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   The Netherlands
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Part II Analytic Section

Part II. Developments and trends

1. Participation

Net enrolment rates (public and private schools)

 

1990

1992

1995

1997

Early childhood care (4 years)  

97.6

97

 
Primary education (6 years)  

97.7

98

 
Secondary education ( 14 years)  

98.7

99*

 

Source: OECD, Education at a glance 1995, 1998
* 15 years

 Enrolment rates in education by age and gender, full-time and part-time students,

 

1990/91

1996/97

 

Age (years)

Male

%

Female

%

Male

%

Female

%

0-4

20

20

20

20

5-9

99

99

100

99

10-14

99

99

100

99

15-19

89

86

91

89

20-24

49

39

49

43

25-29

28

20

23

16

30-34

19

14

15

11

35-39

13

12

11

10

40-44

8

11

8

9

45-49

5

8

5

7

50-54

3

6

3

5

55-59

2

4

3

3

60-64

2

4

3

3

>65

1

1

1

2

Source: CBS, Jaarboek Onderwijs 1998

Pupils/students according to age in full time education, per 1000 of the population of each age, 1995.

Age in years

Males

Females

Age in years

Males

Females

4

990

983

20

490

464

5

987

985

21

409

362

6

999

991

22

333

275

7

997

993

23

263

208

8

997

990

24

189

139

9

1000

995

25

119

83

10

999

993

26

71

48

11

990

979

27

39

26

12

988

996

28

23

15

13

994

987

29

15

10

14

994

992

30-34

7

6

15

989

988

35-39

2

2

16

933

946

40-44

1

1

17

800

844

45-49

1

1

18

674

718

     

19

575

586

     

Source: CBS Education Statistics 1997.

2. Financial resources

Gross expenditure on education

 

1990

1993

1995

1997

x NGL 1 bln

31.1*

34,368

35,254

35,809

as % of GDP

6.0*

5.9

5.5

5.1

as % of gross government expenditure  

16.2

15.2

17.1

Sources: Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999

* CBS, Jaarboek Onderwijs 1998

Total expenditure by type of education

 

1990

x NGL 1 bln

1993

x NGL 1 mln

1995

x NGL 1 mln

1997

x NGL 1 mln

Early childhood care

(Local authority spending)

     

457

Primary education

8.2*

8,035.4

9,271.3

9,707.7

basic education

6.7*

6,473.8

7,482.0

7,801.1

special education

1.5*

1,561.6

1,789.2

1,906.6

Secondary education, vocational and adult education

9.2*

     

secondary education

 

6,211.0

6,976.9

7,037.7

Sources: * CBS, Jaarboek Onderwijs 1998

Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999

 Total revenue by education type (x NLG 1 mln)

 

1990

1993

1995

1997

Early childhood care        
Primary education  

131.8

53.3

51.2

Secondary education  

91.5

45.2

33.9

Source: Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999.

Expenses per pupil /student, excl. accommodation (x NLG 1000)

 

1990

1993

1995

1997

Primary education (bo)

3.8*

4.6

5.1

5.1

Special education

12.3*

13.9

15.0

15.7

Secondary education

5.8*

7.5

8.2

8.4

Sources: Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999.

* CBS, Zakboekonderwijsstatistieken 1992; figure excl. debt service.

Funding of adult education by source (percentage shares 1995)

  Adult basic education Adult general secondary education
Central Government (structural)

63%

85%

Central Government (waiting lists)

8%

6%

Local Government

12%

4%

Public Employment Service

6%

3%

Other

11%

2%

Source: Baayens, C. et al., Monitoring and Financing Lifelong Learning. Country Report the Netherlands (n.d.)

2. Quality

Ratio of students to teaching staff

 

1990

1993

1995

1997

Early childhood care        
Primary education

21*

26.6

27.3

25.5

Special education

9*

     
Secondary education  

18.7

17.8

17.2

Adult education        

Sources: Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999.

* CBS, Zakboek onderwijsstatistieken, 1992.

Mathematics achievement of students in 4th compared with the OECD mean

 

1990

1993

1995

1997

Fourth grade    

438

 
OECD mean    

399

 

Source: OECD, Education at a glance, 1998.

Mathematics achievement of students in 8th compared with the OECD mean

 

1990

1993

1995

1997

Fourth grade    

541

 
OECD mean    

526

 

Source: OECD, Education at a glance, 1998.

Mathematics achievement of secondary school graduates compared with the international mean (1995)

 

The Netherlands

International mean

Mathematics

560

500

OECD mean

558

500

Source: Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999.

Relative score of 15/16 year olds on English tests in four European countries (1997)

 

Netherlands

France

Spain

Sweden

Lower quarter

44

22

21

32

Second quarter

62

40

42

58

Third quarter

76

54

59

71

Highest quarter

79

75

78

82

Source: Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999.

Outflow from primary education (in percentages)

 

1991

1995

1996

to special education

6.4

8.1

6.5

to secondary education

91.5

89.1

90.7

Source: Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999.

Delays in secondary education (in percentages)

Stream Cohort

No delay

1 year delay

> 1 year delay

vbo 1977

58.9

29.6

11.6

  1982

57.9

33.0

9.1

  1989

68.7

26.1

5.2

mavo 1977

54.0

35.2

10.8

  1982

64.3

31.2

4.4

  1989

72.0

25.3

2.7

havo 1977

38.1

44.3

17.7

  1982

47.4

41.9

10.7

  1989

51.0

41.0

8.0

vwo 1977

67.9

31.6

0,6

  1982

71.3

28.7

0.0

  1989

75.5

24.5

0.0

Source: Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999.

3. Gender

Percentage of female pupils/students in various types of education

 

1990/91

93/94

95/96

97/98

Early childhood care    

49.8

 
Primary education (bo)

49.6

 

49.4

49.3

Primary education [(s)vo]

31.9

 

32.4

32.2

Secondary education  

52.3

51.8

 
Vocational education        

Technical fields

 

10.0

10.1

11.5

Non-technical

 

90.0

88.5

86.8

Adult education

64

65

62

63

Sources: Education, Culture and Science Key Statistics 1999.

CBS, Education Statistics 1995 & 1997.

4. Lifelong learning

Per cent of population aged 16-65 participating in adult education and training, by level of educational attainment, 1994-95.

 

Primary education or less

Lower secondary education

Upper secondary education

University education

Per cents

17.2

29.0

44.5

51.4

Source: OECD/HRDC, Literacy skills for the knowledge society, 1997.

Per cent of population aged 16-65 participating in adult education and training, by 10-year age intervals, 1994-95.

 

16-25

26-35

36-45

46-55

56-65

Participation rate

49.3

45.1

39.5

30.3

17.0

Source: OECD/HRDC, Literacy skills for the knowledge society, 1997.

Pupils and students in full time education by school type and age category, 1997/98

 

Total

Ages

       
 

X1000

3-11

12-15

16-19

20-24

=>25

Total population (1-1-’98)

15,654

1,763

724

747

986

10,859

Total full time education

3,208

1,553

720

565

306

65

Primary education (bo)

1,564

1,487

77

     
Special education [(s)vo)]

121

65

41

15

   
Secondary education

852

1

601

249

1

 
Junior vocational education

285

 

1

219

62

4

Higher vocational education

148

   

57

154

26

University education

148

   

25

89

35

Source: CBS Key Statistics 1999.


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