The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum  
   Palestinian Authority
  Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region  


Previous Page Next Page


Part two : Analysis of the Palestinian education status in the second period

Part two of the report covers the education status in Palestine through the analysis of the results revealed by the 18 indicators proposed by the International Consultative Forum on Education For All (the Forum), and according to the order of their listing. It aims at highlighting the reality of Early Childhood and its development as well as primary education, learning and its outcome, adult literacy, vocational and informal education.

First: Heading towards the objectives:

1 – The education system (23) and capacity-building of human resources

The ministry runs an education system that is formed of pre-scholar and scholar education. The duration of the scholar education is 12 school years starting with the first elementary class and ending with the 12th grade. The scholar education stage is formed of basic education that is the subject of this report and secondary education. In Palestine, the basic education stage (compulsory) covers classes 1 to 10 and is divided into two parts: the lower elementary stage covering classes 1 to 4 and accommodating pupils aged between 5 years and 8 months and 10 years and the higher elementary stage covering classes 5 to 10 and accommodating pupils aged between 10 and 16 years.

Secondary education covers classes 11 and 12 and is divided into two tracks: academic and vocational education. The academic education students sit in the 11th grade for the literary or scientific test according to the qualification and choice of each of them. The successful student then continues his education –literary or scientific- in the 12th grade. On the other hand, the vocational education includes a number of specialties (commercial, agricultural, industrial, nursing, legal and hostelry courses). The students who complete the second secondary class (12) are given a school attestation certifying that they have completed 12 school years and the educational stage within the general education. The students then sit for the Baccalaureate exam. The age of the enrolled in these two tracks of secondary education ranges between 16 and 17.

The efficient implementation of the above mentioned educational system required capacity-building of the head teachers, teachers and school sholders of scientific degrees but lacking experience. It also required updating of their knowledge and development of their professional and specialized performance in the framework of rehabilitation of the whole educational process. In order to meet this objective, the ministry is implementing a number of programs mainly the following steps and projects:

Teachers training:

The ministry adopted the following steps in teachers training:

- Development of teachers in-service training programs in the knowledge and experience fields.

  1. Development of pre-service training programs in cooperation with concerned institutions.
  2. Encouragement of advanced educational patterns derived from the pioneer projects in the fields of education and learning.
  3. Assistance to teachers in the field of self-professional progress and encouragement of individual and collective initiatives at school.
  4. Development of the teacher’s role as educator.
  5. (23 – for details on the structure and content of education, refer to the matrix of the Palestinian curriculum-annex 4)

    School administration:

  6. Promotion of the school development program and consequently development of school as an essential development unit.
  7. Development of the head teacher’s competence in the fields of management and supervision, enhancement of his positive orientations, development of his professional competence, consolidation of his understanding of the role played by school in the process of development and nation’s building.
  8. Linking the school to the local community, strengthening this relation and orienting it towards its service and development.
  9. General Administration:

  10. Strengthening the educational leadership skills amongst the ministry staff.
  11. Deepening of the Administrator’s ethics concept.
  12. Development of professional skills related to specific missions.
  13. Increasing knowledge of modern administration means and administrative computerization.
  14. Drawing of lists regulating the work of the administrative body as stipulated in the five-year plan.
  15. Setting up studies defining the training needs in the administrative field.
  16. Services:

  17. Training of technical teams that meet the needs of the different departments (educational techniques, curricula and their preparation, books and set up, advanced secretariat, engineering and construction…..).
  18. Expansion of infrastructure
  19. Establishment of a central building for training near the ministry
  20. Establishment or provision of training places in the various directorates.
  21. Benefiting from the sources centers after equipping and operating them.
  22. 2 – Main indicators for EFA

    2 – 1 Early childhood care and development: indicators 1 &2 (24)

  23. Indicator no:1: Overall enrolment in early childhood development programs including public, private and community programs expressed by a percentage of the official total –if it exists- of the concerned age category, otherwise as a percentage of the age category 3-5.
  24. Indicator no:2: the percentage of new entrants in the first elementary class who participated in any of the programs organized for early childhood development.
  25. Results according to indicators 1 &2: Table 5

    Indicator no:1 Overall enrolment in early childhood development programs

    for 1998-1999

     

    West Bank

    Gaza

    Total

    Males

    55.5%

    42.1%

    50.2%

    Females

    53.8%

    38.8%

    47.9%

    Total

    54.6%

    40.5%

    49.1%

    Indicator no: 2 Percentage of new entrants in the first elementary class who participated in any of the programs organized for early childhood development.

