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7.0 PART II – ANALYTIC SECTIONS

7.1 Early Childhood Care and Development

During this decade the government through different social and welfare programmes established the basic mechanism to ensure that early childhood care and development is

attainable by all children within this age-group. Several million were spent to laid the minimum standards set for this form of education. All creches have now attained this minimum standard. Early childhood care and development is formally organised in all creches irrespectively of their geographycal locations. Creches education, although optional, is considered part of the

formal education system operated by government. It caters for pre-school children aged 3 to5 years. It is non fee-paying and available to all residents. Attendance rate at this year programme is virtually 100 percent of this age of this age group. As part of the formal system it has its own curriculum and are implemented by teachers specialising in early childhood

education. Administratively the creche falls under the schools section of the Ministry of Education and is attached to a primary school in accordance with its location. Prior to creche education government in 1994 gave out license to private individuals to organise and run day care centres for the very young aged 3 month up to creche age. Day care is non-compulsory

just like creche, however, this is fee paying and privately operated enterprise catering for the needs of mostly working parents especially single mothers.

Day care centre falls, under the part folio responsibility of the Ministry of Education which provides guidance in order to maintain minimum standards and opportunity for improvement. These two establishments facilitate women socio-economic integration and enables them to

assume their rightful place in society in the dual role of motherhood and the persuance of a personal socio-economic career. In line with the enrolment 1999 Education Reform and year 2000 target early childhood age has been redefined as being 3 to 8 years. During this period

early childhood education will lay the foundations for further attainment and learning. This covers creche year 1 to the end of primary 2. During this period the programme set will ensure that the child:

The year 2000 Target with regard to early childhood education focuses on the child as agent of the learning process. The teacher’s role is to organise and to draw out those learning mostly

through play especially in the two years of creche education. Parents are regarded as the first teachers and educators of their children the necessary mechanism will be reinforced to encourage them to collaborate even closer with school especially at this early stage of the children’s development as learners. This link between the school and home will be strengthened through the use of the mother tongue during that period, hence ensuring the smooth adaptation of the child to school. In addition to this government has set goals for the non-formal early childhood education.

This affect children from age 0 to 3 years. It is clear that in these early formative years which are so crucial to future health, emotional stability and mental development, a child should be viewed as an integral whole and that balance provision to be made for all development needs. To achieve this the Ministry of Education has for the closest possible collaboration between itself, the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, to ensure that quality services are provided to this highly valuerable group of young children. This will also implies an active role for parents, and a voice in all matters affecting the welfare of the child. The Ministry of Education continues to play the lead role in monitoring the quality of non-formal early childhood education and providing guidance for the development of this service.

The early childhood education programme as stated is very popular among this age-group. The total enrolment is virtually 100 percent. Table ____ shows the participation rate for the past ten years, 1990-1999.

Evolution of the total enrolment in ECD by Gender – 1990-1999.

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

MF

3412

3228

3139

3081

3167

3280

3262

3153

3304

3212

M

1712

1628

1586

1578

1630

1683

1630

1600

1700

1638

F

1690

1600

1553

1503

1537

1597

1632

1553

1604

1574

GROSS ENROLMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES

The total number of children enrolled in early childhood development programmes regardless of stage expressed as a percentage of the official age-group is reffered to as the Gross enrolment for this two year programme.

Table _____ depicts this situation by showing the general tendency from 1990 to 1999.

Table_____ Gross Enrolment Ratio In Early Childhood Development Programmes

Year

Total Enrolment

Official Population

Gross Enrolment Ratio

1990

3412

3278

104.1

1991

3228

3011

107.2

1992

3139

3099

101.3

1913

3104

3143

98.8

1994

3167

2995

105.7

1995

3280

3035

108.1

1996

3262

2993

109.0

1997

3242

2946

110.0

1998

3304

2966

111.4

1999

3212

3007

106.8

It must be stated that even before 1990 the early childhood education programmes were well attended this total enrolment and gross rate figure. At all time as well the physical infrastrural facilities were already in place. However during the 90’s these facilities were improved bringing them to the minimum level set by the government throughout the countries irrespective of the geographical location.

