The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum
   Pakistan
Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region



Previous Page Next Page



II NATIONAL STUDY ON MEASURING LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT AT PRIMARY LEVEL IN PAKISTAN

A national research study on monitoring learning achievement at grade 4 level has been conducted by Academy of Educational Planning and Management in collaboration with UNESCO in 1999. The main objectives of the study were to measure the learning achievement of grade 4 students in the subjects of Science, Mathematics and Urdu Language as per prescribed curriculum and develop a baseline qualitative data to meet EFA year 2000 assessment requirements.

It was a national sample study in a sense that the study was based on standardized tests/instruement developed in consultation with the experts of all provinces/regions. Secondly, it covered all provinces and federating units. The sample comprised total 2794 students (boys 1411, girls 1383) taken from 145 sample primary schools (boys 75: girls 70) drawn from 28 districts covering about 20% of the area of the country. Out of these students, 1345 (48%) were urban and the remaining 1449 (52%) were rural.

Province, gender, area (rural/urban) and subject-wise results/findings in terms of average percentage score are as follows:-

Table-34

Average percent score in sciene by gender, location and province/region(1999)

 Province/ Region Urban Rural All areas
  Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
National 75 78 76 68 69 69 71 74 72
Punjab 80 88 84 80 79 79 80 84 82
Sindh 86 85 85 86 82 85 86 84 85
NWFP 70 73 72 65 71 68 66 72 69
Balochistan 68 68 68 52 68 60 62 68 65
Federal Area 67 71 69 60 54 57 63 60 62

Source:- Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Report on "Measuring Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Pakistan" October,1999.

It was observed from the above table that the students of Sindh recorded the best scores in Science followed by Punjab and NWFP whereas the lowest scores recorded by Federal Areas (Islamabad, FATA,FANA) and Balochistan respectively. It is interesting to note that except in Punjab in all other Provinces the girls out scored boys in Science. The highest scores i.e. 88% recorded by the urban girls of Punjab whereas the lowest score i.e. 68 recorded by the urban girls of Balochsitan. It was also observed that in most case the urban girls out performed there male counterparts except in Sindh. The rural boys of Punjab, Sindh and Federal Areas better than the rural girls whereas rural girls did better than the rural boys in NWFP and Balochistan. The trend indicates that in all the provinces except Sindh the girls were performing better as compared to the boys. It was also noted that the urban boys and girls did better than the rural boys and girls. Generally, all students did better in Science.

Table-35

Average percent score in Mathematics by gender,

location and province/region(1999)

 Province/

Region

Urban Rural All areas
  Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
National 62 62 62 56 52 54 59 57 58
Punjab 70 71 70 63 67 65 66 69 68
Sindh 77 82 80 82 82 82 79 82 81
NWFP 64 53 57 58 51 55 59 52 55
Balochistan 52 44 48 41 44 42 48 54 46
Federal Area 47 50 49 41 32 37 44 39 41

Source:- Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Report on "Measuring Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Pakistan" October,1999.

It was observed from the above table that again students of Sindh recorded the best scores in Mathematics followed by Punjab and NWFP whereas the lowest scores recorded in Federal Areas and Balochistan respectively. It was noted that the girls in Pubjab and Sindh out scored boys in Mathematics. Whereas in, NWFP, Balochistan and Federal Areas the boys did better than the girls. The highest scores i.e 82% recorded by the urban girls of Sindh whereas the lowest scores i.e 44% recorded by the urban girls of Balochistan. Urban girls of Sindh and Punjab demonstrated higher level of performance than their male counterparts. Whereas in NWFP, Balochistan and Federal Areas the urban boys did better than urban girls. In Punjab the rural girls did better than the rural boys whereas in NWFP, Balochistan and Federal Areas the rural girls recorded higher score than the rural girls. In Sindh both the rural girls and boys obtained the same score i.e 82%. The trend indicates that in all the provinces expect Punjab and Sindh the boys performed better than girls. It was also noted that the urban boys and girls did better than the rural boys and girls except in Sindh where this trend was reversed.

Table-36

Average percent score in Urdu by gender, location and province/region (1999.

 Province/

Region

Urban Rural All areas
  Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
National 73 79 76 64 71 67 68 75 72
punjab 80 88 84 76 84 80 78 86 82
Sindh 87 94 91 85 91 88 86 94 90
NWFP 72 65 68 60 74 66 62 71 67
Balochistan 59 69 64 49 67 58 55 68 62

 

Federal Areas 65 67 66 54 52 53 58 58 58

Source:- Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Report on "Measuring Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Pakistan" October,1999.