    Females

    48.9%

    39.7%

    45.2%

    Males

    47.4%

    35.9%

    42.9%

    Total

    48.2%

    37.8%

    44.0%

    Indicators pertaining to the overall enrolment in early childhood development programs (indicator no:1) and the percentage of new entrants in the first elementary class who participated in any of the programs organized for early childhood development (indicator no:2) help to highlight the status of early childhood development in Palestine for 1998-1999. They also constitute a prelude to get to know the quality of entrants in the first elementary class and its effect on education in subsequent years.

    (24) Indicator no:1 Definition and objective: Overall number of pupils registered in development programs in the early childhood period irrespective of the age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the concerned official age category or the age category 3 to 5. This indicator calculates the overall level of participation by the young children in early Childhood development programs. It also indicates the country’s capacity to prepare small children to join primary education.

    Indicator no:2 Definition and objective: Number of new entrants in the first elementary class who participated in an organized program of the Early Childhood development programs for 200 hours at least – expressed as a percentage of the total number of new enrolled in the first elementary class. This indicator helps to evaluate the percentage of new enrolled in the first elementary class who are supposed to have benefited from some preparation for basic education in the context of the Early Childhood Development programs.

    As shown in table 5, the overall enrolment in Early Childhood programs in Palestine is still low. This low enrolment affects the quality of enrolled in the first elementary class as shown in table 2 as the percentage of those who have benefited from Early Childhood Development Programs does not exceed 44% of the total in Palestine.

    A number of factors contribute in the low enrolment of children in kindergartens, mainly the fact that some parents of children enrolled in the first elementary class (numbering 16.538 child aged 5) are not convinced of the quality of education provided in the existing kindergartens thus they prefer to keep their children at home.

    The presence of a large number of women outside the labor market (around 76% of the overall number of the Palestinian labor force-25-) helps in this direction; as well as reliance on aged women in taking care of children whose mothers work outside. On the other hand, the economic factor plays a role in giving the opportunity to children of high or middle income families to join the kindergartens while it does not grant the same opportunity to poor or rural Palestinians except in very limited cases.

    Kindergartens’ status:

    Some indicators of development in kindergartens:

    Pre-scholar education did not take its position in the formal educational system in the first period (1990-1994) nor was it considered as a pillar for basic education at that time. The number of kindergartens was not proportional to the demographic increase nor to the socio-economic changes. Furthermore, the distribution of kindergartens from the geographic point of view was not balanced at that time. The kindergartens were centered in the West Bank’s cities while they did not exist in the rural areas and camps. As for Gaza strip, it remained partially deprived of them.

    The number of children registered in kindergartens in Palestine reached 77.173 in 1998/1999 (out of which 52% of males and the rest females) and the number at Jerusalem public schools reached 2.268. This number constitutes around four times the number of children who joined this cycle in 1985/1986.

    In the second period, the number of kindergartens in Gaza jumped from 13 accommodating 1389 children in 1993/1994 to 206 kindergartens accommodating around 24.000 children in 1998/1999 (some of which was established for political reasons by non-governmental institutions26). The number of kindergartens increased in response to the growing demand. This phenomenon reflects the awareness of the society and the increasing participation of women in the labor market.

    In the beginning of the period, the percentage of males to females in kindergartens seemed balanced. But the percentage of males exceeded that of females due to growing unemployment and difficult economic conditions.

    25 – Central Palestinian statistics department, annual report 1999 – Palestine children – facts and statistics- Child statistics series (no:2). Ramallah-Palestine. Page 53.

    26- Interview with Cairo Arafat – Director of Palestinian Child National Plan Secretarion 07/10/1999.

    Table 6

     

    1995/1996

    1997/1998

    1998/1999

    Kindergartens

    528

    789

    823

    People

    1554

    2693

    2843

    Children

    44452

    75032

    77173

    Crowdedness rate

    28.6

    27.9

    27.1

    Enrolment rate

    25.5

    36.3

    49.1

    A survey covering around 1000 pre-scholar education institutions in 1995 (27) revealed the existence of 1010 nurseries and kindergartens in Palestine out of which 730 are located in the West Bank and 270 in Gaza. Comparison with the information available on the situation in 1989, shows that a 100% increase was achieved in this educational sector. The profit making private sector ran around half the early childhood centers while the non-profit private sector ran the rest.

