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6.5 Training in Essential Skills

Some of the programmes, projects and strategies initiated both in public and private sector for training in essential skills required by youth and adults are as given below:-

Public Sector

Non-formal Education Programme for rural women of the 15 to 25 age group which would combine literacy skills, i.e., reading, writing and arithmetic with health, hygiene, population education, environment, productive and marketable skills, as well as access to micro credit and enterprise education has been initiated in collaboration with Asian Development Bank. The Project may include an estimated 2.5 percent of the rural women aged 15 to 25 of Punjab and Balochistan totalling 150,000 as learner-beneficiaries. The project is estimated to cost Rs.2.8 billion or US$ 69.2 million.

Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal (a Social Welfare Organization) has started a joint venture with Allama Iqbal Open University for vocational training of child workers, working as apprentices in auto workshops. One hundred and seventy existing auto workshops have been selected all over Pakistan in which Open Tech Study Centres had been established. PBM provides tool boxes to successful candidates on completion of their training, enabling them to earn livelihood through self-employment.

Dastkari Schools

The main purpose of establishing Dastkari Schools is to enable widows, orphan girls, daughters of invalids to earn their livelihood honorably.Trainers are provided all the required material free of cost. A stipend @ Rs.15/-per student per day on the basis of attendance is also given. The Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal (PBM) also offers three courses in cutting, Sewing, Hand-Knitting and Machine Embroidery, for the duration of six months.

ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

Export Trade Houses have been established at Lahore and Islamabad for women entrepreneurs;

Micro credit amounting to Rs.14.4 million has been provided to 586 women through First Women Bank Limited; during 1997-98;

Separate enclosures for women have been set up in weekly bazaars;

An allocation of Rs.76 million has been made for women development in PSDP in 1998-99 as against Rs.50.0 million in 1997-98. During 1998-99, the Women Development Bank continued funding of Women's development ongoing projects in all parts of the country. The projects being funded during 1998-99 are in the

field of education and training, mother and child health care, credit, relief to women in distress and consciousness raising and awareness for women's rights & responsibilities through mass media.

The programme in functional literacy and training in essential skills are conducted and coordinated by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), the Women's Division, the Local Government Rural Development departments, the Education Departments, Industries and the private sector. These programmes are interalia, vegetable growing, electrical wiring, welding, food and nutrition, poultry farming, family planning, baby care, carpet weaving and environmental pollution etc.

The Pakistan Television Corporation (PTVC) and ETV (Second channel of PTVC) are a strong source of non-formal education. One of its biggest programmes in non-formal education was the Adult Functional Literacy Project in which the Television made the major input. Lessons were telecast and were viewed at the community centres (CVCs). Lessons were followed by the teacher present at the CVC. Between 1,20,000 to 1,53,000 men and women were made literate during each cycle and were able to read, write and do simple arithmetic. Moreover, they got an insight into health, nutrition, saving and basic agriculture. PTV and ETV also telecast programmes of the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) for its courses ranging from the lower levels to the degree level. These programmes and strategies though effective were limited in scope and coverage, in view of the high need of the country.

Apprenticeship Training:

Manpower and Labour Division give apprenticeship training to youth in eightly six trades in collaboration with industries.

PRIVATE SECTOR

Role of NGOs. in Rural development through training in Skills and trades.

Besides public sector's development programmes for rural development, the private sector/NGOs are also being encouraged for enhancing the pace of rural development in the country . particularly through innovative participatory approaches. The Agha Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP) and National Rural Support Programme are the two main non-governmental organizations which have undertaken various innovative uplift schemes/programmes for the rural areas in Pakistan. Their activities are briefly discussed as under:-

a)Aga Khan Rural Support Programme

The Aga Khan Rural Support Programme(AKRSP) is private, non-profit NGO, established by the Aga Khan Foundation with the assistance of foreign donor agencies and Aga Khan Foundation itself, It started its activities in December , 1982 initially in the villages of Gilgit and Ghizer districts of the Northern Areas to improve quality of life of the villages in programme area. In 1986, the programme was extended and replicated in the Chitral district of the NWFP and the districts of Skardu and Ganchey of the Northern Areas. The AKRSP since its beginning focussed on enhancing incomes and quality of life of the people of the programme area. On entering into its new five year phase ,1997-2001, the AKRSP's objectives have been further clarified to reflect the development context of the Northern Areas and Chitral, Encompassing the institutional and economic development issues, the two major objectives of the new phase are :-

i)Promotion of local institutions to be the part of an effective and sustainable system for broad-based rural development, and

Increase average per capita incomes to levels, comparable to that of the rest of the country.