The data /statistics given in table-36 indicate striking similarities in student performence in the subject of Urdu with other two subjecs i.e Science and Mathematics as mentioned above. The students of Sindh recorded the best scores in Urdu followed by Pubjab and NWFP whereas the lowest scores recorded by Federal Areas and Balochistan respectively. It was revealed that in all the provinces the girls out performed the boys in Urdu. The highest scores i.e.94% recorded by the urban girls of Sindh whereas the lowest scores i.e 49% recorded by rural boys of Balochistan. It was also observed that in most of the cases the urban girls out performed there male counterparts. It is interesting to note that even rural girls did better than the rural boys in all the provinces/regions except Federal Areas where the trend was reversed. The trend indicates that in all the provinces the girls performed better as compared to the boys. It was salso noted that the urban boys and girls did better than the rural boys and girls. Generally, it was found that all students did better in urdu particularly the students of Sindh and Pubjab have obtained the highest scores.

III. EDUCATION FOR ALL PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH (COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC, PRIVATE AND NGO SCHOOLS)

Action Aid Pakistan, an Islamabad based UK sponsored NGO, conducted a sample survey/study in six sample districts of all the four provinces and AJK in 1999. The survey covered 50 sample schools and 965 students in Public, Private and NGO sector. Survey tool/instrument comprised learning assessment questionnaires in the subjects of Mathematics, Urdu and General knowledge, focus group discussions and interviews. Major findings of the study particularly in learning achievement of grade 4 students are as given below:

Learning achievements of grade 4 students

The performance of students in private schools was better in all three subjects than the public and NGO schools also Students enrolled in the NGO schools also performed better, though slightly, than their counterparts in the public schools. These differences were observed with respect to both the average marks and range of marks, . For example overall, on average private school students obtained 75 percent marks in all three tests. Average marks were 64 and 66 percent respectively for students enrolled in the public and NGO schools. The same pattern was observed in the subject wise assessment of students i.e. in Mathematics, Urdu and General knowledge as given below.

TABLE-37

Subject wise Percentage distribution of class 4 children in terms of

marks obtained, type of school and average marks

 Subjects/

School

Type

 

 

 

<40

Range of marks obtained

40-59 60-79 >80

Total Average

marks

Mathematics

Public

NGO

Private

All Schools

 

28.8

27.4

13.5

23.7

 

29.9

23.0

19.4

24.5

 

20.4

25.8

38.8

27.7

 

20.9

23.9

28.4

24.1

 

100

100

100

100

 

56.6

58.7

66.2

60.2

Urdu

Public

NGO

Private

All Schools

 

9.2

9.1

0.7

6.6

 

31.8

32.4

15.9

27.3

 

27.9

21.1

27.7

25.6

 

31.0

37.4

55.7

40.5

 

100

100

100

100

 

67.3

68.2

79.5

71.3

General Knowledge

Public

NGO

Private

All Schools

 

14.0

11.9

1.4

9.5

 

12.3

14.5

7.6

11.6

 

25.7

23.6

19.7

23.2

 

48.0

50.0

71.3

55.6

 

100

100

100

100

 

71.1

73.1

83.0

75.3

All Tests

Public

NGO

Private

All Schools

 

11.7

11.6

1.7

8.7

 

32.1

32.7

14.2

26.9

 

31.0

24.2

37.7

30.8

 

25.1

31.4

46.4

33.6

 

100

100

100

100

 

64.0

65.6

75.1

67.9

Source :Action Aid Pakistan (AAPK) Survey, 1999

Two more dimensions of the assessment of class-4 students seem to be important. First, take the example of students who obtained more than 80 percent marks. In private schools 46 percent of students obtained this percentage, while the corresponding figure for the students of NGO school was 31 percent. In the case of students in the public schools it declined to 25 percent. This pattern persisted for all three subjects, Mathematics, Urdu and General Knowledge. Second, take the example of students who obtained less than 40 percent marks. In this range of marks there was no major difference between the students of public and NGO schools. However, only a small proportion of private school students was found in this range.

