The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum
   Namibia
Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region



Previous Page Next Page



Part II Analytic sections.

7 Evaluation of Education Indicators

The evaluation of the eighteen education indicators developed for The Year 2000 Assessment are presented in this section. It was possible to obtain comprehensive data in respect of most indicators. No, or very limited, data was available in respect of six indicators: the indicators related to early childhood care and development – indicators 1 and 2 – and those related to literacy – indicators 16, 17, and 18. During the period 1990 – 1999, the first national examination for learners had been in Grade 10 and, therefore, only some survey data was available in respect of indicator 15, primary education achievement. During the first two years after Independence, in 1990 and 1991, the Ministry of Education was restructured, and a new Education Management Information System (EMIS) was developed. Limited data was available for those two years.

Namibia had two annual school censuses, the 15th School-Day Statistics, and the more comprehensive Annual Education Census. All census questionnaires were returned since 1992. The school statistics presented in this section and the ‘templates’ for 1992 – 1998 thus represent 100% of schools in Namibia. If not stated otherwise, all statistics are from the Annual Education Census. – The delineation of education regions changed twice between 1991 and 1999. All regional statistics were recalculated in terms of the 1999 delineation to obtain comparable regional figures. – The incorporation of the Walvis Bay area into Namibia in 1994 resulted in the addition of nine schools with a total of 4 899 learners. While the effect on the total education system was small, some statistics for the Khorixas education region were affected significantly.

All enrolment and intake rates were based on the so-called ‘medium’ population projections released by the Namibian Central Bureau for Statistics. These projections were made after the 1991 population census.

7.1 Early Childhood Care and Development

Indicator 1 Gross enrolment in early childhood development programmes, including public, private, and community programmes, expressed as a percentage of the official age-group concerned, if any, otherwise the age-group 3-5.

Limited data were available regarding this indicator.

Basic data available on Early Childhood Development (ECD) centers have been presented in Table 1. The early ECD centers included day care centers for children younger than one, and, therefore, the age-group 0 – 5 was taken for the calculation of the gross enrolment rate.

Table 1: Early childhood development, including pre-primary grades

Region

Enrolment

 

Estimated population (0 – 5 year-olds)

 

Gross enrolment ratio (GER)

1992

1998

 

1992

1998

 

1992

1998

Total

16 931

28 437

273 136

361 568

6%

8%

Male

8 428

13 040

136 394

181 981

6%

7%

Female

8 503

15 397

136 742

179 587

6%

9%

Note: The 1992 data include numbers reported by Verhoef (1992) and pre-primary enrolments in ‘ordinary’ schools.

Source: Ministry of Regional and Local Government and Housing, Namibia

Central Bureau for Statistics, Namibia (‘Medium’ population projection)

Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia (P. Verhoef, 1992, and EMIS data)

A number of Namibian schools offered pre-primary grades early in the decade. Enrolments in pre-primary grades in public and private schools recorded in the education statistics have been presented in Table 2. Early childhood development was considered to be a function that would best be handled at the local and community level. It was, therefore, decided to shift the responsibility for early childhood education to the Ministry of Regional and Local Government and Housing. In 1995, pre-primary grades in public schools were closed with the exception of pre-primary grades in special schools. Private schools could continue with pre-primary education, but were no longer subsidized by government. This assumedly explains the drop in pre-primary enrolment in private schools.

Table 2: Enrolment in pre-primary grades

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total

5 649

5 780

5 482

4 900

4 579

575

527

437

432

Public

-

-

4 740

4 216

3 838

150

78

30

42

Private

-

-

742

684

741

425

449

407

390

Note: The numbers include enrolments in Pre-primary and the so-called Bridging Year.

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Indicator 2 Percentage of new entrants to primary grade 1 who have attended some form of organized early childhood development programme.

Data was not available.

7.2 Primary Education

Two indicators used to measure intake rates are the Apparent Intake Rate (AIR) and the Net Intake Rate (NIR). The AIR reflects the general level of access to primary education in terms of new intake regardless of the age of new entrants. The NIR indicates the percentage of the eligible population, according to age, that entered school. Information on this indicator was only collected since 1994, and in the 15th School-Day Statistics. – The entry age was six by 31 January of the particular year. With the 15th School-Day Statistics having been collected early in February, the ages were recorded a few days after the cut-off date. It must, though, be noted that the enrolment rates reported as indicators 5 and 6, were based on the AEC which was collected six months later.

Indicator 3 Apparent (gross) intake rate: new entrants in primary grade 1 as a percentage of the population of official entry age.