    Administration, educators‘ skills and educational atmosphere:

    Education in these centers was not unified nor did it use harmonious means. The relation between the kindergartens and the families was most of the time based on haughtiness (28). The survey shows that what was achieved in the early childhood field lacked integrality and educational activities that contribute in developing the child’s personality, urging him to interact and allowing him to discover the language. The child’s education is still based on teaching and lacks educational means like games and various activities. It also lacks methodological programs and mostly educational activities that contribute in developing the child’s personality and urging him to interact and discover the language. Consequently, the objective of building the child’s capacities disappears, as well as teaching him the life’s skills and developing them, adapting to the society’s values and criteria, developing of the self-monitoring sense and understanding others. Integration with the socio-cultural environment also vanishes in addition to the objective of developing intellectual skills, knowledge and use of modern means. In fact, most of pre-school institutions operate like Day Care Centers or they apply the curriculum of the first class to give a momentum for the entry in the formal educational system.

    The above-mentioned survey shows that the administration of kindergartens used to be assumed most of the time by individuals who lack specialization and experience. The following table shows the number of female educators working in kindergartens and their skills.

    Table 7

    Number of female educators in kindergartens according to their academic competence for the years 1994/1995 and 1998/1999

    Academic degree

    1994/1995

    1998/1999

    Baccalaureate or less

    537

    1313

    Intermediary diploma

    585

    1067

    Bachelor degree

    85

    315

    High diploma

    1

    2

    Masters or higher

    3

    4

    Total

    1211

    2701

    Source: Education statistical book: different issues

    Table 7 shows that the number of female teachers holders of Baccalaureate degree or less has increased from 44.3% in 1994/1995 to 48.6% in 1998/1999 and the holders of bachelor degree from 7% to 11.6% while the percentage of those holders of intermediary diploma dropped from 48.3% to 39.5%. It also shows that the number of female teachers increased at a quicker pace compared with the increase in the number of children and consequently the number of pupils per teacher decreased. The number of children per teacher dropped from 30.4 in 1995/1996 to 28.6 in 1998/1999.

    Evaluation of the kindergartens performance by the parents:

    A survey covering the kindergartens in 1998 shows that 85% of the families are aware of the kindergartens operating locally (88% in Gaza and 83% in the West Bank) and consider them as good or very good. The concerned families presented proposals to improve the kindergartens like: provision of better qualified staff, provision of more materials, toys and equipment for the children as well as better premises, lower fees and more services (29).

    The results unveiled by the aforesaid survey seem to be positive contrary to the concrete reality existing in this educational sector. The survey did not seemingly take into account the lack of awareness of the persons questioned and their incapability to make the difference between the existing situation and the expected one as they do not have a better alternative. Therefore the national report considers the results with some reserve. But despite all this there is still a need for a more objective evaluation that would take into account the inaccuracies of the aforesaid survey.

    (29) Cookroft Ane(1998) survey of services in the West Bank and Gaza: Health and basic education services- final report, CIET international, central statistics department, Institute of information and health and development policies).

    Pre-scholar education:

    Social affairs ministry and the kindergartens:

    The social affairs ministry defines kindergartens as being "every convenient place designed to take care of children who did not reach the age of four (30). The kindergartens are under the supervision of the administration that is responsible for the licenses and the monitoring of the kindergartens’ respect of the standards set by the social affairs ministry.

    Licenses were granted to 30 kindergartens in the West Bank and 11 kindergartens in Gaza out of 93 kindergartens (66 in the West Bank and 27 in Gaza) that used to be operational in Palestine before the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority, after having met the conditions and standards set. This has led to the fact that 20 kindergartens automatically stopped their activities because of their inability to settle their situation. The social affairs ministry is watching other kindergartens after having drawn their attention to the disrespect of conditions and standards.

