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PART - II ANALYTIC SECTIONS

6. PROGRESS TOWARDS GOALS AND TARGETS

World Declaration on Education For All; Delhi Declaration and the Joint Communique issued at Bali, interalia, emphasized, expanding access; elimination of disparities; improvement in quality and relevance and eradication of illiteracy through grand alliance of all sectors of society. Hence, it is more appropriate to analyze the actions taken, programmes and projects implemented and strategies adopted for development of all the six dimensions of Education For All and review the progress in the context of 18 EFA core indicators.

With an objective to assess the progress/achievement both at national and provincial levels since Jomtein Conference a comparative analysis of EFA indicators/parameters in 1990-91 and 1997-98 (last year for which data/statistics are available) has been made. Effectiveness of EFA strategy and programme reviewed, limelighting three principal achievements and highlighting the main issues/problems and constraints.

6.1 Early Childhood Care and Development

According to the latest Census Report (1998) total population of under 5 year age group in Pakistan is 18.6 million which is 14.2% of total 130.58 million population of the country with a population growth rate of 2.6% Whereas, 3-5 year age group population is 8.84 million (male 4.54 million : female 4.30 million)

Education Sector

Early childhood education had been well organized and formalized till seventees. Katchi or pre-primary classes were organized in the formal primary schools. However, officially this practice was almost discontinued during eightees. Realizing the role and significance of early childhood education especially for improving the learning achievement/competencies, provision has been made in the Current National Education Policy (1998-2010) to reintroduce Katchi/pre-primary class as a formal class in primary schools,extending the primary education for six years Katchi to grade 5. Implementation for this policy provision has not been started due to scarcity of resources. Pakistan's priority area is primary education (5-9 age group). Once the target of Universalization of Primary Education (UPE) is achieved next priority area may be Early Childhood Care and Development.

In public sector primary schools, especially in rural areas, below 5 years age group children do attend the schools informally and learn basic concepts of literacy and numeracy. But their number is limited as compared to the total 3-5 year age group population.

In private sector schools, especially schools run on commercial basis, pre-primary education is well organized being an essential part of primary education. Almost all such schools arrange pre-primary education in the form of Nursery, Pe-nursery or kidergarten KG-I I, KG-II classes.

B) Religious Education

In Pakistan like other Muslim societies Quranic/Islamic education for all is emphasized particularly at an early age both in urban and rural areas and almost equally for male and female. Such education is imparted through all the three modes of education i.e formal,non-formal, and informal either in mosques, madrassas and quranic centres by the communities or at home by the parents, even in most disadvantage and remote areas of the country. It is an effective way to inculcate moral values and teach life skills at an early age. It is estimated that more than 80% children of 4-10 year age group do get Islamic education in this way. Even in some families the family members especially mothers start teaching moral values and basic concepts of literacy and numeracy even at the age of 2 years. Role of mothers as educators is very important in Pakistani society.

C. Day Care Centers

Day Care Center and Nurseries have also been opened by the Social Welfare Department for the kids of working mothers. In these centers physical, psychological, nutritional and somewhat learning needs of infant and children are fulfilled besides proper care and lookafter in the absence of their mothers. However, their coverage is very low, limited and confined to the metropolitan cities only.

INDICATOR 1

Gross enrollment in Early Childhood Development Programmes, including public, private and community programmes, expressed as a percentage of the official age-group concerned, if any, otherwise the age-group 3 to 5.

3-5 year population in Pakistan is about 8.6 million. Out of it only 0.73 million are enrolled (total 8.5%: female 5.5%). Sindh and Balochistan have only 3-4% gross enrolment of the age group 3-5. The highest enrollment ratio is in FATA and FANA i.e 33% and 29% respectively.

Table-12

Province-wise Population of age-group 3-5 and Gross Enrollment (Public Sector) in early childhood development programmes

(In million)

 Province /area Population 3-5 Year Age Gross Enrolment Percentage
  Total Female Total Female Total Female
Pakistan 8.6 4.2 0.73 0.23 8.5 5.5
Punjab 4.51 2.2 0.44 0.12 10 5
Sindh 2.04 0.99 0.05 0.02 3 2
NWFP 1.25 0.61 0.12 0.07 10 11
Balochistan 0.49 0.24 0.02 0.01 4 4
FATA 0.21 0.11 0.07 0.01 33 11
FANA 0.07 0.03 0.02 0.005 29 14
ICT 0.04 0.02 0.002 0.0009 5 5

Source.i.Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM)

ii.EMIS, Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

INDICATOR 2

Percentage of New entrants to primary grade 1 who have attended some form of organized Early Childhood Development Programme.

