.096

4.103

3.973

3.853

3.781

Upper Primary (EP2)
Transition Rate, EP1-EP2

80,6%

81,0%

82,0%

83,0%

84,0%

85,0%

86,0%

87,0%

88,0%

89,0%

90,0%

Gross enrollment rate

14,8%

15,3%

15,9%

17,0%

18,7%

21,1%

23,9%

27,2%

30,8%

34,8%

39,0%

Students Total

136.773

144.652

153.950

168.275

189.297

218.394

253.926

294.705

341.945

395.810

454.255

Graduates

19.888

21.418

22.580

24.067

26.408

29.818

34.509

40.150

46.581

54.048

62.541

Classes Total

2.958

3.145

3.361

3.690

4.170

4.832

5.643

6.549

7.599

8.796

10.095

Classrooms Total

1.479

1.747

1.867

2.050

2.317

2.684

3.135

3.638

4.222

4.887

5.608

New

-

268

120

183

267

367

451

503

584

665

721

Teachers Total

2.656

2.809

3.007

3.306

3.741

4.342

5.079

5.894

6.839

7.916

9.085

New

-

206

254

359

501

676

824

917

1.063

1.214

1.327

TABLE 6A: Scenario I, projected numbers of students in teacher training courses for EP1

Courses

Base Year

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Three-year course Total

3.793

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

Graduates

952

767

716

902

781

749

864

789

770

840

794

Two-year course Total

200

640

1.080

2.150

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

Graduates

0

128

300

434

1.002

869

983

887

968

899

957

Total Total

3.993

4.450

4.890

5.960

6.510

6.510

6.510

6.510

6.510

6.510

6.510

Graduates

952

895

1.016

1.336

1.783

1.618

1.847

1.676

1.738

1.739

1.751

Number of teachers needed

2.834

3.469

4.183

4.523

4.816

5.126

5.440

5.713

5.982

6.273

Annual deficit

-1.930

-2.619

-3.218

-3.254

-3.122

-3.589

-3.685

-4.121

-4.331

-4.621

Accumulated deficit

-14.143

-20.347

TABLE 6B: Scenario II, , projected numbers of students in teacher training courses for EP1

Courses

Base Year

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Three-year course Total

3.793

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

3.810

Graduates

952

767

716

902

781

749

864

789

770

840

794

Two-year course Total

200

640

1.080

2.150

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

2.700

Graduates

0

128

300

434

1.002

869

983

887

968

899

957

Total Total

3.993

4.450

4.890

5.960

6.510

6.510

6.510

6.510

6.510

6.510

6.510

Graduates

952

895

1.016

1.336

1.783

1.618

1.847

1.676

1.738

1.739

1.751

Number of teachers needed

2.834

3.373

3.931

4.120

4.099

4.096

4.103

3.973

3.853

3.781

Annual deficit

-1.930

-2.523

-2.966

-2.851

-2.405

-2.559

-2.348

-2.381

-2.202

-2.129

Accumulated deficit

-12.675

-11.619


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