Table _____ show the number of pupils enrolled in ECD by geographical allocation gender.

Table _____Gross enrolment Ratio in Childhood by Geographical location and by Gender

Year

Gender

Region

1994

1999

MF

M

F

MF

M

F

           

Mahe

Praslin

La Digue

106

101.1

111.9

108.5

92.0

105.0

103.5

113.3

118.2

107.3

103.2

101.4

105.0

103.6

102.9

109.9

102.9

100.0

Main island

106.0

108.5

103.4

107.3

105.0

109.0

Other islands

103.7

94.7

114.6

102.9

103.4

102.3

The table to follow show the progression from early childhood (creche stage) into Primary 1. Most parents have long understood that a child will fare better in the primary cycle if the child has attend some kind of early childhood education programmes. For those reason although, creche education is optimal, nevertheless non fee-paying parents send the children to participate.

Furthermore Government make it possible for everyone to attend there programme by constructing and improving these facilities in all districts where the population is concentrated. All such institution for that matter are situated short walking distance within the catchment area.

All creches are attached to primary schools in accordance to its geographical location. Although zoning is not in force at creche level most children attend their respective creche and this makes it easier for promotion into the associated primary school. Number of new entrants to primary grade 1 who have attended some form of organised childhood development programmes, expressed as a percentage of total number of new entrants to primary grade 1 is being depicted by table ____. This is an indicator, which assess the proportion of grade 1 pupils who have received preparation for primary schooling through ECD programme.

Table _____

Enrolment in ECD by type of Institution

Year

Enrolment

PU + PR

Enrolment

Private

% Private

1990

3412

0

0.0

1991

3228

0

0.0

1992

3139

0

0.0

1993

3104

23

0.7

1994

3167

67

2.1

1995

3280

79

2.4

1996

3262

98

3.0

1997

3242

132

4.0

1998

3304

129

3.9

1999

3212

163

5.0

7.2 Basic Education

Seychelles continues to maintain its achievements in the provision of basic education during the nineties. Achievements have not been everything recorded during this decade, the systems has operated under much constraints which have led us to look into the direction to be taken in the light of perceived strengths and weaknesses. Having achieved equal access and 100 percent enrolment during the compulsory years the goals encompass being able to afford a quality education with due regard to environmental enhancement, gender equality, replicability of sustainability of impact.

The main features affecting the total enrolment are: the size of the group (population), migration and expatriate workers o contract coming or leaving with the child. Most of the time the national population base is unable to keep up with the rate of migration hence for the decrepancy in the Net enrolment.

Table _____ depicts the enrolment situation between 1990 and 1999 by Gender.

Table _____

Percentage of primary grade 1 pupils with some form organised early childhood development programmes by geographical distribution.

Year

 

 

Region

1999

New entrants to Primary Grade 1

New entrants to Primary Grade 1 that attended E.C.D

% New entrants to Primary Grade 1 that attended E.C.D

Mahe

Praslin

La Digue

1511

156

36

1496

156

36

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total

1703

1703

100.0

Main island

1511

1496

100.0

Other islands

192

192

100.0

Evolution of the apparent gross intake rate by Gender 1990-1999

The calculation of this indicator involves obtaining the total number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age compared with the official primary school entrance age population.

Table _____ shows this evolution between 1990 – 1999 by gender.