Data on this indicator are not available.

6.2 Primary Education

Primary Education had been the top priority area with in education sector. Which is evident from the fact that on the average half of the education budget/allocations had been earmarked for promotion of primary education. It became possible because of the strong realization amongst educational planners and policy makers that primary education being the very basis of whole educational pyramid and having the highest rate of return (both private and social) needs to be further expanded, strengthened and promoted as a top priority area. It is certainly an achievement of post Jomtein period. However, this message has to be communicated effectively and convincingly to the politicians, communities and masses yet.

The aforementioned realization and feelings have been translated in to a number of policy measures, strategies, innovative programmes, development plans and projects aimed at promotion of primary education in Pakistan. A brief review of some of these programmes and projects implemented or being implemented since 1990 is as follows:-

I. Social Action Programme (SAP)

In primary education, the key SAP areas are *enhancing girls primary education in terms of access and quality through:-

introduction of mixed schools in places where it is culturally acceptable, introducing the provision of female teachers in mixed schools and putting them under female administration and provision of basic facilities in primary schools such as boundary walls, toilets, a supply of water.

increased employment of female teachers with a ratio of 70:30 and setting up 60% girls and 40% boys schools in future.

improving the availability of female teachers through; relaxation of age limits and qualification for entry and re-entry into the professions; relaxation of qualifications where no female teacher is available; and localization of the teacher cadre to the district level, and below.

strengthening Primary Education Institutions/ Directorates

establishing and strengthening the Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) in all provinces and at the federal level.

basing selection of school sites on merit based criteria using EMIS data.

restricting the transfer of teachers, especially during the academic year.

monitoring and assessing the effects of the new policies and related activities.

improving the quality of primary education

enhancement in the non salary budget and focus on utilizing it efficiently for the provision of classroom materials and furniture, maintenance and repairs, teacher training and others.

improving the quality of textbooks through introducing competition and choice in textbook production, and through improvements in the curriculum.

improving the quality of teachers through improved teacher training programs.

address the problem of the pre-primary or katchi class where most dropouts occur.

fostering the private sector/NGOs and establishing education foundations in all provinces and at the national level.

increased focus on the role of the community.

increased use of the private sector, for instance, for supervision or maintenance and repairs. It needs to be mentioned, that under SAP-I upto 1994-95, against 19977 schools, 12,910 could be opened, which was 64.62% of the target. Similarly, against 3487 Mosque schools, 2910 could be opened. In respect of development allocations, against Rs.21.00 billion, about Rs.17.258 billion were provided during first three years of SAP. According to the latest information around 25,000 schools have been established since 1992-93, including Mosque Schools.

II.Primary Education Development Projects:

Efforts are being made to eradicate illiteracy and promote primary education in all the provinces of Pakistan including AJK in collaboration/coordination with the Provincial Education Departments and foreign donor agencies. A number of development projects/programmes in the area of primary/elementary education are being implemented with the assistance of World Bank, Asian Development Bank, OPEC, EEC, USAID, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, JICA, NORAD, GTZ and other donor agencies. A synopsis of some of the main projects is at annexure-III.

An overview of major Primary Education Development Projects implemented during nineties is as follows:

a. III-Primary Education Project

For qualitative improvement and quantitative expansion of primary education in the province of Punjab, Third Primary Education Project costing US$ 252.35 million was launched. The cost included a loan of US.$.145.Million from the World Bank and grant in gratis US $ 17.5 Million from EEC. Under this project, 8993 Primary Schools were constructed and made functional in the Province of Punjab. New text books based on integrated curricula were developed and introduced in Punjab.

b. Girls Primary Education Development Project I & II.

A project costing Rs.1762.95 Million was completed in 1996 in the four Provinces with the financial assistance of Asian Development Bank. Under this project 880 Community Model Schools were established and made functional in Rural Areas by providing all needed educational inputs . The second phase of the subject project has been launched since January 1998. Total cost of the project is US.$.78 Million (ADB US.$ 45:OPEC 16:GOP 17 Million). The project, interalia, aims at establishment of 900 Community Model Schools, 173 Teacher Resource Centers and Quality Improvement Cells.

c. Primary Education Development and Expansion Project in AJK.