    The social affairs ministry runs a number of programs related to kindergartens like:

    1 – Program of child care in difficult conditions (31):

    The program provides financial support for lodging institutions (numbering 29), guidance and treatment for physical and mental illnesses of the children and tries to reintegrate them in the society if the child’s family conditions permit his reintegration. The number of beneficiaries from this program increased ten times from July to December 1998 (36-370). The overall number of beneficiaries from the program reached 1271 children in 1998 with a cost of 180.220 shekel (around 45000$).

    2 – Parents education program (32): (In collaboration with UNICEF) The program aims at deepening the family’s awareness of its responsibilities and working on consolidating its role of providing a motivating, healthy and secure environment. It also seeks to activate the role of the local community, allow it to contribute in consolidating the humanitarian values and positive traditions and urge the decision-makers to develop family-related laws.

    Ministry of education and kindergartens:

    The ministry of education is facing, in its endeavor to expand its role of developing kindergartens, a number of problems mainly: funding, lack of convenient policies, laws, protocols and lists. Despite all this, the ministry is trying to eliminate the obstacles that are hampering the expansion of its role in the field of kindergartens by relying on its own efforts in cooperation with other concerned parties.

    30 – "Torches", a periodic magazine issued by the ministry of social affairs issue no:2 April 1999. Refer to file pages 51-58.

    31 – Previous source

    32 – Ministry of social affairs – General directorate for family and childhood, social awareness campaign "A call for both parents towards a better family" 1998/1999.

    The ministry enhances its role of training kindergartens educators by developing means to exchange expertise amongst them. It currently cooperates with local and international institutions to implement a three-year program aiming at improving and facilitating the progress of the child from kindergarten to the first elementary class and at urging the society to participate in the process.

    The ministry established a typical center for children sources in Gaza and will establish another one in Bethlehem by the year 2000. The purpose of establishing these two centers is to use them as typical kindergartens and early childhood sources to train kindergarten educators. Currently, the miniplans to establish a center in each of the 14 remaining departments. The Islamic Education Science and Culture Organization (ISESCO) is assisting in the cost of training 150 kindergarten educators. Moreover, the system of Early Intervention to Discover Disabilities will be introduced in November 1999 in the pre-scholar education institutions. According to the new system the doctor becomes responsible for discovering disabilities amongst children. On the other hand, the Palestinian Health Ministry started implementing the Early Discovering program in its clinics.

    The kindergartens status could be improved by drafting policies, issuing the necessary laws and coordinating actively between the ministries, the private institutions operating in the field of early childhood and the donors themselves and between these donors and the concerned parties or those operating in the field of pre-scholar education. It could also be enhanced by attracting competent staff to work in kindergartens. The ministry is also encouraging the family’s participation in these efforts and hastening the move from the trial stage to the implementation. Despite all this it is improbable to reach a quick improvement of pre-scholar education for the following reasons:

  26. Failure to consecrate time, expertise and available resources to develop a policy, a structure and plans of action in the concerned institutions for the time being.
  27. Time, expertise and the available resources are currently being used to solve daily problems.
  28. Constraints imposed by the donors on expenditure on the development of capacities related to pre-scholar education and solving its problems as well as the lack of other financial resources.
  29. Weakness of cooperation and coordination between the various ministries and concerned institutions.
  30. Weakness of parents’ participation.
  31. Weakness of the social awareness of the need to contribute in the cost of services provided. (33)
  32. Pending a solution for the above-mentioned problems, the ministry is currently supervising and monitoring the kindergartens indirectly and is watching over the operating kindergartens and over the staff, the quality of programs and premises. It is also issuing the relevant licenses according to precise specifications.

    2-2 Basic education

    2-2-1 Basic education- joining basic education indicators 3&4.

    - Indicator 3 – The Gross (total) enrolment ratio. New enrolled in the first elementary class as a percentage of the overall population in the official age for enrolment.

  33. Indicator 4 – Net Enrolment Ratio: new enrolled in the first elementary class of those who are in the official age for enrolling in this class as a percentage of the corresponding population.
  34. Results of indicator 3

    Table 8

    Indicator 3: Gross Enrolment Ratio for the first elementary class in 1998/1999.

     

    West Bank

    Gaza

    Total

    Males

    97.6%

    105.5%

    100.6%

    Females

    98.7%

    101.2%

    99.7%

    Total

    98.1%

    102.1%

    99.7%

    Results of indicator 4

    Table 9

    Indicator 4: Net Enrolment Ratio for the first elementary class in 1998/1999.