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

MF

M

F

       

110.8

97.5

110.8

   

114.3

109.9

119.0

112.5

109.5

114.9

100.3

98.8

102.0

F/M

       

1.0

     

1.0

1.0

 

Table _____ AIR by Geographical location and by gender

Year

 

 

Region

1994

1999

Apparent intake rate in Grade 1

Parity Index

Apparent intake rate in Grade 1

Parity Index

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

Mahe

112.1

112.6

111.6

1.0

100.6

98.9

102.2

1.0

Praslin

100.7

101.4

100.0

1.0

98.7

97.4

100

1.0

La Digue

107.1

90.5

123.8

1.4

100.0

100.0

100.0

1.0

Total

110.8

97.5

110.8

1.1

100.3

98.8

102.2

1.0

Main island

112.1

112.6

111.6

1.0

100.6

98.9

102.2

1.0

Other islands

102

98.9

105.5

11

99.0

97.9

100.0

1.0

From table _____ no disparities exist since all regions have reached an apparent Intake Rate of 100 percent. There exist however, marginal disparities between gender as can be observed in the case of 1994 figure. By 1999, the situation had improved and the gender parity index was in equilibrium.

Table _____ looks at the evolution of the Net Intake Rate by gender 1990-1999.

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

MF

       

100.1

   

114.3

116.9

110.4

M

       

98.6

   

109.9

116.1

96.6

F

       

101.7

   

119.0

116.9

110.7

F/M

       

1.0

   

1.1

1.0

1.1

The high NIR sometimes over 100 per cent is explained by the high mobility of foreigner on contract, the net migration and the National population data base is unable to keep pace with. This is often the case with small island states. It is easier to keep track of the children since they all attend school as soon as they enter the country but it take a while for the Nation population data base show this. Most of the time those concerned may have already left by the time a survey is done.

In table ____ the same situation is being illustrated on a geographical basic and by gender.

Table ____ Evolution of NIR by geographical location and gender.

Year

 

 

Region

1994

1999

Net intake Rate in

Grade 1

Parity Index

Net intake Rate in

Grade 1

Parity Index

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

Mahe

111.5

111.6

111.4

1.0

99.9

97.8

102.0

1.0

Praslin

100.7

101.4

100.0

1.0

98.7

97.4

100

1.0

La Digue

107.1

90.5

123.8

1.4

100.0

100.0

100.0

1.0

Total

110.4

96.6

110.7

1.1

100.1

98.6

101.7

1.0

Main island

115.1

111.6

111.4

1.0

99.9

97.8

102.2

1.0

Other islands

102.2

98.9

105.5

1.1

99.0

97.9

100.0

1.0

Comparing the figures for the two different years we definitely see some improvement in the quality of education. The net are closer to 100 per cent in 1999 than in 1994.

Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)

Table ____ shows the trend in total enrolment by gender 1990-1999

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

MF

       

9911

   

9747

9738

9931

M

       

5035

   

4960

4947

5033

F

       

4876

   

4787

4791

4898

F/M

       

0.97

   

0.97

0.97

0.97

Trends in Gross Enrolment Ratio

Table _____ shows evolution of GER by gender 1990-1999

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

MF

       

109.4

   

112.5

112.5

115.0

M

       

109.9

   

113.3

113.2

114.0

F

       

108.8

   

111.7

111.8

115.1

F/M

       

1.0

   

1.0

1.0

1.0

Table _____ above show that Seychelles had already attained a gross enrolment ratio above 100 per cent at the beginning of the nineties and has maintained the level throughout the decade.

The trends in enrolment by geographical location and by gender.

Table _____ Depicts the trends in enrolment by geographical location and by gender 1994-1999

Year

 

Region

1994

1999

Enrolment

Enrolment

MF

F

% F

MF

F

% F

Mahe

8813

4321

49.0

8789

4344

49.4

Praslin

835

414

49.6

885

426

48.1

La Digue

263

141

53.6

257

128

49.8

Total

9911

4876

49.2

9931

4898

49.3

Main island

8813

4321

49.0

8789

4344

49.4

Other islands

1098

555

50.5

1142

554

48.5

Trends in enrolment by geographical location and by type of institution.

Table _____ show the trends in enrolment of the primary schools going age by geographical location and by type of institution 1994-1999.

