The EFA 2000 Assessment: To know more about the EFA movement
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  National Coordinator:

Name: Mohammed Saleem Al-Yaqoubi
Planification and Educational Information, Ministry of Education
Address: P.O Box 3, Muscat, Postal Code 113
Sultanate of Oman
Phone: 701665 / 775643
Fax: 705659

Ministry of Education UNICEF Muscat
EFA: Year 2000 Assessment Report
September 1999
National Committee on EFA: Year 2000 Assessment Report
National Coordinator: Mohammed Saleem Al-Yaqoubi
Telephone: 701665 / 775643 / Fax: 705659 / E-mail:
National Committee on EFA: Year 2000 Assessment Report
National Coordinator: Mohammed Saleem Al-Yaqoubi
Telephone: 701665 / 775643 / Fax: 705659 / E-mail:
Address: P.O. Box 3, Muscat. / Postal Code 113
Chairman: Mr. Mohammed Saleem Al-Yaqoubi, Deputy Director General of Relations and Educational Media for Organizations, MOE.
Members: Mr. Mohammed Shehab Al-Lawati Director of Research and Statistics, MOE; Mr. Abdel Ali Al-Lawati, Director of Computer Services, MOE; Batool Hassan Ali, Director of Child Affairs, Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training; Mr. Ahmed Mohammed Al-Qasmi, Director of Information and Statistics, MOH; and Mr. Yaqoob Khamis Al-Zedjali, Head of Social Surveys, Ministry of National Economy.
Technical Committee:
Chairman: Mr. Mohammed Saleem Al-Yaqoubi, Deputy Director General for International Relations and Educational Media, MOE.
Members: Mr. Mohammed Shehab Al-Lawati Director of Research and Statistics, MOE; and Mr. Abdel Ali Al-Lawati, Director of Computer Services, MOE.

Table of Contents

PART I Descriptive Section

Assessment Process


Lists of Tables and Figures

List of Tables

List of Figures

I.1. Background

I.2. Educational Authorities

I.3. Authority Behind the Fifth Five-Year Development Plan

I.4. Co-operation in EFA

I.5. The Development Plan (Goals and Objectives)

I.5.1. Appraisal and Monitoring Mechanism

I.5.2. National Development Planning Process

I.6. The Fifth Five-Year Development Plan

I.6.1. Objectives of Human Resources Development

I.6.2. The Omani Concept of Human Resources Development

I.6.2.1. Population Policy

I.6.2.2. Health Policy

I.6.3. Achievement Targets of the General Education Sector

I.6.3.1. Objectives

I.6.3.2. Strategies

I.6.4. The Higher Education Sector

I.6.5. The Technical Education and Vocational Training Sector

I.6.6. The Labour Sector

I.6.7. The Plan’s Bearing On EFA

I.7. National Commitment and Political Will

I.7.1. Monitoring

I.8. Educational Reform and Development

I.9. Current Educational Reform and Development Plan

I.9.1. Reform Strategies

I.9.2. Goal and Objectives

I.9.3. Constituent Programmes and Resources

I.9.4. Essential Resources for Achieving the Reform Objectives

I.9.5. Restructuring the Administration System of the Ministry of Education

PART II Analytic Section

II.1. Progress of Education in the Sultanate of Oman (1990/91–1997/98)

II.1.1. Characteristics of Student and School Populations

II.1.2 Structural Dimensions of the General Education System

II.2. The Growth of General Education (1990/91 to 1997/98)

II.2.1 Growth of Schools

II.2.1.1. Increasing Enrolment and Declining Number of Public Primary Schools: Planning for Quality and Efficiency.

II.2.2. Increasing Enrolments

II.2.3. Growth of Teachers

II.3. Six Dimensional Assessment of EFA Progress

II.3.1. Dimension I: Early Childhood Care and Development Activities

II.3.1.1. Achievements

II.3.1.2. Mother Care

II.3.1.3. Childhood Immunization

II.3.1.4. Infant and Child Mortality

II.3.1.5. School Health Services

II.3.1.6. Nurseries

II.3.1.7. Net Nursery Enrolment Ratio.

II.3.1.8. Preschool Education (KGs).