     

    West Bank

    Gaza

    Total

    Males

    98.1%

    99.8%

    98.8%

    Females

    96.1%

    98.9%

    97.2%

    Total

    97.1%

    98.1%

    97.5%

    The official age to join the first grade in 1998/1999 was 5.8 years

    The high Gross Enrolment Ratio (indicator 3) is interesting. On the one hand it is higher than the world ratio for females (104% vs. 94% worldwide and 100.6% vs. 99.7% in Palestine) but on the other hand it does not reveal the progress that has taken place since the beginning of the second period and the handling by the ministry of the education responsibility in Palestine by the end of 1993. There is no room for comparison between the situation in the first and second periods for lack of data on the enrolment ratios in 1992/1993 and before. However, it could be concluded that the high increase in the gross enrolment ratio in the first elementary class as shown in table 9 as a percentage of the overall population in the official age for enrolment was too high in comparison with the education situation that prevailed during the Palestinian Intifada (1987-1993) mainly due to the regulation of the educational process and granting the students the possibility to join basic education after the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority. The result was also distinguished by the difference between the enrolment ratios in the West Bank and Gaza that is due to the differing socio-economic situations. The overcrowdedness and narrowness of the housing in Gaza due to the tightness of this sector plays a major role in increasing the ratio of day enrolment of children (36).

    34 – Definition of the indicator and its purpose: It is the total number of new enrolled in the first elementary class regardless of their age. It reflects the overall level of enrolment in the basic education.

    Definition of the indicator and its purpose: It is the number of new enrolled in the first elementary class who are in the official age to join the elementary school expressed as a percentage of the population in the same age. The net admittance ratio is more precise than the gross admittance ratio in reflecting the chances of basic education joining given to the eligible population in the age of joining basic education.

    The net enrolment ratio for 1998/1999 reaches 97.5% as shown in the above table. It is higher than the world ratio (88% males and 84% females against 98.8% males and 97.2% females in Palestine) while it is in line with the gross enrolment ratio as shown by indicator 3 and represented in the increase of education opportunities provided to children in Palestine. The reason for the difference between the West Bank and Gaza is due to the fact that disabled are not calculated in the net enrolment ratio.

    The difference between the net and gross enrolment ratios means that children who are under or above the official age for schooling find their way to the basic education stage. This situation applies to 1.9% of the overall number of school enrolled including those who have failed in the first elementary class.

    2-2-2 Basic education – enrolment ratio – indicators 5 & 6.

    Indicator 5: Gross enrolment ratio

    Indicator 6: Net enrolment ratio

    Results according to indicator 5

    Table (10)

    Gross Enrolment Percentage

    Gross Enrolment Percentage (Gross enrolment ratio 1-6 for 1998/1999)

     

    West Bank

    Gaza

    Total

    Males

    97.8%

    105.4%

    100.8%

    Females

    97%

    103.5%

    99.6%

    Total

    97.4%

    104.5%

    100.2%

    The official age from classes 1 to 6 is 5.8 to 11.8

    36 – Interview with Maysoon Al Wahidi Director General of the family and childhood section at the ministry of social affairs 02/10/1999.

    37- Palestinian statistics department 1999. Annual report 1999. Pre-cited source. Ramallah Palestine. Page 56.

    Results of indicator 6

    Table (11)

    Indicator 6 (38): Net Enrolment Ratio for 1998/1999 (%)

    Classes 1 - 6

    Classes 1 – 10

     

    West Bank

    Gaza

    Total

    West Bank

    Gaza

    Total

    Males

    91.6

    100

    94.9

    88.3

    92.5

    90

    Females

    91.1

    99.8

    94.5

    88.6

    92.3

    90.1

    Total

    91.4

    99.9

    94.7

    88.5

    92.4

    90

    The overall enrolment percentage in the classes 1-6 represented in the new enrolled in the first elementary class of those who are in the official age to join this cycle, exceeds 100%. As for the total of the enrolled in basic education regardless of the age and represented as a percentage of the total number of children in school age, it is shown in table 12.

