|The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports|
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Figure -1: Primary Level NER, Regional Means
Figure -2: Primary Level NER, Standard Deviations
Public Current Expenditure on Primary Education as a Percentage of GNP
(Core Indicator 7a)
Between 1990 and 1998, public current expenditures on primary education rose from 1.18 percent to 1.93 percent of GNP. The growth trend was marked by a steady ascent from 1992 to 1998 (see Table III-26 and Figure III-20)
Table -1: Public Current Expenditure on Primary Education as a % of GNP
Figure -3: Public Current Expenditure on Primary Education as a % of GNP
Per Pupil Public Current Expenditure on Primary Education as a Percentage of GNP Per Capita
(Core EFA Indicator 7b)
On a per pupil basis, public current expenditure on primary education grew from 7.0 percent in 1990 to 11.3 percent of per capita GNP in 1998 (see Figure III-21 and Table III-27).
Figure -4: Per Pupil Current Expenditure on Prim Educ as a % of Per Capita GNP
Table -2: Per Pupil Current Expenditure on Prim Educ as a % of Per Capita GNP
Public Expenditure on Primary Education as a Percentage of Total Public Expenditure on Education
(Core EFA Indicator 8)
Public expenditures on primary education increased from 40 percent of total public expenditures in 1990 to 52 percent in 1998. During the 9-year period under review, primary education expenditures peaked at about 57 percent of total public expenditures in 1995 before sliding down over a three-year period to its present level (see Figure III-22 and Table III-28).
Figure -5: Public Expend on Prim Educ as a % of Tot Public Expend on Education
Table -3: Public Expend on Prim Educ as a % of Tot Public Expend on Education
Percentage of Primary School Teachers having the Required Academic Qualifications
(Core EFA Indicator 9)
The minimum entry requirement to become a public primary school teacher in the Philippines had always been a bachelors degree in an education course, such that the percentage of teachers with the required academic qualifications remained at 100 percent between 1990 and 1998 (see Table III-29).
Table -4: Percentage of Primary Teachers with Requisite Academic Qualifications
Percentage of Primary School Teachers who are certified to Teach according to National Standards
(Core EFA Indicator 10)
The percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards increased from 93.6 percent in 1990 to 100 percent in 1998 (see Table III-30 and Figure III-23).
Table -5: Percentage of Primary Teachers certified to Teach
Figure -6: Percentage of Primary Teachers certified to Teach
(Core EFA Indicator 11)
The pupil-teacher ratio in the public schools increased slightly from 33:1 in 1990 to 35:1 in 1998. For the private schools, there was a small decrease from 35:1 to 32:1 between 1990 and 1998 (Table III-31). Pupil-teacher ratios for urban and rural areas are almost similar. However, when the non-teaching teachers (who are regular teachers but who are assigned non-teaching jobs in the school such as managing the school canteen) are netted out, the pupil-teacher ratio in the public schools increase to 41:1 in 1990 and 45:1 in 1998 (Table III-32).
Table -6: Primary Level Pupil-Teacher Ratio, National Aggregates
Table -7: Primary Level Pupil-Teacher Ratio, Net of Non-Teaching Teachers
Although pupil-teacher ratios are confined to a small range between 31:1 and 36:1, it is nonetheless interesting to note that there had been decreasing trends for private schools (urban and rural) between 1990 and 1998. On the other hand, there had been steady increases in the ratios for urban and rural public schools (see Figure III-24 below).
Figure -7: Primary Level Pupil-Teacher Ratio, National Aggregates
Among public sector schools, the pupil-teacher ratio was almost equal between urban and rural areas, with no extraordinary outliers among the regions. This is revealed in Table III-33 showing the location parity index for public sector schools.
Table -8: Public Sector Pupil-Teacher Ratios, Location Parity
There was very little change in the mean pupil-teacher ratios for public sector schools between 1990 and 1998. But what is surprising is that the mean for the National Capital Region (NCR) was the highest in 1998 at almost 42:1. This is suggestive of relative congestion of students in the most urbanised area of the country, as brought about by the continuing influx of population from the provincial areas (see Figure III-25).