Between 1994 and 1999 the AIR dropped from 136% to 101%, as indicated in Table 3 and in Figure 1. In 1994, the Namibian education system thus enrolled 136 new entrants in Grade 1 for every 100 six-year-old children in the population. The main reason was a relatively high enrolment of under-aged learners (9%) and the ‘absorption’ of over-aged children in the first years after Independence. The age distribution of new entrants has been shown in Table 4 and Figure 2. By 1999 the AIR dropped to 101% due to a decrease in the under- and over-aged new entrants, which is the desirable rate.

Table 3: Apparent intake rates for Grade 1 learners 1994 – 1999

Year

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Total

137.1%

118.9%

119.0%

110.9%

102.4%

100.6%

Male

139.8%

122.0%

121.3%

111.3%

101.5%

99.8%

Female

134.5%

115.9%

116.5%

110.5%

103.4%

101.3%

Note: The rates were based on the 15th School-Day Statistics

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Central Bureau for Statistics, Namibia (‘Medium’ population projection)

Figure 1: Apparent intake rates for Grade 1 learners 1994 – 1999

Table 4: Ages of new Grade 1 entrants: 1994 – 1999

Year

Age-group

Under-aged

Six

Seven

Over-aged

1994

8.6%

40.3%

25.3%

25.8%

1995

1.8%

46.3%

27.2%

24.8%

1996

1.1%

54.2%

26.7%

18.0%

1997

1.0%

58.3%

26.9%

13.7%

1998

1.0%

55.4%

28.0%

15.6%

1999

0.6%

56.9%

28.7%

13.8%

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Figure 2: Ages of new Grade 1 entrants: 1994 – 1999

The AIR, was nearly the same for males and females. The ‘absorption’ of over-aged learners was apparently higher for boys than for girls up to about 1996. An analysis of intake numbers by regional did not show large variations among regions.

Indicator 4 Net intake rate: new entrants to primary grade 1 who are of the official primary school-entrance age as a percentage of the corresponding population.

The NIT for male and female learners in 1994 – 1999 has been reported in Table 5. Although the AIR dropped during the same period, the NIR varied between 55.3% and 64.7%. The higher rates in 1996 and 1997, which were followed by lower rates in the following two years could not be explained satisfactorily. Intake rates of seven-year-olds decreased steadily between 1996 and 1999 from 34.6% to 29.8%, indicating that there was no general tendency towards starting school at a higher age. Other possible causes would be lower actual population numbers than projected, insufficient provision of places in schools, and decreasing demand for education. – Access to education still remained high, and the age-spread of new entrants narrowed, as shown in Figure 2 above.

Table 5: Net intake rates for Grade 1 learners 1994 – 1998 by sex

Year

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Total

55.3%

55.0%

64.6%

64.7%

56.7%

57.2%

Male

55.4%

55.1%

63.5%

63.6%

55.2%

55.8%

Female

55.2%

55.0%

65.6%

65.8%

58.3%

58.6%

Note: The rates were based on the 15th School-Day Statistics

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Central Bureau for Statistics, Namibia (‘Medium’ population projection)

Figure 3: Net intake rates for Grade 1 learners 1994 – 1998 by sex

Similar to the AIR, there had been a relatively small gender disparity in the NIR. From 1996 to 1999, the NIR was higher for females, about 3% in 1998 and 1999. There was again no satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon.

Indicator 5 Gross enrolment rate. (GER)

The GER for primary education was significantly above 100% between 1992 and 1998. It peaked at 136 % in 1994, and then decreased steadily to 126% in 1998. The rates have been tabulated in Table 6. As shown in Figure 4, there was little difference between the GER for males and females. The declining GER was mainly ascribed to increased promotion rates, as discussed below under Indicator 12. Seen in conjunction with the relatively constant NER, the decline in GER indicates a desirable development towards a education system in which primary enrolment is not much larger than the size of the appropriately aged population.

Table 6: Gross enrolment rates by sex 1992 - 1998

Year

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total

131.2%

131.8%

132.1%

136.3%

134.3%

132.6%

130.0%

126.0%

Male

129.6%

131.2%

132.2%

137.1%

135.4%

133.5%

130.6%

126.3%

Female

132.7%

132.4%

132.0%

135.6%

133.3%

131.6%

129.5%

125.7%

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Central Bureau for Statistics, Namibia (‘Medium’ population projection)

Figure 4: Gross enrolment rates by sex 1992 - 1998

Indicator 6 Net enrolment rate. (NER)

Table 7 and Figure 5 show the net enrolment rates for male and female learners in 1992 – 1998. The NER was calculated for the age group 6 – 12, based on data collected in August of the respective years. By August about half of the Grade 1 entrants who were six years old in January had already turned seven. The NER for the 7 – 13 age group, an indicator better reflecting the actual situation, was 93% in 1998, compared to the 86% of the 6 – 12 NER.