These results are consistent with the focus group discussions and preception of parents about the quality of education. Focus group participants commented that in terms of quality of education private and NGO schools are better than public schools. The participants of four out of total six focus groups considered that quality of education was better in private schools than in NGO schools. Some participants were very critical even on private schools. According to the school survey results, in parents' opinion, the quality of education was better in private schools followed by NGO and public schools.

Gender Wise assessment

Performance of the boys in achievement tests was consistently better than the girls. On average boys obtained 71 per cent marks in all tests while the corresponding figure for girls was 64 per cent. The same was the subject wise position. Even after controlling the type of school the performance of boys was better than the performance of girls . There is a possibility that female students help their mothers after school hours leaving little or no time for studies. Details are given in the following table.

Table-38

Average marks obtained by class 4 children by subjects, type of school and gender.

 Type of

School

Sex of

Child

Subjects

 

All
 

 

Public

 

NGO

 

Private

 

 

All Schools

 

 

Boys

Girls

 

Boys

Girls

 

Boys

Girls

 

Boys

Girls

 

Math

64.8

47.1

 

57.8

59.2

 

69.4

59.8

 

64.8

54.9

Urdu

71.0

62.3

 

67.7

68.5

 

80.4

77.9

 

73.7

68.5

G.Knowledge72.2

69.9

 

74.2

72.3

 

85.0

78.8

 

77.5

72.8

 

68.8

58.4

 

65.4

65.8

 

77.2

71.0

 

71.1

64.2

Source: Action Aid Pakistan Survey, 1999.

 CASE STUDY-I

TOWARDS ASSESSMENT OF GRADE 3 LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT

Test Development Centre (TDC), established at Curricula Research Development Centre, Punjab is working on the assessment component of the Punjab Middle Schooling Project. TDC as a part of its activities, has developed model assessment questions in all subjects at the elementary level.

Assessment questions for grade 3&5 were piloted in February 1999, on a selected sample of 44 schools in Lahore division. This report is based on the piloting of grade 3 tests. It contains objectives and specific results for the subjects of English, Mathematics and Science:

SUBJECT REPORT - ENGLISH - III

Objective: Ability to Select and Write appropriate word to complete a sentence or question.

Fives questions were used to assess this objective. Results show that 12% students attained marks less than 25%. 24% got marks between 25% to 50%. 30% of students got marks between 51% to 75%. 33% students got marks more than 75% and attained mastery level.

 

Objective: Ability to Write simple words with vowels(a,e,i,o & u).

Seven questions were used to assess this objective. Results show that 17% students got less than 25% marks. 29% students got marks between 25% to 50% . 32% students got 51% to 75% marks . Only 22% students could got mastery level in this objective. Students' performance on this objective has been average.

Objevtive: Ability to Identify and name familiar objects in singular and plural forms

Five question were used to assess this objective. Through this objective student's knowledge about singular and plural was assessed. Results show that 25% students got marks less that 25%. 24% students got marks between 25% to 50% . 22% students got marks between 51% to 75% . Only 29% students could attain mastery level in this objective. Students have shown average performance on this objective.

Objective: Ability to comprehend simple sentences.

Four questions were used to assess this objective. In these questions students had to read the given simple sentence and answer the simple questions given at the end. Results show that at this level students are unable to understand the sentences. 81% students got marks less than 25%. 10% students got marks between 25% to 50%. 6% students got marks between 50% to 75%. Only 3% students could attain mastery

Student's performance on this objective had been very poor.

SUBJECT REPORT - MATHEMATICS(III)

Objective: Ability to solve the simple problems involving addition and subtraction of measuring units.

50% students got less than 25% marks, 30% got 25%-50% marks. 9% got 51%-75% marks and 11% got more than 75% marks. Students performed poorly on this objective.

Objective: Ability to use the commutative property of multiplication.

40% students got less than 25% marks, 29% got 25%-50% marks, 12% got 51%-75% marks and 19% attained mastery level.

Objective: Ability to add and subtract proper fraction, which has the same denominator

29% students got less than 25% marks, 46% got 25% 50% marks, 15% got 51%-75% marks and 10% got more than 75% marks.

Objective: Ability to solve sums involving addition and subtraction and use of currency

60% students got less than 25% marks, 31% got 25%-50% marks. 6% got 51%-75% and 3% got more than 75% marks. Students performed poorly on this objective.

 

SUBJECT REPORT - SCIENCE (III)

Objective: Classify and state how different animals have coats suitable to their environment.