Figure -8: Public Sector Pupil-Teacher Ratios, Regional Means
Figure -9: Public Sector Pupil-Teacher Ratios, Standard Deviations
Repetition Rate by Grade
(Core EFA Indicator 12)
Nationwide, the average elementary repetition rate was 1.96% in 1990; this nudged up a little to 1.97% in 1997. The male and female repetition rates were 2.45% and 1.45%, respectively in 1990; the male rate increased to 2.48% in 1997 but there was a very small reduction in female rates to 1.43% in1997. Urban repetition rose to 1.66% in 1997 from its 1990 figure of 1.65%, while rural repetition moved up a little higher to 2.26% in 1997, from 2.25% in 1990 (Table III-34 and Figure III-27). Although these changes are imperceptible, the constancy in the measures is worrisome since it denotes a continuing inefficiency in the educational system.
Table -9: Average Primary Repetition Rates
Figure -10: Average Primary Repetition Rates
Average repetition rates in the elementary level remained constant between 1990 and 1997. No significant positive changes have occurred in the nationwide rate, the male-female rates and the urban-rural rates. In fact, there had been slight increases in these measures, contrary to expectations of a downtrend over time. Males continue to have higher probabilities for repetition, and the rural areas experience greater repetition for both males and females.
There is a marked male gender bias in repetition rates. Nationwide, the GPI stood at 0.58 in 1997, a small step down from the 1990 figure of 0.59, meaning that the females repetition rate was only about six-tenths that of males (Table III-35). The GPIs among the regions were confined to a narrow range around the national figure during both 1990 and 1997, presenting yet another measure of constancy in repetition rates. Clearly, the reasons into males higher propensity to repeat bears looking into.
Table -10: Average Primary Repetition Rates, Gender Parity Index
There is also a noticeable rural bias in repetition rates. The urbanrural parity index shows a 1.36 UPI nationwide in 1998, unchanged from the 1990 figure. Since the UPI is derived by putting the rural average repetition rate as numerator, any quotient above 1.00 means that the rural ARR is higher than the rural ARR. The higher rural ARR is generally repeated among the regions from 1990 to 1998. Region III and IX are exceptions to this general trend in the rural-biased repetition situation. In these regions, the UPIs persistently show a higher ARR for the urban areas (Table III-36).
Table -11: Average Primary Repetition Rates, Location Parity Index
A disaggregation of the average repetition rate reveals that the incidence of repetition is highest in the first grade and tapers down as the educational ladder ascends. A particularly distressing finding is that the repetition rate in Grade 1 has actually increased from 3.51% in 1990 to 4.09% in 1998 in spite of efforts to expand and develop early childhood care and development (see Table III-37 and Figure III-28 below). In addition, it was only at this grade level where an increase in repetition rate was experienced. As shown in the table below, all grade levels except for Grade 1 had reduced levels of repetition, such that if at the least the Grade 1 repetition rate had just remained constant, the average repetition rate would have gone down.
Table -12: National Primary Repetition Rate by Grade
Figure -11: Primary Level Repetition Rate by Grade
In 1990 the Philippine mean repetition rate was 2.08 with a standard deviation of 0.8; in 1997, the mean rose to 2.8 with a standard deviation of 0.92. What this indicates is that the mean repetition rate has worsened although only by a small margin but that there was slightly more variation in repetition rates among regions. The increase in the standard deviation implies that compared to 1990, individual regional performances in respect of repetition have become far more different from one anothers. This may suggest a lack of cohesiveness and coordination in the effort to contain repetition rates
It can be discerned by looking within regions that variations in provincial repetition performance had not changed much from its state in 1990. In 1990 and 1997, more than one-half of the regions had standard deviations that were considerably larger than the nationwide standard deviation (see Table III-38 and Figures III-29 and III-30 below).
Table -13: Average Primary Repetition Rate, Means & Standard Deviations
Figure -12: Average Primary Repetition Rate, Regional Means
Figure -13: Average Primary Repetition Rate, Standard Deviations
Cohort Survival Rate in Primary Education
(Core EFA Indicator 13)
Nationwide, the survival rate was 62.7 percent in1990; this rose to 65.0 percent in 1997. The male and female survival rates were 59.7 percent and 66.0 percent in 1990, which increased to 62.7 percent and 0.67.3 percent respectively in 1996. Urban survival increased from 53.7 percent in 1990 to 69.7 percent in 1996, while rural survival moved down from 73.8 percent in1990 to 60.6 percent in 1996 (see Table III-39 and Figure III-31).