A primary Education Development and Expansion Project was launched in AJK assistance of OPEC Fund of Rs.108.9 million. The amount was utilized for construction of 255 primary schools.

d. NWFP Basic Education Project.

With a view to improve literacy rate and to have a better quality at elementary level, Primary Education NWFP Project costing Rs.13510 million has been in operation since 1994-95 with co-financing of several donor agencies. Out of the total cost 27% will be provided by the donor while the remaining 63% is being provided by the NWFP Government. Construction work of 3181 schools has been completed and 1100 new teachers have been appointed during the first two years of this project. Moreover, procurement of instructional material worth Rs.72 million is underway.

e. Sindh Primary Education Development Project.

The Sindh Primary Education Development Project has been revised to accommodate some changes in the scope and cost of the project. It was started in September 1990 at a cost of Rs.4284.3 million. 3748 two-room primary schools against the target of 5250 were constructed by 1996. Similarly, 170 five-room primary schools against the target of 475 were established. Moreover, 1864 additional class room were added to the existing buildings,5299 teachers were trained and 655 girls were provided with the scholarships in 1996.

f. Balochistan Primary Education Development Programme.

Balochistan Primary Education Development Programme 1993-98 was launched with the financial assistance and collaboration of World Bank. The programme includes the inputs such as;

Construction of 3000 new girls schools and building for 2000 boys schools;

Repair of 2800 schools;

Mobile and Crash Teacher Training programme;

Instructional materials for 1000 schools.

III.ELIMINATION OF DISPARITIES

In order to eliminate the existing imbalances and disparities between urban rural, and male female, the Government has taken a number of steps. In future all new schools will be mixed schools and 70% teachers in the new schools will be female. The recruitment age of female teachers has been relaxed to increase their availability. To retain the girl child in rural schools, free textbooks, stipends and nutritional food are being provided in disadvantaged and far off areas. This has resulted in an increase in enrolment and a reduction in the drop out rate. Besides, focus on increased female participation rural areas is also pre-eminent in the 8th Plan. More than 2/3rd of all primary schools opened in the rural areas of Pakistan to remove the historic imbalance.

IV. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

In order to facilitate the rapid expansion of primary education, Education Foundations have been set up in all the Provinces and at the national level. According to the governing principles of the foundations 50% of the cost of opening new primary schools will be provided by the private sector, NGOs and community organizations, and the remaining 50% will be provided by the Government both as grants and loans. Besides, 25% of the recurring cost will be met by the sponsor and 75% by the government for a period of five years. The programmes under implementation by the National Education Foundation include Community Support Rural Programme; Urban Fellowship Programme; Training of Private School Teachers; Financial Assistance to Private schools and NGOs programme; Education Programme for Working Children; and Participatory Development Programmes.

V. LEGISLATION FOR COMPULSORY PRIMARY EDUCATION

Apart from motivational campaigns, primary education has also been made compulsory through legislation by the Government of Punjab. Other Provinces of Pakistan are working on similar lines. NWFP government has already approved the compulsory primary education bill. However, enforcement is still pending. Poverty, high oppportunity cost and lack of adequate facilities and services at easily accessible distance are some of the main causes for delay in enactment and enforcement of compulsory primary education in Pakistan. Current National Education Policy (1998-2010) envisages promulgation and enforcement of free and compulsory primary education act in a phased manner.

IMPACT/ACHIEVEMENT SINCE 1990

Impact achievement in primary education since 1990 has been assessed with reference to EFA indicators/parameters pertaining to gross enrollment - net enrollment and participation rate as follows:

INDICATOR 3

Apparent (Gross) Intake Rate: new entrants in primary grade-I as a percentage of the population of official entry age.

Gross intake rate in grade 1 is 99.8% total and 83,3% female. It is very encouraging to note that in all the provinces and areas of the country except the province of Sindh gross intake rate exceeded 100%. Even female intake rate is fairly high being more than male in Islamabad, except in FATA and Sindh.

TABLE-13

Province-wise Apparent Gross Intake Rate in Grade-1 1997-98

(in million)

 Province /area Population 5 Year Age New Entrants Grade-I Percentage
  Total Female Total Female Total Female
Pakistan 4.34 2.08 2.66 1.14 99.8% 88.3%
Punjab 2.32 1.12 2.38 1.04 103% 93%
Sindh 1.01 0.49 0.75 0.26 74% 54%
NWFP 0.61 0.29 0.81 0.32 132% 109%
Balochistan 0.24 0.11 0.29 0.10 121% 94%
FATA 0.11 0.05 0.15 0.02 139% 465
FANA 0.03 0.016 0.05 0.017 148% 104%
ICT 0.02 0.009 0.025 0.012 127% 132%

Source:i.Academy of Educationall Planning and Management (AEPAM).

ii.EMIS Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

Factors Affecting Enrolment in Primary Schools

Pakistan Integrated House Hold Survey (PIHS)1998 highlighted the following main factors which adversely affect the primary school enrolment creating the problem of non- attendance and low participation rate.