Only 21.3% students have attained mastery in this objective, 34.6% are good and 29.5% are average students. Only 14.6% students got less than 25% marks and found this objective difficult. Generally the students have performed well on this objective.

Objective: Observe, Identify and state the Characteristics of insects, six legs, two feelers and three body parts, head, thorax and abdomen

36.3% students have attained mastery of this objective, 21.8% are good and 21.4% are average students. 20.5% students attained less than 25% and found this objective difficult. Over all the students have done well on this objective.

Objective: Observe, demonstrate and classify the matter into three states: Solid, Liquid and Gas.

33.2% students have got mastery of this objective. 25.9% are good and 26.4% are average students. 14.5% students could attain less than 25% marks and found this objective difficult. Generally the students have performed well on the items of this objective.

 

Objective: Observe and describe that the Sun, Moon and Stars rise in the East and set in the West.

23.6% students found this question easy one and attained mastery, 35% are good ,34.1% are average and 7.3% are below average. On the whole, the objective was understandable and students performed well on this objective.

 

CASE STUDY-2

LEVELS OF PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS OF PUNJAB

"Punjab Literacy Watch" undertook a sample study sponsored by UNESCO in October, 1999 to identify the learning levels of children in Primary Schools of Punjab Province. Particularly to ascertain the competency levels of pupils in maths and urdu language. In order to measure achievement levels, objective tests of maths and urdu for class 3,4 and 5 were conducted.

It was decided to select two districts each in Northern, Central and Southern punjab to cover the major geographical and socio-economic variations in the province and select 6 schools (3 boys and 3 girls) from each district. In fact 1371 pupils (822 boys and 549 girls) in 31 schools (16 boys, 14 girls, one mixed) were tested. All schools were government except one private coeducational school. The findings of the study are given in the following table.

Table-39

Percentage Scores on Maths and Urdu

Tests by Sex, Class and District.

 District Schools Students Boys N=838

Average Score=25.7

Girls N=586

Average Score=24.5

Total
      Maths Urdu Maths Urdu  
  B G B G III IV V III IV V III IV V III IV V  
Attack 2 1 118 16 17 21 10 29 21 24 25 30 15 73 48 34 29.0
Chakwal 3 4 136 163 29 26 17 31 21 26 20 19 20 30 24 27 24.2
Lahore 3 3 190 114 10 10 9 14 8 16 6 20 10 27 16 16 13.4
Layyah 3 4 145 135 54 43 51 55 64 56 32 33 21 38 36 42 43.7
Muzaffarg 3 1 132 60 30 37 21 13 31 25 13 32 21 28 27 40 26.5
Sialkot 2 2 101 61 27 29 12 14 12 14 6 10 10 6 11 14 13.7
Total 16 15 822 549 28 28 20 26 26 27 17 24 16 34 27 29 25.1
  31 1371 Maths=22.1 Urdu=28.1
  Class III=26.0 Class IV=26.2 Class V=23.1

Source: Punjab Literacy Watch, sample study on "level of pupil Achievement in Primary Schools of Punjab" October 1999.

The average score is only 25.1%. Performance in Urdu was better than in Maths. Boys performed better in Maths and girls in Urdu. The performance of grade V students was poorer than other grades. There is a great variation in district scores.

In maths students did better in direct sums, separating odd and even numbers, common factors and multiples, simple equations, but poorly in geometry, fractions, decimals and on items involving thinking and the application of knowledge(e.g word problems). In Urdu children performed well in joining letters into words, making sentences, comprehension, but were poor in grammar , letter writing, arrangement in alphabetical order.

Besides the above mentioned studies and surveys, a limited survey was undertaken by the Auditor General of Pakistan in collaboration with the MSU in May-June 1995 in order to determine the critical variables which have an impact on the level of academic achievement of primary level students. The survey focused on class 5 teachers and students, in a mix of government and privately run schools.

This survey was the systematic attempt to measure students' academic achievement, and identify impediments to this achievement at the national level. The survey relied mainly on a text consisting of simple questions, selected from textbooks being used in lower classes. The same test was administered to the teachers.

Despite the limited scope of the survey, which covered 527 schools throughout the country, the findings highlighted the need to focus on improving the quality of inputs and instituting a regular mechanism for assessment.

EMERGING TRENDS.