Table 7: Net enrolment rates by sex 1992 - 1998

Year

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total

81.5%

83.3%

83.9%

88.3%

88.0%

87.5%

87.6%

86.0%

Male

79.4%

81.1%

81.9%

85.9%

85.8%

85.4%

85.3%

83.7%

Female

83.6%

85.5%

85.9%

90.6%

90.1%

89.6%

89.9%

88.3%

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Central Bureau for Statistics, Namibia (‘Medium’ population projection)

Figure 5: Net enrolment rates by sex 1992 - 1998

The NER increased from 83% in 1992 to 88% in 1995, but decreased again to 86% in 1998. The drop in NIR and GIR, discussed under indicators 3 and 4 above, was assumedly the main reason for the decrease in NER. The Grade 1 to 6 dropout rate changed from 6.5% in 1994 to 4.5% in 1996 and in 1997. Increasing dropout did thus not the cause the decrease.

Net enrolment rates were higher for females throughout the reporting period. Marginally higher dropout rates of males and a slightly higher occurrence of over-aged school entry among males seemed to have caused the difference. The gap in NIR reported for 1996 – 1999 in Table 5 also contributed to the phenomenon, and may result in a widening difference in future years.

Children not attending school include children of nomadic population groups, so-called Bushman or San children, farm workers’ children, and street children.

Indicator 7 Public current expenditure in primary education (a) as a percentage of GNP and (b) as a percentage of GNP per capita.

The reporting on indicators 7 and 8 was hampered by ambiguities in the allocation of some expenditure to primary and secondary education. Schools with primary and secondary grades, so-called combined schools, were apparently assigned to either primary or secondary, and no attempt had been made to split the expenditure. The costs of hostels (boarding schools) were also included as part of the expenditure on primary education.

Public current expenditure in primary education expressed as a percentage of GNP shows the share of the value of the total national production of goods and services in a given year that has been devoted to primary education. As shown in Table 8 below, this indicator varied between 4.5% in the 1994-95 financial year, and 5.4% in 1992-93 and in 1996-97. The reasons for the variations could not be established.

Public current expenditure per pupil in primary education expressed as a percentage of GNP per capita measures the average cost of a pupil in primary education in relation to the country’s GNP per capita. Figure 6 shows that this indicator followed the same pattern as the percentage of the GNP spent on primary education.

Table 8: Public current expenditure in primary education (a) as a percentage of GNP and (b) as a percentage of GNP per capita

Year

1992-93

1993-94

1994-95

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

% of GNP

5.4%

5.1%

4.5%

4.8%

5.4%

5.2%

5.1%

% of GNP p. capita

22.4%

21.9%

18.8%

20.7%

23.9%

23.0%

23.1%

Source: Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Central Bureau of Statistics, Namibia

Figure 6: Public current expenditure in primary education (a) as a percentage of GNP and (b) per pupil, as a percentage of GNP per capita

Indicator 8 Public expenditure on primary education as a percentage of total public expenditure on education.

This indicator shows the relative share of expenditure on primary education within the overall public expenditure on education. As with indicator 7, it had not been possible to establish a satisfactory explanation for the drop in 1994.

Table 9: Public current expenditure in primary education as a percentage of total public expenditure on education 1992 - 1998

Year

1992-93

1993-94

1994-95

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

Expenditure

53.2%

52.5%

47.5%

54.2%

54.4%

56.0%

56.8%

Source: Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Central Bureau of Statistics, Namibia

Figure 7: Public current expenditure on primary education as % of total public current expenditure on education

Indicator 9 Percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications.

Namibia made considerable progress towards improving teacher qualifications during the nineties. The percentage of primary teachers with Grade 12 or higher education increased from 39.9% in 1992 to 63.2% in 1998. The official required academic qualification was three years tertiary education. Only 12% of primary teachers had this qualification in 1992. This percentage had risen to 25% by 1998.

Table 10: Percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications

Year

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total

12.0%

13.1%

15.7%

16.7%

18.1%

21.3%

25.1%

Male

10.5%

10.8%

12.9%

12.7%

13.5%

17.3%

22.1%

Female

12.9%

14.3%

17.1%

18.7%

20.5%

23.3%

26.7%

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Figure 8: Percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications

Table 10 and Figure 8 indicate that a greater percentage of female primary teachers, compared to their male colleagues, had the required academic qualifications during the whole period. The gap widened up to 1996, which could have been due to better employment opportunities for qualified males. The steep increase in the percentage of qualified males after 1996 can be ascribed to teachers upgrading their qualifications, and to declining alternate employment opportunities.