Major achievements of the AKRSP by the end of 1998 are listed below.

More than 3500 village organizations and 2300 women's organizations have been formed in the Programme Area.

Approximately 2000 infrastructure schemes have been initiated. Of which, 1700 have been completed. these projects have collectively benefitted more than 100,000 households in the Programme Area. 55000 kanals of new land has been brought under cultivation , as a result of investment in the irrigation schemes.

More than 300,000 kilograms of improved cereal seed, 150,000 kilograms of fodder seed, and 200,000 kilograms of improved potato seed have been supplied to small local farmers. In addition, over 1 million fruit trees had been distributed. Also 3500 community members , both male and female have been trained, as agricultural specialists.

Around 5000 cross-breed cattle have been supplied to local populations. 240 brooding centres had been established , and 600,000 poultry chicks supplied to these brooding centres. Around 5000 male and female livestock and poultry specialists have been trained.

Some 15 million forest plants have been provided to communities in Northern Pakistan, while village organizations themselves have planted 8 million trees established 1500 forest nurseries, and 1300 village forestry specialists trained.

A big vegetable seed production venture has been started in Gilgit, through a system of contract farmers. A major wool spinning and weaving project. primarily benefiting women has also been started in Chitral. Over 2000 male village specialists and 1000 female specialists have been trained for various enterprise sectors.

National Rural Support Programme

The National Rural Support programme (NRSP), has been registered as a Limited Company since November, 1991 with its headquarter in Islamabad. The objective of the NRSP is to foster a country-wide network of community organizations at the grassroots level and enable them to plan, manage and implement their development plans at their own. The ultimate goal of the NRSP is to reduce intensity of poverty and improve rural people's quality of life.

The NRSP is the largest private non-profit national development organization in the country, operating in twenty one districts of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir in some of the biggest partnerships, involving the government, NGOs, banks and donors. it has the following 5 major fields of operation.

Human Resource Development

Rural Credit and enterprise Development

Natural Resource Management

Physical Infrastructure and technology Development.

Social Sector Services.

6.6 Education for Better Living

In pursuance of policy directions, curricula for various classes at the primary and secondary level have been developed/revised. Textbooks from class I to V deal with the subjects of language, Islamic and social studies. Lessons specifically designed to inculcate basic humanistic, ethical and cultural values, have been generally included in the form of short stories, poems and essays around three main themes namely the ideological, moral and ethical. About 40% of the lessons are designed to foster an attitude of love and loyalty for the country and the national heroes. About 25 to 30% of the lessons seek to inculcate a sense of patriotism, sensitize the children to the virtues of kindness, discipline, dignity of labour, truthfulness, honesty and other humanistic norms.

Humanistic, ethical and cultural aspects have been integrated in the formal as well as non-formal education system of the country. These aspects are also highlighted through the electronic media, like the radio and the television.

The new information technologies available for rural women include the electronic media. These are being extensively used for providing non-formal eduation to the rural populace, including women.

Besides radio programmes that complement formal class-room education and teacher training efforts, numerous broadcasts are made to increase public awareness in child care, health and sanitation, community development, agriculture practices, vocational training and communication. These programmes are in addition to the regular broadcasts of the Open University or open learning that is carried within the framework of a degree programme.

The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) has three objectives namely: information, entertainment and education. PBC broadcast programmes in the national as well as the regional languages. A major portion of educational programmes is meant for the rural population and is non-formal in character. The beneficiaries of the programmes are illiterate farmers and the rural population. The radio programmes not only fill the gap in the communication of information but also provide entertainment. BPC has been transmitting promotional and motivational programmes for adult education in collaboration with relevant agencies.

The Farm Forum programme has been a success. According to an FAO Report, 95 percent of farmers listen to this programme, which provides the benefit of expert advice on creating a climate for the modernization of agriculture. These programmes are agricultural skill development oriented, and helped a lot in improving agricultural production.

The programmes for rural areas are broadcasted from all stations except Islamabad and Karachi. The popular stock characters try to disseminate information on agriculture, health, education, social issues and also give motivational talks.

Programmes for women are broadcasted in the national language. Topics include child-health, domestic economy, care for women and home management etc. Functional literacy is an important component of these programmes.

The PBC also broadcasts programmes in Urdu and the regional languages for children every week. These programmes include general knowledge, Islamic values, science, health etc. Documentaries prepared during tours are also used for these programmes.