Year

 

Region

1994

1999

Enrolment PU + PR

% Private

Enrolment PU + PR

% Private

Mahe

Praslin

La Digue

8813

835

263

2.6

0.0

0.0

8789

885

257

5.3

0.0

0.0

Seychelles

Main island

Other islands

9911

8813

1098

2.3

2.6

0.0

9931

8789

1142

4.7

5.3

0.0

As indicated by the figures in Table _____ the private sector enrolment is very minimal compared to public school. The trending enrolment trends shows that the enrolment rate doubled between period 1994 to 1999, public schools remain very popular and registered an enrolment rate of 95 per cent in 1999. Private school open its door to the general public in 1993 only, with the reintroduction of multiparty democracy. Still, today these institutions, numbered three in total are relatively urbanised and are found only on the main island.

Evolution of Gross Enrolment Ratio by geographical location and by gender to show the possible variations that may exist between the chosen variables.

Table _____ Evolution of GER by geographical location and by gender 1994-1999

Year

 

 

Region

1994

1999

Gross enrolment ratio

Parity Index

Gross enrolment ratio

Parity Index

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

Mahe

Praslin

La Digue

8813

835

263

4492

421

122

4321

414

141

 

8789

885

257

4445

459

129

4344

426

128

 

Seychelles

9911

5035

4876

 

9931

5033

4898

 

Main island

8813

4492

4321

 

8789

4445

4344

 

Other islands

1098

543

555

 

1142

588

554

 

The Gross enrolment ratio as depicted by Table ______ indicates that all regions have reached an enrolment figure of 100 per cent irrespective of their geographical location.

The Net Enrolment Ratio (NER)

The Evolution of NER by gender between 1990 to 1999 is expressed in Table _____.

Year

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

MF

       

108.5

   

111.3

111.2

114.0

M

       

108.7

     

111.8

113.6

F

       

108.2

   

111.7

110.6

114.3

F/M

       

1.0

   

1.0

1.0

1.0

As is the case in most island mirostates, Seychelles also displays the situation where the NER shoots over 100 per cent. This is due mainly to (i) the small size of the population and any small change in the figures directly influences the outcome of the results; (ii) the rate of mobility in and out of the country (migration) and the main statistic office keeping pace with this mobility; (iii) natural changes in the population; iv record from schools registers are easy obtainable hence making it easy to do head-count of pupils attending the programmes. As such we sometime notice some un enrolled school children depending on the date the data is gathered. In general these does not really exist as seen in the enrolment trend and population data provided by the National Statistics Office.

Evolution of NER by Geographical location and by gender

Table _____ NER by Geographical location and by Gender

Year

 

 

Region

1994

1999

Gross enrolment ratio

Parity Index

Gross enrolment ratio

Parity Index

MF

M

F

F/M

MF

M

F

F/M

Mahe

Praslin

La Digue

109.4

99.3

108.7

109.7

99.0

110.0

109.2

99.5

107.6

1.0

1.0

1.0

115.2

105.1

104.5

114.6

106.3

104.9

115.9

103.7

104.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

Seychelles

108.5

108.7

108.2

1.0

114.0

113.6

114.3

1.0

Main island

109.4

109.7

109.2

1.0

115.2

1146

115.9

1.0

Other islands

101.4

101.3

101.5

1.0

104.9

106.0

103.8

1.0

Age specific Enrolment Ratio 1999

Age

6 yrs

7 yrs

8yrs

9yrs

10 yrs

11 yrs

12 yrs

MF

             

M

             

F

             

Public Expenditure on Education

Government still remains the main provider of education and as stated in the Seychelles constitution Act it is free for everyone and compulsory up to the age of 16 years. This is to say that if you are enrolled in a public school in Seychelles or if you make the necessary grade to follow courses. In this report private expenditure on education is not included as these are currently not available. The necessary is being reinforced to obtain these.

The structure of expenditure on education

Year

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Salaries                    
Material & Equipment                    
Administration                    
Capital                    
Total Gov                    
Foreign Assistance                    
Cost/Pupil                    

                                                                                                                                END


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