II.3.1.9. KG Enrolments

II.3.1.10. Increasing Net Enrolment Ratio of Omanis in KGs from 1990/91 to 1997/98

II.3.1.11. Gender Equity in KG Enrolments

II.3.2. Dimension II: Primary Education

II.3.2.1. Access and Coverage: Entry to Primary Grade 1

II.3.2.2. Indicators 3 and 4: Apparent and Net Intake Rates for 1997/98 in Public and Private Schools (Omani + Non-Omani Population)

II.3.2.3. Access and Coverage: Primary Enrolment Rates

II.3.2.4. Public Expenditure on Education

II.3.2.5. Quality of Education

            Quality of Education: cont.

II.3.2.6. Efficiency and Wastage

            Efficiency and Wastage: cont.

II.3.3. Dimension III: Learning Achievement and Outcomes

II.3.3.1 Promotion Rate

II.3.3.2. Monitoring Learning Achievement (Grade 4)

II.3.3.3. Achievement in Arabic Language

II.3.3.4. Achievement in Science

II.3.3.5. Achievement in Maths

II.3.3.6. Achievement in Life Skills

II.3.3.7. Gender Parity in Learning Achievement of Grade 4 Pupils

II.3.3.8. Urban/Rural Area Differences in Student Achievement

II.3.3.9. Regional Differences

II.3.4. Dimension IV: Adult Literacy

II.3.4.1. Gender Differences in Illiteracy in 10 + Population

II.3.4.2. Gender and Urban/Rural Differences In Levels of Educational Attainment of the 15-Year + Age Population of the Sultanate in 1993

II.3.4.3.Rural/Urban Parity in Adult Illiteracy and Educational Attainment

II.3.4.4.Structure of Adult Literacy and Adult Education Programme.

II.3.4.5.Growth of Literacy and Adult Education in Oman

II.3.4.6.Gender Parity in Adult Literacy

            Gender Parity in Adult Literacy: cont.

II.3.4.7.Adult Education

            Adult Education: cont.

II.3.4.8. Current Initiatives in Adult Literacy

II.3.4.9. Multisectoral Co-ordination

II.3.5. Dimension V: Training in Essential Skills

II.3.5.1. Structure of the National System of Education and Training

II.3.5.2. Vocational Training Centres and Private Training Institutes

II.3.5.3. Technical Industrial Colleges (TICs)

II.3.5.4. Other Colleges

II.3.5.5. The Healthy Partnership between the Public and Private Sectors

II.3.5.6. Output of Vocational/Technical Training Programmes

II.3.5.7. Provision for Lifelong Training

II.3.5.8. Access and Equity

II.3.6. Dimension VI: Education for Better Living

II.3.6.1. Health Care and Health Education

II.3.6.2. Health Campaigns for School Children

II.3.6.3. Health Education

II.3.6.4. The Outcome of the Programme

II.3.6.5. Integrated Campaign for Disabled Children

II.3.6.6. National Committee for the Care of the Disabled

II.3.6.7. Publication of Pamphlets, Leaflets, and Posters.

II.3.6.8. Birth Spacing Campaign

II.3.6.9. Use of Electronic and Print Media for Educational Purposes

II.3.6.10. Educational Media Policy

II.3.6.11. The Educational Activities

II.4. Effectiveness of the EFA Strategy, Plans and Programmes.

II.4.1. Some Major Achievements in EFA Since 1990

II.4.1.1. Basic Education Reform.

II.4.1.2. Other Achievements

II.5. Major Obstacles Slowing the Progress of EFA

II.6. Public Awareness, Political Will and National Capacities

II.6.1. Public Awareness

II.6.2. Demand for Basic Education

II.6.3. The Government’s Commitment

II.6.4. National Capacity: Major Strengths and Drawbacks

II.6.4.1 Strengths

II.6.4.2. Drawbacks

II.7. General Assessment of the Progress of EFA

II.7.1. Access to Basic Education

II.7.2. Quality of Basic Education

II.7.3. Double-Shift Schools

II.7.4. Adult Literacy

II.7.5. Education of Learners with Special Needs


III.1. Prospects

III.1.1. Early Childhood Care and Development and Preschool Education

III.1.2. Basic Education

III.1.2.1. Access

III.1.2.2. Equity

III.1.2.3. Efficiency and Quality of Education

III.1.3. Problem-Focused Research Capacity

III.1.4. Education Management Information System and Monitoring Learning Achievement (MLA)

III.1.5. Administration and Management

III.1.6. Adult Literacy

III.1.7. Education of Disabled People

III.1.8. Partnership and Cooperation


Acronyms and Abbreviations