The PBC provides for the educational programmes of the Allama Iqbal Open University as well. These are released for specific courses and the number of programmes runs into hundreds. In addition, special feature programmes and documentary programmes are broadcasted and provide education.

Television in Pakistan has made significant contributions, especially since 1990, in educating the masses and in their skill development through educational programmes.

7. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE EFA STRATEGY, PLAN AND PROGRAMMES

Strengths: Numerous Policy Reforms, and administrative measures, have been adopted by different provincial governments. These were oriented towards expanding access, reducing wastage, eliminating disparities and gender imbalance as well as improving quality. Some outstanding achievements common to all the provinces etc, are briefly mentioned as under:

Compulsory Primary Education legislation has already been promulgated by the Punjab Government, and is under active consideration of all the other Provinces.

Adequate increase in the non-salary budget for improvement of school premises, supply of instructional materials as well routine up-keep of school buildings.

Recognition of non-formal education and involvement of NGOs as a complementary measures towards the achievement of UPE.

Provision of basic facilities in schools such as drinking water, latrine, boundary walls, furniture and Jute-mats.

Introduction of mixed schools system.

Flexibility in the entry and re-entry, age as well as qualification of female primary teachers.

Establishment and strengthening of gross-root structures, such as School Management Committees in Punjab, Village Education Committees in NWFP, Parent Teachers Association in Sindh; and Parent Teacher School Management Committees in Balochistan.

viii Expansion and strengthening of Education Management Information System (EMIS).

Decentralization of power structure.

Establishment of Prime Minister's Literacy Commission and Primary/Elementary Education Directorates in each province.

Special Focus on Women and Girls Education with incentives of providing stipend, textbooks, and nutritious food to the girls child.

reduction in excise duty on imported paper for educational purpose.

xiii Policy on privatization and supply of multi-choice textbooks better quality learning materials.

effective monitoring of school site selection and construction programmes.

Recruitment of Primary teacher has been localized. Transfer of teachers will not be made during the academic session.

xvi Policy Review Board has been set up in NWFP to review, examine and constantly evaluate the policies where and when necessary.

xvii Second shift has been started on need-basis, in some provinces, particularly in the urban areas.

Besides that, the private sector (individuals, communities and NGOs) is more motivated as compared to pre 1990 period and eager to participate in the development of basic education through the Education Foundations (matching grant basis). The Punjab Education Foundation has implemented/planning to implement a number of educational projects, mostly in the primary education sector, since its inception in 1992. These strategies resulted in increased access and provision for basic education.

Three principal achievements in Education For All are:

Universal provision/access: Pakistan is very close to achieving the target of universal provision to primary schooling. Number of Primary schools have doubled from 81393 in 1990 to 163746 in 1998. Majority of Primary school age population have school at a distance of less than 1.5 k.m. radius.

Establishment of Educational Television Channel: Educational TV in Pakistan, established in 1992-1993 has made significant contributions in educating the masses. These programmes are largely aimed at adults who are keen to improve their knowledge and vocational skills. ETV is a strong source of non-formal education in Pakistan.

Community and Private Sector Participation

in Promotion of Basic Education:

The strengthening and capacity building for active involvement and effective participation of the Private Sector in the development of basic education is one of the major/principal achievements of EFA. These efforts include the establishment of Education Foundations both at the provincial and the Federal levels; the constitution of Village Education/School Management Committees; the introduction of a Public-Private Partnership Scheme for the promotion of basic education; the establishment of community model schools; and the strengthening of Non-governmental organizations for the promotion of literacy and basic education in the country.

The above facts and figures provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the targets set in EFA strategies and programmes are not over ambitious rather tangible and achievable, where adequate resources have been made available.

WEAKNESSES

Critical review and analysis of EFA programmes, plans and strategies adopted in Pakistan indicate number of weaknesses, lackings and shortcomings which need to be addressed on priority basis so as to achieve the goals and targets set in different dimensions of EFA at national and international levels. Some of these weaknesses and lackings interalia are:-

Early Childhood Care and Development

Early childhood Care and Development is continued to be a neglected area. Even the importance and value of early childhood education especially in the rural areas of the country has not been recognized yet.

Neither goals and targets for early childhood education could be fixed nor any effective and organized programme and plan has been launched.