    Table 12

    Overall enrolment percentage (Overall enrolment ratio 1-10)

     

    West Bank

    Gaza

    Total

    Males

    96.4%

    100.3%

    97.9%

    Females

    97.5%

    99.9%

    98.4%

    Total

    96.9%

    100.1%

    98.2%

    There are no major differences between the overall enrolment ratio and the net enrolment ratio amongst males and females in the West Bank and Gaza strip. However, there are differences in the enrolment ratios in both areas that are due to the fact that the net enrolment ratios for classes (1-6) and (1-10) have been subject to the same reasons and circumstances that have led to the overall ratios for the same classes. The same applies to the differences in the ratios between the West Bank and Gaza. In both cases, Palestine has a high percentage of enrolment rate whether the number of enrin basic education is calculated against the total number of pupils in elementary schools or against the total number of the corresponding population category.

    It is noted also that the drop-out rate in the classes 1-10 is higher than the drop-out rate in the classes 1-6. This is the subject, which will be elaborated when the repetition rates as well as the survival and competence rates will be reviewed.

    38 – Definition and purpose: Overall number of enrolled in the basic education of those who are in the corresponding official age category of the basic education. It is expressed as a percentage of the overall number of the corresponding population category. The percentage gives a more accurate indication on the scope of participation in the basic education by the children who are in the corresponding official age category of the basic education.

    3-2-2 Basic education: expenditure on education indicators 7 and 8 (39)

  35. Indicator no: 7: Overall expenditure on basic education (a) as a percentage of the GNP; (b) on each pupil as a percentage of the GNP per capita.
  36. Indicator 8: Overall expenditure on basic education as a percentage of the overall expenditure on education.

Results of indicators 7 & 8:

Table (13)

Expenditure on basic education

Indicator no: 7 Overall expenditure on basic education (a) as a percentage of the GNP

 

Overall expenditure on basic education

Overall expenditure on basic education per pupil (average)

Classes 1-6

1.4%

 

Classes 1-10

2.12%

14.6%

Indicator 8: Overall expenditure on basic education as a percentage of the overall expenditure on education

Classes 1-6

85%

Classes 1-10

88.70%

The above shown expenditure percentages reflect the real Palestinian commitment towards education and the Palestinian desire to get out of the educational deadlock which the PNA found itself in after taking responsibility for this sector. In fact, there are various problems linked to expenditure on education in all its percentages. First, the fact that the lack of control on the Palestinian resources as the occupation authority kept its control over the major part of these resources and made the Palestinian economy dependant on the Israeli economy. Consequently, this has reduced the Palestinian authority’s capability to undertake the best allocation of the Palestinian resources. Moreover, the PNA’s budget relies highly on the donations which are inconstant and unstable although they constitute an important share of the Palestinian GNP. In this respect, it is noteworthy that the per capita share of the Palestinian National income in Palestine does not exceed currently 35% of the average per capita income worldwide and 11% of the per capita share of the national income in Israel (1772.1 $ in Palestine against 5051$ worldwide and 15870$ in Israel in 1996) (40).

Indicator 7, its definition and purpose: The overall expenditure on basic education expressed as a percentage of the GNP reflects the share of the basic education of the overall national production of goods and services in a given year. The overall expenditure per pupil in basic education expressed as a percentage of the GNP per capita in a given year reflects the average cost per pupil in basic education out of the GNP per capita in a country. Furthermore, when compared with similar indicators for other educational levels both indicators reflect the relative interest given to investment in the basic education.

Indicator 8, its definition and purpose: The overall expenditure on primary education expressed as a percentage of the overall expenditure on education. This indicator reflects the relative share of expenditure on basic education out of the overall expenditure on education.

Despite all this, there are Palestinian dynamics working on defining the policy of expenditure on education within the context of the GNP. They are based on the distribution of expenditure on basic education proportionally to the GNP and the on the share of expenditure on basic education proportionally to the overall expenditure on education. They require a serious review by the Palestinian National Authority so that they are given a developmental trend that would lead to a sustainable development in education.

Expenditure on education in classes 7-10 exceeds expenditure on lower classes because of the difference in the cost between the first and the latter. For instance, a class from 1-4 can be handled by one teacher whereas the higher classes require specialized teachers in the various knowledge fields taught to the student; i.e. the percentage of teachers per student is slightly higher in classes 1-10 than in lower classes. Moreover, the educational techniques needed by the student in higher classes are more costly than and require additional working hours by the educational staff.