Table -14: Cohort-Survival Rate to Grade 6, National Aggregates
Figure -14: Cohort-Survival Rate to Grade 6, National Aggregates
There was therefore a small improvement in the survival rate to Grade 6 between 1990 and 1996. This development could be attributed solely to the increase in urban male and female survival rates; rural male and female rates having actually gone down. The 1990 situation where there was a higher rural survival rate was reversed in 1996; urban survival in 1996 was already higher and but the urban-rural gap has considerably lessened.
A slight female gender bias in survival rates was present. Nationwide, the gender parity index (GPI) stood at 1.1 in 1997, the same level it was in 1990. On a per region basis, the interesting developments are that Regions IX and XII moved from having female-biased survival rates to male-biased ones. Actually, in 1996, all regions except these two had female-biased survival rates. The better survival performance exhibited by females runs complementary to the finding that female repetition rates are lower than the male repetition rates (Table III-40).
Table -15: Survival Rate to Grade 6, Gender Parity Index
There was a trend between 1990 and 1996 towards decreasing gaps in urban-rural parity between regions. The urban-rural parity index shows a 0.9 figure nationwide in 1998, a considerable change from the 1990 UPI of 1.4. Since the UPI is derived by putting the rural survival rate as numerator, any quotient above 1.0 means that the rural survival rate is higher than the urban rate. (Table III-41)
Table -16: Cohort-Survival Rate, Location Parity Index
There was virtually no change in the nationwide mean, which was 62.2 percent in 1990 and 62.5 percent in 1996. The graphs below show that the regional means were more widely dispersed in 1996 than they were in1990, and the standard deviations, even with the obvious exception of Region VI, were scattered within a wider range in 1996 than in 1990 (Table III-42 and Figures III-32 and III-33).
Table -17: Cohort-Survival Rate, Means & Standard Deviations
Figure -15: Cohort-Survival Rate, Regional Means
Figure -16: Cohort-Survival Rate, Standard Deviations
Coefficient of Efficiency to Grade VI
(Core Indicator 14)
Between 1990 and 1996, the coefficient of efficiency to Grade 6 improved from 77.3 percent to 80.6 percent, accounted for by the sharp increase in urban efficiency. There was, however, a considerable decline in rural efficiency. The coefficient of efficiency for females had been consistently higher than the males, although the coefficient for rural females also declined between 1990 and 1996 parallel to total rural performance (Table III-43 and Figure III-34).
Table -18: Coefficient of Efficiency to Grade 6
Figure -17: Coefficient of Efficiency to Grade 6, National Aggregates
Both the gender and the location (urban-rural) parity indices were close to 1.0, across regions although the coefficient of efficiency in the ARMM was distinctly in favour of females, and Region XII had a rather high rural bias (Tables III-44 and III-45).
Table -19: Coefficient of Efficiency to Grade 6, Gender Parity Index
Table -20: Coefficient of Efficiency to Grade 6, Location Parity Index
On a nationwide basis, the coefficient of efficiency to Grade 6 moved up slightly between 1990 (76.1 percent) to 78.2 percent in 1996. There was insignificant variation within regions for both years (Table III-46 and Figures III-35 and III-36 below).
Table -21: Coefficient of Efficiency to Grade 6, Means & Standard Deviations
Figure -18: Coefficient of Efficiency to Grade 6, Regional Means
Figure -19: Coefficient of Efficiency to Grade 6, Standard Deviations
Learning Achievement and Outcomes
Percentage of Pupils with Basic Learning Competencies
(Core EFA Indicator 15)
Based on National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) scores, there was an increase in the percentage of elementary pupils who mastered basic competencies in reading/writing and in mathematics between 1995 and 1998. During the same period, there was a decrease in the percentage mastering basic competencies in life skills/others (see Table III-47 below).
Table -22: Percentage of Primary Pupils Mastering Basic Learning Competencies
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