Pre-primary education i.e Katchi/nursery class could be officially recognized in 1992 education policy. In the current education policy though it has been recognized as a policy provision but implementation has not been started yet. Hence, neither adequate educational facilities and services could be provided nor required teaching learning materials with the exception of text book could be developed. As a result, not more than 10% of 3-5 year age group children are enrolled in any organized educational programme.

Primary Education

One of the serious weaknesses of primary education is inability to achieve the goals and targets set in Jomtein World Conference on Eduction For All and subsequently in National Education Policy 1992. Pakistan is lagging far behind the universalization of primary education targets in its all three dimensions i.e. universal access/enrolment, universal retention and universal achievement. Net enrolment/participation rate is only 60% and survival/completion rate 50% against the target of 100%. Basic education competency level which was supposed to be 80% as per Jomtein targets could not be improved.

Despite assigning priorities and giving focus to female and rural education in EFA programmes and projects, gender and regional disparities could not be eliminated. Overall gross female enrolment/participation rate is only 68.6% against 98% male. Facilities and services for female education could not exceed one third of the total. Presently, only 35% of the total primary school teacher are female and 33% of primary schools are female schools. As compared to male lower number of female teachers are academically and professionally qualified.

Similarly, in rural areas of the country participation rate as compared to urban areas is lower and dropout rate higher. Most of the rural area schools grossly lack required and essential physical facilities. However in urban areas situation is better.

EFA Programmes and strategies could not be strengthened and supplemented by effective community mobilization and motivation programmes.

Furthermore, EFA policy and programmes could not be supported by legislation. Three out of four provinces could not enact compulsory primary education act. Whereas, province of Punjab enacted for compulsory primary education in 1994 but could not properly enforced yet.

Learning Achievement

EFA Programmes in Pakistan mainly focussed on quantitative expansion and access in primary education. No effective programmes on improving the quality of education and competency level of children could be launched.

Curricular reforms could not be linked to teacher training and text-books reform.

National assessment capacity by laying down a set of procedures to monitor the learning achievement and basic competencies of children could not be institutionalized.

Adult Literacy

Adult Literacy has not been given needed/desired priority n EFA programmes. Only a few projects on adult literacy could be launched during the post Jomtein period whose coverage was limited and restricted to not more than 10% of target group

Resources/funds earmarked for adult literacy programmes were hardly 1% of the education budget. Secondly, funds could not be provided on time

Coordination amongst the principal actors in the field of adult literacy remained weak.

Monitoring and evaluation mechanism at gross root level could not be strengthened which adversely affected the internal efficiency and effectiveness of the literacy programmes and projects.

Resultantly, the country with 45% literacy rate grossly fell short of the 70% literacy targets set in Jomtein World Conference and National Education Policy 1992. Female literacy rate could not exceed 33% in 1998. However, keeping in view the high population growth rate, inadequacy of resources, slow pace of educational development and such other factors, the targets set in adult literacy were too ambitious to be achieved in such a limited time.

8.ISSUES AND PROBLEMS

Problem and constraints that slowed down the progress towards EFA goals are varied and numerous. Some of the major constraints and problems as identified by the principal actors of EFA and research studies are as follows:

Population Explosion

Despite substantial growth in the number of educational institutions, and other facilities and services the desired goals could be partially achieved due to a rapid 3 percent now reduced to 2.6 percent per year population growth. Based upon the existing population growth and dropout rate it is estimated that by the end of this century the number of left outs at the primary level may increase to 8 million.

Resource Constraint

High population growth has further exacerbated the problem of resources. As a result, important programmes and plans in primary education and literacy could not be implemented effectively. A considerable number of schools were left without basic facilities and services such as clean drinking water, lavotaries, furniture, equipment, boundary walls, and teaching staff. Similarly about 25000 primary schools are still shelterless which need to be provided buildings.

Low Financial Allocations and Internal In-Efficiency

Pakistan allocates, on the average, 2.2 percent of GNP (8% of national budget) for education which is very low as compared to other developing countries or the needs of the education sector. UNESCO recommends at least 4 percent of GNP (or 20% of the national budget) for education in developing countries like Pakistan. Although allocations/spending for primary education have substantially increased yet same does they are not commensurate with the needs especially of universalization of primary education in all its three dimensions, namely, universal access, universal retention and universal achievement. Secondly, the budget for literacy and teacher education is still very nominal.