Indicator 10 Percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards.

Similar to the increase in teachers’ academic qualifications is the increase in teachers’ professional qualifications. In 1992 the percentage of primary teachers certified to teach according to national standards was 11.7%. In 1998 this figure had risen to 24.9%. As with academic qualifications, there were great regional differences between these rates. The region with the lowest percent of certified teachers, Rundu, had only 6.3% of its teachers certified in 1998 while Windhoek region had 50.8% certified. In both cases, since independence, there have been significant increases in the percentage of teachers certified to teach.

Table 11: Percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards

Year

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total

11.7%

12.7%

15.3%

16.5%

18.0%

21.1%

24.9%

Male

10.0%

10.4%

12.4%

12.4%

13.3%

17.0%

21.8%

Female

12.6%

14.0%

16.7%

18.5%

20.4%

23.2%

26.5%

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Figure 9: Percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards

In the table and figure above compared to indicator 9 similar trends are observed although the teachers certified to teach are slightly lower than those with the required academic qualifications. The reason for this is that a teacher can be highly academically qualified without a proper required teaching certificate or diploma. The percentage female teachers certified to teach are higher than that of the male teachers.

The official requirement for being considered qualified to teach in Namibia were three-year tertiary teacher education, or a three-year tertiary degree plus a teacher diploma or certificate. This requirement was relatively high for a developing country. In 1992, only 11.7% of primary teachers had this qualification, and 24.9% in 1998. On the other hand, 62.0% of primary teachers had had some teacher education, either pre-tertiary or tertiary, in 1992, and 75.4% in 1998.

Although it was considered most desirable to have teachers qualified according to the official requirements, this policy had serious financial implications. With education already receiving about 30% of the national budget in the 1998 – 99 financial year, it was not likely that the full implementation of the policy could be financed.

Table 12: Gender parity index 1992 - 1998

Year

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Academic

1.3

1.2

1.3

1.5

1.5

1.3

1.2

Certified to teach

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.2

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Figure 10: Gender parity index 1992 - 1998

Table 12 indicates the gender parity index that has been in favour of female teachers during the whole period in respect of academically qualified as well as certified to teach. In Figure 10 a value higher than one indicates that the indicators were in favour of the female teachers. The decline towards 1998 indicates that male teachers were improving their qualifications, and/or more qualified male teachers were appointed and remained in the system.

The national average teacher qualifications were ‘hiding’ the disparities between regions shown in Table 13. Less than two percent of primary teachers in Katima Mulilo and Rundu were qualified to teach according to the official policies in 1992. There were significant improvements in these percentages in most regions. In Rundu the percentage had, though, only increased to 6.3% by 1998. Substantially more teachers had a pre-tertiary qualification in Rundu, and 41.2% of primary teachers had some teacher training in 1998. – There had apparently been relatively little movement of teachers between regions to eliminate disparities, and teachers improving their qualifications and better qualified new appointments most likely caused the changes.

Table 13: Percentage of teachers qualified to teach by education region: 1992 and 1998

Region

Year

1992

1998

National

11.7%

24.9%

Katima Mulilo

1.7%

20.9%

Keetmanshoop

26.2%

43.2%

Khorixas

16.2%

34.0%

Ondangwa East

3.9%

14.9%

Ondangwa West

2.8%

16.4%

Rundu

1.4%

6.3%

Windhoek

29.3%

50.8%

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Indicator 11 Pupil:teacher ratio. (PTR)

Table 14: National learner:teacher ratio by year

Year

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total

32.1

32.9

33.8

32.2

31.6

31.9

32.2

Public

32.8

33.6

34.5

32.9

32.2

32.4

32.8

Private

19.4

20.5

21.4

20.2

21.6

22.0

22.0

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Figure 11: National learner:teacher ratio by year

Table 15: Regional pupil/teacher ratio by year

Year

Education Region

Katima Mulilo

Keetmanshoop

Khorixas

Ondangwa East

Ondangwa West

Rundu

Windhoek

1992

26.7

20.6

23.2

44.5

38.5

31.0

24.1

1995

25.9

22.0

25.6

45.3

38.0

27.8

24.9

1998

23.7

26.1

27.3

40.9

36.0

29.0

28.0

Source: EMIS Division, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture, Namibia

Figure 12: Regional pupil/teacher ratio by year


Previous Page Next Page