Research studies on learning achievement conducted by different agencies/ research organizations as highlighted above used different parameters and instruments. However, the research studies at serial no. II and III conducted recently in August-October 1999 have number of commonalities and similarities in methodology , instrument/tool and result findings. The major emerging trends are based upon research findings of the first three studies in general and study number-II and III, in particular. However, the case studies were also considered to identify the emerging trends. The trends are as given below:

Considerable improvement has been found in the national average score in the subjects of Science/General knowledge and Urdu (natiional language) as compared to 1995 level. However, performance in Mathematics has deteriorated. National average score for Science/General knowledge was 73.5% Urdu 71.5% and Mathematics 57%.

Overall students are weak in the competencies/skills of writing and comprehension in languages, problem solving and sums involving use of currency and conversion in the subject of mathematics, and life skills knowledge in the subjects of Science/General Knowledge .

Performance of students found better in rote reading, reading of Holy Quran , Writing from dictation, general science and mental arithmetic. Especially the cognitive areas which mostly involve rote memorization and mechanical reproduction.

Quality /performance of Private schools is better than public schools.

Performance of urban area schiools is better than rural area schools. Urban boys are the highest and rural girls the lowest achievers.

The findings of the most of the studies indicate that the performance of boys is better as compared to giols.

6.4 Adult literacy

Literacy Programme in Pakistan could not be institutionalized . The Prime Minister,s Literacy Commission at the federal level and the Education Departments and NGOs at the provincial local levels are running literacy programmes. Baluchistan is the only province of the country that has a seperate directorate of non-formal education under Social Welfare Department and is running number of literacy programmes at provincial level.

Main projects and programmes launched in Pakistan for adult literacy since 1990 are as follows:

1. Eradication of illiteracy from selected areas of Pakistan

This project was launchd by Prime Minister's Literacy Commission with a total cost of Rs.72.83 million from 1992-94. The target was to literate 174460 adults (both male and female) salient features of the project were as follows:

Opening of 3460 face to face literacy centres and 200 TV literacy centres in 5 selected districts Islamabad - Hafizabad - Karachi East - Quetta and Tehkal Bata, Peshawar.

Implementation through NGOs and community with strong motivational drive.

Area specific approach.

Under this project 138025 (79%) adult illiterates were made literate against the target of 174460. Out of these 120082 (87%) were females and 17943 (13%) males.

II. Quranic literacy project 1992-94

Knowledge has been highly esteemed in Islam. Seeking knowledge is the duty of every Muslim (man and woman). Islam stresses life long education. The last prophet of Islam, Hazrat Muhammad (P.b.u.h) emphasized the pursuit of knowledge from the cradle to the grave. The first quranic Aya starts with Iqra (to read).

Motivated by the golden teachings of Islam, Pakistani women attach high importance and play an important role in learning and transmitting Islamic teachings and knowledge to the future generations. The most valuable contribution of Pakistani Women especially the mother is the teaching/learning of the Holy Quran which is the last Divine Book and the most comprehensive code of conduct of life. The subject project was initiated in 1992 with a cost of Rs.4.06 million to make females literate through their knowledge and reading skills of the Holy Quran. Project aimed to test as to whether the females who are able to read/recite Holy Quran can be made Literate in Urdu with greater ease and in shorter time for which special primer was introduced. Project was tested in five union councils in 4 districts surrounding Islamabad. 494 face to face centres were established at the places provided by the community. Teacher was paid honoraria of Rs.500. Total 4 cycles of 6 months each were completed. 10867 female 10+ age group were made literate through this project.

The limitation of this programme are as given below:-

Time-table arrangement sometimes kept some of the literacy teachers busy throughout the day as all the learners were not able to attend the centres at the same time.

There was no incentive, in any form for the learners due to which drop-out could not be checked.

Rural community is very much buey in, Marriage ceremonies, Harvesting work, Festival ceremonies, Death functions etc.

Hence total number of days attended by learners were not upto the required level and their actual involvement in the learning process during the six-month cycle was much reduced in many cases.

In one of the districts, parents hesitated in letting their girls learn the skill of writing although they let them learn the skill of reading.

III. Establishment of 10000 Non Formal Basic Education Schools

Prime Ministers Literacy Commission in 1995 formulated a project titled "Establishment of 10000 Non-formal Basic Education Schools" with the total cost of Rs.1263.375 million. The project is to be implemented within the period of five years.