Not only the financial allocation for primary education meager but the utilization is also very low as is evident from the fact that during the Ist, 2nd, 3rd 5th 6th and 7th Five Year Plans the short fall was 56 percent, 71 percent, 64 percent, 45 percent, 50 percent and 52 percent respectively. Though the situation improved during 7th Plan, especially after 1990, yet the absorptive capacity of the system is still not satisfactory. Secondly, lack of optimum and effective utilization of funds is also a big constraint.

Low Participation and High Dropout Rate

In Primary education, low participation i.e. 60 percent (net participation) and high i.e 50% dropouts are two major obstacles in achieving the goals/targets of EFA. Wastage and stagnation have to be arrested in order to achieve UPE targets. The main contributory factors are poverty and opportunity cost; ignorance and lack of parents interest, lack of facilities in schools, uninteresting teaching learning process; unattractive school environment; teachers absenteeism and harsh attitude, social and cultural inhibitions, especially for female education; irrelevance of curricula to the local needs of the community; and defective evaluation and examination system.

Adult Illiteracy

The adult illiteracy rate in Pakistan is 45 percent. The high illiteracy rate among rural females is one of the major constraints in achieving EFA goals and the overall development of the country. Because of high female illiteracy there is a shortage of trained female teachers in the rural areas of the country.

Lack of Teachers Motivation and Commitment

The majority of teachers is neither motivated nor committed to the cause of promotion of education because of lack of incentives and positive reinforcement and lack of supervision and control. This has resulted in colossal problems and difficulties both in the quantitative expansion and the qualitative improvement of education. Ever deteriorating standards of education and the poor performance of children in learning achievement is the outcome of a lack of teacher commitment.

Undue Political Interference

The education system has been almost predominently politicized in Pakistan. Undue political interference in opening of new schools, recruitment/selection of teachers, transfers and deployment of teachers and educational administrators, and the provision of funds for development purposes is a chronic problem of education in Pakistan. To overcome this progressive depoliticization is an essential requirement.

Political Instability

Political instability has resulted in discontinuity in educational policies and programmes, very adversely effecting the educational development programmes.

Lack of Coordination

EFA programmes are dealt with by different ministries, departments and organizations both at the federal, provincial and local levels. There is no permanent body at any level to coordinate and monitor EFA activities. There is no organizational set up or structure at the provincial or local levels for literacy programme. As a result a number of difficulties and constraints crop up which prevent and adversely affect the achievement of EFA goals.

Disparities and Imbalances

Gender, and rural urban disparities are a chronic problem of the social sector in Pakistan. The rural female is the most disadvantaged segment of population. Socio-economic and cultural inhibitions and taboos against female education is still a major constraint.

Ineffective Management Information System

Lack of valid, reliable and current educational data/statistics and information is a crucial problem. Educational Planning is thus defective as it is based on projections and assumptions which harbous enormous and wide ranged discrepancies.

9. PUBLIC AWARENESS, POLITICAL WILL AND NATIONAL CAPACITIES

Prior to the 1980s the demand for basic education especially education of females was very weak. Since 1987, the Ministry of Education has launched a country wide motivational campaign through the radio and television, press and posters etc to educate the masses/public regarding the importance and value of education. The campaign has had positive effect in creating a demand for basic education. More than 95% parents have realized the importance and value of education and are demanding basic education for their children. The position has also improved considerably for female education. However, conservative and uneducated communities being in remote corners of the rural areas of the country still do not fully realize the worth and value of education. Hence, the demand for basic education amongst such communities is still weak. Broadly speaking more than 80% of the population of the country has realized the importance of female basic education. The achievement of 84% participation rate (Male 98% and Female 69%) which was reached at a quicker pace during the recent past also provides the evidence to this effect.

Now-a-days parents strongly desire to educate their children but a number of problems and constraints as described earlier create obstacles and difficulties for them in sending their children to school and in continuing their education. This has been confirmed through interviews with educational experts, managers and administrators at national, provincial and local levels. The fact that the demand for basic education of children is strong enough in Pakistan is evident from the high pressure and demand of the public representatives for opening more schools both for boys and girls in their constituencies. Not with-standing that, demand for adult literacy especially for adult females is still very weak in Pakistan.

This year (in 1999) on the eve of International Literacy Day President of Pakistan, Prime Minister of Pakistan and the members of National Assembly, Senate and Provincial Assemblies personally visited primary schools and effectively participated in national campaign of enrolment of the hundred thousand out of school primary school age children. it is also shows political awareness and will to promote basic education.