4-2-2 Basic education – Teachers’ competence; indicators 9 & 10

Indicator 9: Percentage of elementary school teachers having the required academic skills.

Indicator 10: Percentage of elementary school teachers who have a teaching license according to the national standards.

40 – Palestinian central statistics department, national accounts (1995/1996) preliminary estimates; UNICEF, Situation of Children in the world 1999, Page 117.

41 - Indicator 9 its definition and purpose: Number of elementary school teachers who have at least the minimum level of school competence required by the general authorities to teach in basic education. It is expressed as a percentage of the overall number of elementary school teachers. This indicator reflects the percentage of elementary school teachers who meet the necessary requirements of academic education as set by the national authorities. It also reflects the general level of the quality of the human capital invested in elementary in the basic education in the concerned country. Teachers are the people who guide and orient the learning experiences of the students in the course of their acquiring of new knowledge and competence as foreseen in a particular curriculum.

Indicator 10 its definition and purpose: Number of elementary school teachers who have got the minimum level of organized training (before and during service) required for teaching in the basic education stage. It is expressed as a percentage of the overall number of elementary school teachers. This indicator reflects the percentage of elementary school teachers who have been trained and given teaching skills according to national standards that enable them to teach and use the available teaching materials. It also reflects the commitment of the country in investing in the development of its human capital used in the teaching activities. Teachers are the people who guide and orient the learning experiences of the students in the course of their acquiring of new knowledge and competence as foreseen in a particular curriculum.

Results of indicators 9 & 10

Table 14

Indicator 9: Percentage of elementary school teachers having the required academic skills

 

West Bank

Gaza

Palestine

 

Males

Females

Total

Males

Females

Total

Males

Females

Total

Baccalaureate or less

1.7%

3.0%

2.2%

3.3%

4.3%

3.6%

2.5%

3.6%

2.9%

Intermediary diploma

45.4%

49%

46.7%

51.3%

67.5%

56.5%

48.5%

58.1%

51.7%

Bachelor degree

48%

39.1%

45%

42.3%

22.8%

36%

45.1%

31%

40.4%

Higher diploma

3.4%

7.8%

4.9%

2.6%

5.4%

3.5%

3.0%

6.6%

4.2%

Masters and higher

1.4%

1%

1.3%

0.5%

0.2%

0.4%

0.9%

0.6%

0.8%

The above table shows that holders of Bachelor degree or higher represent around 50% of the overall number of teaching staff in the West Bank while they represent around 40% in Gaza. The table also shows that the percentage of females holders of Bachelor degree or higher in the West Bank and Gaza is less than that of males despite the trend that the ministry is adopting by recruiting more female teachers for classes 1-4 which should increase demand on them and the adoption of competence as the rule for recruitment. The difference is clearer in Gaza where the female teachers percentage constitutaround half the males percentage.

The discrepancy between the percentages of males and females staff is due to a number of factors mainly the recruitment policy that was adopted before the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994. It is also due to the difference in the social movement between males and females in Palestine and to the existence of 314 mixed school out of 1230 school in the West Bank and Gaza where males dominate. Moreover, the private sector’s performance adapted to the supply and demand and despite all this there is the role of traditions which oversteps sometimes the policy adopted.

The following table shows that the percentage of females having a teaching license in elementary schools is less than the percentage of males. While in the West Bank, the percentage of females is close to that of males (around 90%), their percentage reaches around 62% of the percentage of males in Gaza.

Table 15

Indicator 10 : Percentage of elementary school teachers who have a teaching license according to the national standards.

West Bank

Gaza

Palestine

Males

Females

Total

Males

Females

Total

Males

Females

Total

52.8%

47.9%

51.2%

45.4%

28.3%

39.9%

49%

38.2%

45.4%

Palestine is still suffering from the low number of persons who have a teaching license according to the national standards. Despite that the objective set by the ministry was to raise this percentage to 100%, their percentage did not reach 50% yet in Palestine. Their number is however higher in the West Bank than in Gaza.

The reason behind this low number of teachers who have a teaching license according to the national standards is due to the unfavorable political circumstances prevailing in Palestine during the first period and consequently the delay in adopting national standards and the existence of a larger number of high education institutions that graduate teachers in the West Bank than in Gaza.



Previous Page Next Page