The project is based on the idea of home school to be run through NGOs and CBOs. The project was started in April, 1996 and in the first financial year 1052 NFBE Schools were established with the enrolment of 31560 students. In the next financial year another 6065 NFBE Schools were opened through out Pakistan, raising the total to 7117 NFBE Schools. The financial allocation for the year 1996-97 was Rs.241.352 million but the allocated amount was later reduced to Rs.100 million. Resultantly, the project received a major setback. The teachers could not get salaries in time nor the students received the books and learning materials.

The Education Policy (1998-2010) recommended to expand the programme to larger scale by opening 75000 NFBE Community Schools during the next three years. The Prime Mnister of Pakistan while announcing the National Agenda has emphasised on Universal Literacy for children and constituted a committee for preparation of an Action Plan. The Action Plan also recommends the expansion of NFBE Community Schools Programme. ECNEC has also approved the expansion of the programme on July 11, 1998 from 7000 to 82000 NFBE Community Schools with a total budget of Rs.11214.898 million and the programme is included in the SAPP II. However, its expansion is to be made after an evaluation of the existing schools by the third party.

Salient Features of the Project

Basic Education Schools are established in those areas/villages or hamlets where Govt. Primary Schools are non-existent, or where separate schools for girls are not available, or where girls participation rate at primary level is low, or where female illiteracy is pronounced, or where drop out rate is higher.

Basic Education Schools offer learning opportunities to out of school children of age 5-9 and mis -out/drop-outs between the age of 6 to 14 years.

An educated person preferably a trained PTC to be contracted for the task against a fixed emolument of Rs.1000/ Per month. In case trained PTC teacher is not availale at local/ village level, simple Matriculates are considered. In the backward areas the educational qualification is also relaxed.

Teaching aids like black boards, charts, mats etc for students are provided by the Government .

Learning material in the form of books, note books, pencils, slates etc. is supplied to learners free of cost.

Curriculum of formal primary school system is used for all fresh entering children of age 5-9. Whereas, a condensed non-formal primary level basic education course has been developed for drop-outs and out of school youth of age 10-14 and above

Fresh entrants, or children of age 5-9 complete the primary level course during 3-4 years, depending upon their learning pace and effciency of the teacher.

Preference has been given to the establishment of schools for females.

Final examinations are conducted by Examination Teams headed by authorized representatives from District Education Offices. Graduates of Non-Formal Basic Education Schools are eligible for admission in 6th Class in formal Schools.

Schools function at places provided by the community free of charge. These may include public places, Mosques, community centres, buildings spared by -philanthropists, or residence of teachers. For drop-outs and mis-outs of 10-14 age group, existing school building can be used in the evening, wherever possible.

IV Crash Literacy Programme

Ministry of Education planned a Crash Literacy Programme in May 1998. The purpose of the programme was to increased participation rate by making maximum use of the available resources like school buildings and teachers during summer vacations and evening hours. This programme aimed to promote literacy and basic education in the country.

To make the programme cost effective, the existing schools buildings with all the infrastructure of shelter and supplies was used to open the literacy centers. The teachers who were qualified, trained and available during summer vacations (June - September,1998) were engaged for the programme. They were paid nominal honorarium for this extra duty after a short orientation.

The students were quite free from any obligation of school uniform and were provided with free textbooks and learning materials. The location of the center was nearest to the majority of the beneficiaries/ out of school children.

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE PROGRAMME

The subject programme was started in Federal Areas of Islamabad and in the province of Punjab as a pilot project. The salient features of the programme are as follows:-

Focus has been given to rural girls/female illiterates and also to provide a second chance to out of school children within the age group of 6-14.

Around 87 literacy centers have been opened in Federal Area and 222 schools in the Province of Punjab.

For each center/ school services of a teacher were provided who was paid Rs.1500/- per month as salary/honoraria in Federal areas and Rs.1000/- in Punjab.

The syllabus prepared by Allama Iqbal Open University was selected for the course.

Teaching/learning material was selected out of the literacy materials developed through National workshops as well as books and premiers taught in formal schools.

Literacy Teachers were given brief orientation/training for the purpose.

A literacy campaign was also launched to create awareness amongst the target groups.

Students were paid Rs.20/- per attendance as an incentive (in Punjab only).

Learning material was provided free of cost.

Unit cost of the programme was around Rs.1899 per student.