The seriousness and the commitment of the Government in acheiving the goals/targets of EFA can be ascertained from the measures adopted and steps taken so far as described earlier under section 4. In addition to that based upon previous experiences and lessons learned, new programmes and strategies are being evolved to attain the targets as early as possible.

Basic Education services are mainly provided by government departments, Non-governmental Organization's (NGOs), private sector and the religious institutions. The successes of these organizatins are clear objectives, goals and targets; well-established organizational structures from the federal through provincial down to the local levels for the promotion of primary education; well established and motivated Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) for the eradication of illiteracy; quality education provided by commercial institutions in the private sector; and commitment and a motivation of religious institutions for the promotion of religious/moral education.

Whereas, lack of coordination, in effective communication and information systems; lack of effective community participation and non-existence of a Great Alliance for EFA; lack of competency, motivation and commitment of the personnel involved; and lack of valid data and research facilities are some of the weak areas of government departments and organization involved in EFA.

10. GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS AND PROSPECTS

Formulation of a National Education Policy and setting the national goals and targets in line with the goals and targets of the Jomtien Conference on EFA; launching the Social Action Programme and the 8th Five Year Plan; initiating a number of primary education development projects and programmes; evolving innovative and effective strategies for the promotion of Basic Education, instituting and strengthening a mechanism for effective participation of the private sector all contribute to the sound foundations for accomplishing the targets of EFA. Even at this initial stage the outcome and progress of these programmes and efforts is evident from 30-60% increase in provision of infrastructure, facilities and services for basic education, overall 24% increase in participation rate; and more than 200% increase in the budget for primary education since 1990.

The country has made some head way in the development of mass media, particularly in the fields of print and electronic media. The television signals now reach 89% of population and radio transmissions cover 95% of the entire population. New information technologies are available which are being extensively used for providing non-formal education including educational programmes in functional literacy and skill development fostering humanistic, ethical and moral values and creating a demand for education.

Despite all these accomplishments and achievements especially in the provision of universal access to primary education the situation/status of other two dimension of UPE i.e. universal retention and universal achievement has not improved substantially. The country has to traverse a long road to achieve the EFA targets of literacy and learning achievement. Rapid population growth, resource constraints, internal inefficiency of the system, low enrolment and high dropout, lack of adequate political will and undue political interference are some of the main constraints and difficulties that thwart the government efforts to achieve the desired goals and targets of EFA.

In order to ameliorate the situation, a number of policy measures, programmes and strategies have been/are being evolved. These programmes include:

i.Expansion and strengthening of Educational Management and Information System at Provincial levels.

ii.Establishment of 250,000 Non-Formal Basic Education Centres and Strengthening of Organizational Infrastructure for literacy and basic education at provincial level.

A strategy to form a Youth Literacy Corps is to utilize the services of educated youth to fight against the menace of illiteracy.

Establishment and strengthening of Education Foundation and constitution of Village Education and School Management Committee at grgssroot level to ensure effective community participation.

Effective and full implementation of existing Primary Education Development Programmes/Projects and initiation/development of new projects with the assistance of donor agencies.

Active Consideration for Enactment of Compulsory Primary Education Act in the remaining three provinces of the country.

Increase the allocations for education to 3% of GNP by the end of this century and also improve the absorptive capacity and internal efficiency of the system.

Some other programmes and proposals being actively considered interalia are Strong Political Commitment for Basic Education at the highest level; Depoliticization of Teachers' Recruitment and Transfer; Strengthening the existing Basic Education set-up and its decentralization; Teachers' Training; Textbooks and Materials; Better use of the existing school structure; and Annual EFA Awards to outstanding Primary Teachers and Local Communities..

With the implementation of the aforementioned programmes and projects it is genuinely hoped that during the next five year, progress towards accomplishment of EFA goals will gain momentum and given more impetus enabling the country to achieve enshrined targets.

One can safely conclude from the aforementioned facts and figures that all is not well with Education For All (EFA) in Pakistan. The participation rates at various levels of education are low. The progress in the direction of universalization of primary education is far from satisfactory. At primary level, the drop-out rates are in the vicinity of 50%. The women participation in education is low. The quality of public instruction continues to deteriorate; the system has not fully responded to the inputs made. The curricula, apart from being overloaded, have not kept pace with the advancement of knowledge. So are the textbooks which do not promote self-learning. Assessment exercise indicate and also necessitates number of inputs, interventions and improvements in almost all the six dimensions of EFA assigning top priority to Universalization of Primary Education in its all the three dimensions i.e. universal access, universal retention and universal achievement in minimum possible time.


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