I Distance and Access to Primary School:

Table 14 shows that a boys' primary school was located within I k.m of the 77 prcent of the Primary Sampling Units( PSUs)/villages/settlements in the country, whereas a girls' primary school was located with in 1 km in 69 percent of the PSUs. In urban areas, both government and non-government schools apper to be equally accessible, and approximately four fifths of all PSUs had each of these types of school within I km. In rural areas, however, access to non-government primary schools was markedly poorer, and less than out of every 5 PSUs is within I km of a non-government school.

Access to primary level schooling for boys was similar accross all provinces of the country. Access to girls' primary level schooling in rural sindh, however, was markedly poorer than in other parts of the country. Only 31 percent of PSUs had a School within I km of the PSU compared to 60 percent for the country as a whole.

Table-14

ACCESS TO PRIMARY LEVEL SCHOOLS

 Region/Area GENDER, TYPE OF SCHOOL AND PROVINCE PERCENTAGE OF PSUS WITH SCHOOL WIHTIN 1 KM
    URBAN RURAL OVERALL PAKISTAN
Country level Boys:

Government

Non-Government

Either

GIRLS

Government

Non-Government

Either

 

82

80

94

 

 

79

82

93

 

71

17

71

 

 

59

16

60

 

74

35

77

 

 

65

35

69

Province-wise BOYS PRIMARY SCHOOL

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Balochistan

GIRLS PRIMARY SCHOOL

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Balochistan

 

94

95

92

91

99

 

93

93

92

94

97

71

70

63

75

77

 

60

64

31

61

68

77

77

79

77

79

 

69

72

65

64

70

Source:-Pakistan integrated Household Survery Report 1998.

II. Income of household

Household incomes are an important factor in determining whether or not children in a particular household attend school. The lower the income of a particular household, the less likely it is able to afford to pay tuition fees and other schooling related expenses. The likelihood that a child has ever attended school increases as the income of the household increases. It therefore appears plausible that a child's likelihood of attending school will be inversely related to the number of other children in the household as, holding household income and other relevant factors constant, the greater the number of children in a given household, the less the amount that will be available for each child's schooling. Hence, the lower the chance that the child ever attends school.

III. Education of Parents.

The most frequently cited reason why the child did not attend school was because the parents did not allow the child to attend school.

In sort three main internal and three external factors for low enrolement in Pakistan , according to research findings, alongwith their rank order are as follows:-

Internal Reasons for Low Enrollment

(i) Distance as well as lack of facilities in schools

(ii) Defective textbooks and curriculum which is beyond the comprehension level of students.

(iii) Harsh attitude of teacher.

External Reasons for Low Enrollment

(i) Poverty of parents

(ii) Parent's lack of understanding of value of education

(iii) Opportunity cost to the parents by sending the child to school

INDICATOR 4: NET INTAKE RATE:

New entrants to primary grade-I who are of the official primary school entrance age as percentage of the corresponding population.

National average of net intake rate in grade-I is 59.7% total and 53.6% female against 50% total and 41% female net enrolment ratios at primary level grade (1-V). It shows that in coming years net enrolment at primary level is expected to improve considerably. Net intake rate in the province of Sindh (total 20%: female 21%) is the lowest in the country.

Table-15

Province-wise Population, net enrolment and net intake

(public sector) in grade-I (1997-98)

(In million)

  Province/

area

Population 5 year age group Net Enrolment Net Intake Rate (percent)
  Total Female Total Female Total Female
Pakistan 4.34 2.08 2.66 1.14 59.7 53.6
Punjab 2.32 1.11 1.94 0.92 83 83
Sindh 1.0 0.49 0.2 0.07 20 15
NWFP 0.61 0.29 0.36 0.10 58 36
Balochistan 0.24 0.11 0.07 0.02 29 21
FATA 0.11 0.05 0.06 0.01 61 20
FANA 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.008 61 51
ICT 0.02 0.013 0.009 0.007 71 73

Source: i. Academy of Educationall Planning and Management(AEPAM).

ii.EMIS Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

INDICATOR 5 Gross Enrolment Ratio.