OUT PUT

Federal Areas Programme

Under Federal Areas Crash Literacy programme about 87 literacy centers were opened in three phases. Total enrolment of these centers was around 1500. Assessment/Evaluation test conducted by the Ministry indicated that 82% qualified/passed. Moreover, the literacy programme/campaign created awareness amongst the masses and local communities who were motivated to play effective role in eradication of illiteracy. Total cost of the project was only Rs.6.4 million.

Punjab Literacy Pilot Project

The Punjab programme was successful in terms of enrolment. The target of 5550 students was fixed and the Department was able to meet 96% of the target. In a few girls schools, enrolment exceeded the maximum number of 25 students per class and the girls in excess of the maximum limit attended the center without any financial incentive. This showed encouraging prospects and so was the number of parents who were willing to send their children to formal schools after the Pilot Programme.

Encouraged by the results of this Programme, the Government of the Punjab is undertaking the Phase II of the Programme with a tenfold expansion. The target enrolment is 50,000 students for which 1668 centers of 30 students each would be opened. The honoraria of teachers was raised to Rs.1500/- with added financial incentives related with the results of the final examination. The monitoring system has also been strengthened and the course contents have been revised. The Department intends to continue with this programme on even large scale after the Phase II. It is being considered to expand the programme in terms of enrolment and also in terms of the support from the community. Total cost of the project was Rs.10.5 million.

Literacy Programmes Run by NGOS

The programmes launched by NGOs in basic education and literacy at the provincial and local levels are in addition to the above. Some of the programmes run by well established NGOs are reported to be very effective and productive.

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) have been actively involved for the promotion of literacy and adult education since 1990. In 1992 the NGOs were involved in the project namely "Eradication of illiteracy from the Selected Areas of Pakistan". From there onward the NGOs are coming forward in the field of literacy and non-formal education. Adult Basic Education Society(ABES) and BUNYAD in punjab. SHOAA IN Balochistan and Khyber Welfare Association in NWFP were the NGO, involved in the Pilot Literacy Projects of 1992.

INDICATOR 16 : Literacy Rate of 15-24 years old

Literacy rate of 15-24 years age group is the highest in Paksitan. It is 55% for both sexes (male 67%: Female 43%) against 48.37% for the age group 15-45 (Male 61.4%: Female 34.4%).

The province of Balochistan has the lowest and Islamabad Capital Territory the highest literacy rate both for male and female. It ranges between 34% - 81% overall ; 47% - 89% male; and 20% - 75% female. Next highest literacy rate is in the province of Punjab having 60% total, (70% male and 49% female) higher than the national average. Further details have been given in the following three tables (total, male and female literacy rates of 15-24 year age group alongwith the population and number of illiterates.

TABLE-40

PROVINCE WISE 15-24 YEAR AGE GROUP TOTAL POPULATION,

NUMBER OF LITERATES AND LITERACY RATE 1997-98

 Province/Area Total Population of Age Group

15-24 Year (million)

No.of literates 15-24 years (million) Literacy rate 15-24 years
Pakistan 24.67 13.65 55%
Punjab 13.93 8.33 60%
Sindh 5.99 3.15 53%
NWFP 3.36 1.62 48%
Balochistan 1.24% 0.42 34%
FATA N.A N.A N.A
FANA N.A N.A N.A
ICT 0.16 0.13 81%
       

Source: Population Census Organization 1998

 

Table-41

PROVINCE WISE 15-24 YEAR AGE GROUP MALE POPULATION, NUMBER OF LITERATES AND LITERACY RATE 1997-98

 Province/Area Male Population of Age Group

15-24 Year (in million)

No.of Male literates

15-24 years (in million)

Male Literacy Rate
Pakistan 12.54 8.42 67%
Punjab 7.06 4.97 70%
Sindh 3.04 1.9 63%
NWFP 1.71 1.16 68%
Balochistan 0.64 0.3 47%
FATA N.A N.A N.A
FANA N.A N.A N.A
ICT 0.09 0.08 89%

Source: Population Census Organization 1998

Table-42

PROVINCE WISE 15-24 YEAR AGE GROUP FEMALE POPULATION,

NUMBER OF LITERATES AND LITERACY RATE 1997-98

 Province/Area Female Population of Age Group

15-24 Year (in million)

No.of Female literates

15-24 years (in million)

Female Literacy Rate
Pakistan 12.13 5.23 43%
Punjab 6.88 3.36 49%
Sindh 2.94 1.24 42%
NWFP 1.6 0.5 31%
Balochistan 0.6 0.12 20%
FATA N.A N.A N.A
FANA N.A N.A N.A
ICT 0.08 0.06 75%

Source: Population Census Organization 1998

INDICATOR 17:

Adult literacy percentage of the population aged 15+ that is literate

Total population of 15+ year age group is 72.38 million(male 37.65 and female 34.73 million). Overall Literacy rate is 43% (male 55.3%; Female 29%). Islamabad Territory has the highest literacy rate i.e 70% (male 78.6% Female 58%) whereas, the province of Baluchistan has the lowest literacy rate overall 24%(male 35.32% Female 12%).