It is surprising to note that overall public sector gross enrollment at primary level has decreased by 17.8% in the province of Sindh and 7.7% in Punjab. Country level increase in gross enrollment is only 5.6% in eight years. Highest increase could be possible in the federal ares i.e. FANA 140%, ICT 96% and FATA 82%. See the following table for details.

Table-16

Province Wise (Public Sector) Gross Enrolment at Primary Leve (I-V) (1990 AND 1998)

(IN MILLION)

  1990-91 1997-98 CHNAGE
Pakistan 11.5 12.14 +5.6
Punjab 6.5 6.0 -7.7
Sindh 2,7 2.22 -17.8
NWFP 1.4 1.98 +41.4
Balochistan 0.56 0.60 +7.14
FATA 0.17 0.31 +82
FANA 0.04 0.096 +140
ICT 0.05 0.098 +96

Note: Private Sector data for base year i.e. 1990-91 not available. Hence, only public sector comparison is possible.

Source:i. Academy of Educationall Planning and Management (AEPAM).

ii. EMIS Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

Because of high priority and focus given to female education and number of interventions and inputs made through the development projects, female gross enrollment has increased substantially in all the provinces and areas except punjab. In the northern part of the country i.e. FANA, NWFP and FATA increase is the highest that is 287%, 157% and 150% respectively. Male enrolment also increased in these areas but not substantially. In the provinces of Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan male enrolment has decreased as shown in the following tables:

Table-17

PROVINCE WISE PUBLIC SECTOR FEMALE GROSS ENROLMENT

AT PRIMARY LEVE (I-V) 1990 AND 1998 (IN MILLION)

  1990-91 1997-98 CHNAGE(%)
Pakistan 3.69 4.39 +18.97
Punjab 2.6 2.56 -1.5
Sindh 0.70 0.77 +10
NWFP 0.28 0.72 +157
Balochistan 0.09 0.21 +133
FATA 0.02 0.05 +150
FANA 0.008 0.031 +287
ICT 0.025 0.047 +88

Source:i.Academy of Educationall Planning and Management (AEPAM).

ii. EMIS Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

iii. Central Bureau of Education Ministry of Education

Table -18

PROVINCE WISE PUBLIC SECTOR MALE GROSS ENROLMENT

AT PRIMARY LEVE (I-V) 1990 AND 1998 (IN MILLION)

  1990-91 1997-98 CHNAGE %
Pakistan 7.79 7.44 -4.5
Punjab 3.93 3.46 -12
Sindh 2.0 1.45 -27.5
NWFP 1.17 1.26 +7.7
Balochistan 0.47 0.39 -17
FATA 0.15 0.26 +73
FANA 0.030 0.07 +112
ICT 0.03 0.053 +76.7

Note: Private Sector data for base year i.e. 1990-91 are not available.

Hence, only public sector comparison is possible.

Source:i. Academy of Educationall Planning and Management (AEPAM).

ii. EMIS Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

Despite decrease in male enrolment in public sector in some of the provinces participation rate has increased considerably since 1990. it could be possible because of massive increase in private sector gross enrollment in ninetees. A record increase of 24% from 60% in 1990-91 to 84% in 1997-98 in gross participation rate is a great achievement in primary education in Pakistan. Participation rate has increased in all the provinces and areas of the country both for males and females in urban as well as rural areas of the country.

Table-19

National level Gross participation Rate (Public + Private) 1997-98

(In million)

  Population (Million)

Gross Enrolment (Million) Gross Participation Rate (Percent)
  Total Female Total Female Total Female
Public - - 11.78 4.58 57.6 46.6
Private - - 5.3 2.2 26.0 21.9
Total 20.46 9.8 16.6 6.5 81.3 66.6

Note:- Province wise data for private sector not available.

Source: I.Academy of Educationall Planning and Management (AEPAM).

II. EMIS Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

INDICATOR 6 Net enrolment ratio

In 1998 total primary school age group (5-9+ year) population was 20.46 million which is 15.6% of total population. Half of these children i.e 10.05 million live in the province of punjab against only 1.14 million in Balochistan.

Out of these 20.46 million primary school age children only 12.12 million (60%) are enrolled in schools. 50% in public sector schools and only 10% in private sector. A large segment of this age group i.e 8.3 million (40%) is not enrolled in schools.

Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) having 97% net enrollment has almost achieved the target of universalization of primary education. Province of Balochistan has the lowest net enrollment ratio i.e. 46% followed by FANA 50% and Sindh 53%. For details see the table given below:

Table-20

PROVINCE-WISE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR

NET ENROLMENT (TOTAL) AT PRIMARY LEVEL (1-V) 1997-98

(IN MILLION)

 Province/

Area

5-9 Year age Group Population Net Enrolment Percentage Left

Out

    Public Private Total Public Private Total Total
Pakistan 20.46 10.10 2.02 12.12 50% 10% 60% 8.34
Punjab 11.05 5.57 1.15 6.72 50.4% 10% 60.4 4.33
Sindh 4.68 1.98 0.51 2.49 42% 11% 53 2.19
NWFP 2.98 1.67 0.27 1.94 56% 9% 65 1.04
Balochsitan 1.14 0.47 0.06 0.53 41% 5% 46 0.61
FATA 0.37 0.23 0.015 0.245 62% 4% 66 0.125
FANA 0.15 0.07 0.005 0.075 47% 3% 50 0.075
ICT 0.10 0.087 0.01 0.097 87% 10% 97 .003

Source:i. Academy of Educationall Planning and Management (AEPAM).

ii. EMIS Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

Table-21

PROVINCE WISE 5-9 AGE GROUP POPULATION AND NET ENROLMENT

(1-V) AND OUT OF SCHOOL (PUBLIC SECTOR) FEMALES 1997-98

(IN MILLION)

 Province/Area Population

5-9 age group

Net enrolment Percentage Out of School Children (girls) Percentage
Pakistan 10.0 4.11 41% 5.89 59%
Punjab 5.34 2.44 46% 2.9 54%
Sindh 2.24 0.69 31% 1.55 69%
NWFP 1.43 0.56 39% 0.87 61%
Balochistan 0.51 0.16 21% 0.35 69%
FATA 0.18 0.04 22% 0.14 78%
FANA 0.07 0.02 29% 0.05 71%
ICT 0.05 0.04 80% 0.01 20%
           

Source:i.Academy of Educationall Planning and Management (AEPAM).

ii.EMIS Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.

CAUSES OF LOW ENROLMENT

Some of the basic causes of low enrolments of girls at all levels of education and continuinng large male-female differentials in literacy and participation rates, as identified by different research studies and groups of experts are as follows:-

(i) Poverty, illiteracy and conservatism of the parents generating negative attitudes against the education of girls.

(ii) Low base of female education at the time of independence and persistent obsession of parents planners and community leaders that first available educational facility must be reserved for boys and girls be treated as a second preference as compared to boys.

(iii) Demand for separate girls schools and lack of adequate financial support.

(iv) Non-availability of qualified and experienced female school teachers and neglect of basic physical facilities for female schools.

(v) Lack of incentives for girls to attend schools and teachers to take up teaching duties with commitment and devotion.

(vi) Irrelevant curricula and ineffective teaching methodology for multigrade teaching in schools where two teachers teach five classes in one or two rooms.

(vii) Inhibiting role of uneducated mothers and severe attitudinal barries to girls education in the rural and tribal areas.

(viii) Non-existence of a girls primary school or availability of a school at an inaccessible distance.

(ix) Heavy population growth-rate and burden of house hold work in large families on the female children.

(x) Absence of essential facilities like drinking water, mats for squatting or benches for sitting, urinals and space for playing, ets in existing girls schools.

(xi) Apathy of the community and ineffective supervisory system.

(xii) Poor impact of non-governmental organisations on the motivation of parents and girls.

Table-22

PROVINCE WISE 5-9 AGE GROUP POPULATION NET ENROLMENT (1-V)

AND OUT OF SCHOOL CHILDREN (PUBLIC SECTOR) MALES 1997-98

(IN MILLION)

 Province/Area Population 5-9 age group Net enrolment Percentage Out of School Children ( boys) Percentage
Pakistan 10.6 6.1 61% 4.5 39%
Punjab 5.7 3.2 56% 2.5 44%
Sindh 2.44 1.29 52% 1.17 48%
NWFP 1.55 1.11 72% 0.44 28%
Balochistan 0.63 0.31 49% 0.32 51%
FATA 0.19 - - - -
FANA 0.08 0.05 62% 0.03 38%
ICI 0.05 0.046 92% 0.004 8%

Source:i.Academy of Educationall Planning and Management (AEPAM).

ii. EMIS Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan.


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