I. Pakistan adult literacy means literacy rate of 10+ age group. According to the census report of 1998 overall literacy rate of Pakistan for the age group 10+ was 45% (female: 32.65). it ranges between from 26.6% in the province of Balochistan to 69% in the Islamabad Capital Teritory. Second lowest province with respect to literacy rate is NWFP. The provinces of Punjab and Sindh have slightly higher literacy rate than the national average.

Table - 43

PROVINCE WISE MALE-FEMALE AND URBAN RURAL LITERACY RATE IN PAKISTAN 1998

 Area Total Rural Urban
  Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female
Pakistan 45.0 56.5 32.6 34.4 47.4 20.8 64.7 72.6 55.6
NWFP 37.3 52.8 21.1 32.5 48.2 16.7 58.7 72.4 42.7
Punjab 47.4 58.7 35.3 38.5 51.3 25.1 65.8 73.4 57.2
Sindh 46.7 56.6 35.4 26.9 39.5 13.11 65.2 72.1 57.1
Balochistan 26.6 36.5 15.0 18.9 27.8 8.8 50.3 62.4 35.3
Islamabad 69.0 77.9 58.2 56.3 71.0 40.3 75.2 81.1 67.7
                   

Source: Population and Housing Census Report 1998

Trend in Literacy

The adult literacy rate has increased at the rate of arround 1 percent per annum since 1981. According to the 1981 census the overall literacy rate 10+ age group was 26.2 percent which increased to 34.8 percent in 1990-91; 36.8 percent in 1993-94; and 45 percent in 1997-98. Cumulative increase in literacy rate over 8 years is 10 percent. However, increase in female literacy rate is more than the male i.e. 11.4 percent against 9.2 percent male. This is to be pointed out that according to the targets set in Jomtien the literacy rate of Pakistan should have been 62 percent by now counting at the average rate of 3.5 percent increase per year to achieve the goal to double the literacy rate.

The trend in literacy rate is reflected in the following table:

Table - 44

MALE/FEMALE & RURAL URBAN

ADULT 10+ AGE GROUP LITERACY RATE IN PAKISTAN

(Percentage)

  1981 1990-91 1993-94 1997-98 Change 1990-98
Total

26.2%

34.8%

36.8%

45%

+10.2%

Male

35.0%

47.3%

48.9%

56.5%

+9.2%

Female

16.0%

21.1%

23.5%

32.6%

+11.4%

Urban

47.1%

53.50

55.56%

64.7%

+21%

Rural

17.3%

20.90

26.27%

34.4%

+65%

Source: 1. Prime Minister's Literacy Commission, Islamabad

2. Economic Survey 1990-91: 1993-94: 1997-98

3. Population and Housing Censes Report 1998

INDICATOR 18 Literacy Gender Parity Index

Literacy gender parity index indicates that in all the provinces/areas of the country proportionately fewer women than men have basic literacy skills. Despite the fact that female literacy rates have increased considerably since 1990 the said ratio has further deteriorated in all the provinces except in Baluchistan. It is evident from the fact that literacy gender parity index/value has gone down to .48 in 1998(-.06 point) from .54 in 1990 in Pakistan. This decrease/reduction is maximum in Sindh i.e .60 to .52(-.08 point). In the provinces of NWFP and Baluchistan the gender parity index has slightly improved.

Table-45

Province Wise Literacy Gender Parity Index for Selected years 1990-91 and 1997-98

 Province/Area 1990-91 1997-98

 

Change
Pakistan -54 .48 -.o6
Punjab .56 .51 -.o6
Sindh .60 .52 -.08
NWFP .32 .34 .02
Baluchistan .28 .32 .04
FATA Not available .18 -
FANA Not available .33 -
ICT Not available .59 -

Source: Pakistan Census Organization.


Previous Page Next Page