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   Slovakia
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to activate the special-interest PT and sports activities of children and youth at schools; at its organization we recommend to make more active use of the support offered by the Slovak Association of Sports at Schools;

Special schools:

School year 1997-98 15:

  1. a teacher shall be obliged to monitor changes in behaviour, eventually, in overall physical and psychic state of the child and to be an indicator of the child’s threat,
  2. in case of substantiated suspicion of negligence, physical or psychic torture, sexual abuse, or in case of participation of pupil in chicaning, use and distribution of drugs, the school shall immediately ask for cooperation the appropriate branch for family and child care at the district authorities or regional authorities,
  3. in case of the child with remarkable defects in behaviour the school may be a proposer of diagnostic stay of pupil in the diagnostic centre for children or the diagnostic centre for young people. The proposal is realized in cooperation with the branch for family and child care at the district authorities,
  4. the case when the child is intoxicated by drugs at school or educational establishment, shall be considered as an acute threat of the child’s life and the school shall be obliged and authorized to directly act and to provide for his health examination.
  1. the head teachers shall take measures for the provision of check up on penetration of drugs into the school area,
  2. the head teachers shall enforce in the school order the prohibition to keep, store and use illegal drugs. The breach of the prohibition should be treated as a severe breach of discipline which the head teacher must solve with the child’s parents. In case of insufficient cooperation of guardians or at repeated breach the school shall inform of the case in a written form the respective centre of educational and psychological prevention, or educational-psychological counselling as well as the respective branch of family and child care of the district authorities,
  3. the head teachers shall provide methodical guidance and sufficient information of educational personnel for fulfilment of tasks in child protection and prevention of pathological social phenomena as well as an increase of legal awareness of their employees by regular acquainting them with the binding legal rules,
  4. the head teachers shall provide for the creation of conditions for more intensive cooperation of the school and educational-psychological counselling centres,
  5. in the interest of educational direction of using free time by children and youth the ministry recommends to increase the offer of special-interest circles and activities, to make access to educational establishments for out-of-school activities and to use leisure-time centres.
  1. regular activity in special-interest centres;
  2. occasional activity carried out as a single or repeated events for participants of special-interest centres and the general public;
  3. provision of district rounds of contest;
  4. concurrent vacancy activities in the centre and camps.

School year 1998-99 16:

Kindergartens:

Primary schools:

Leisure-time centres:

School year 1999-200017:

The submitted survey of tasks from the Pedagogical-Organizational Instructions of the Ministry of Education of the SR testifies of the concentrated orientation of the Public school administration at the field of pre-primary education and primary school. From the content point of view the following changes were envisaged in the previous years:

All the above-mentioned and other commitments required great amount of energy for their meeting, or fulfilment. Out of the numerous obstacles we present perhaps the greatest one, that is, the constant budget cutbacks in education. Nevertheless, it was possible to preserve the efficiency of school education at the standard level.

In the period considered new social and cultural phenomena appeared which had a positive or negative impact on education and training at school.

From the positive phenomena it was for example the opening of frontiers, possibility to travel and communicate with the whole world. New technologies, namely computers were a significant asset for quality of education. Quality of social environment was influenced by new cultural relations and influences.

From the negative phenomena let us mention, for instance, the enormously accelerated penetration of drugs, the growth of criminality and some phenomena connected to high unemployment rate, clientelism, corruption, brain drain of a part of excellent teachers from education sector, and others.

3. Decision-making and management of EFA

Until 1990, the educational management was carried out at the central level. Management of schools at the level of regions and districts manifested itself on the basis of resolutions of the Party authorities and State administration. The information transfer from the centre to schools had a lot of mediating articles. The Act. No. 542/1990 of Digest on State administration substituted the previous act and made up a department system of management (cancelled upon adoption of the Act of the NC SR No. 222/1996 of Digest) and the condition for plural development of education system.

The above acts adjusted the position of self-government educational authorities and put an end to LEAs which became an integrate part of newly established regional and district authorities as their branches of education and culture with the school inspection as their constituent. The law gives to primary schools the status of legal entity provided they have conditions for the establishment.

The competence, organization and commitments of the bodies of State administration in education and authorities of school self-government are adjusted by the Act of the SN No. 542/1990 of Digest on State administration in education and school self-government as amended by subsequent regulations.

The central body of State administration in education is the Ministry of Education of the SR. The Ministry as a central body of State administration manages the performance of State administration at the sector of education in organizations of its competence and it gives methodical guidance to content of education managed by district and regional authorities. It is not responsible for operation and financing of these institutions. It defines principles for pedagogical management of schools, draws up bills, concepts of development of schools and educational establishments, issues generally binding legislation and fulfils a number of additional tasks. The founders of schools and educational establishments in the region are the district and regional authorities specified by the Act No. 222/1996 of Digest.

A part of the school management is the school inspection. It deals with evaluation, assessment of the level and results in management, organization, educational work of head teachers and teachers of schools and educational establishments, quality of educational achievements. School inspection is independent in its work. The results of its inspection activity are submitted to managerial bodies (of district, region and ME SR) for further use.

The regional authority at the regional level is managed by and its activity is accountable to the mayor. The Mayor of the regional authority is appointed and recalled by the Government. In pursuance of the NC SR Act No. 222/1996 of Digest the regional authority performs the State administration in individual sections of special and secondary schools.

The district authorities are established to perform the activity at local State administration. A territorial area of the district authority is the District. The district authority is managed by and its activity is accountable to the Mayor. The Mayor is appointed and recalled by the Government. They are primary schools, basic schools of art and educational establishments that fall within the competence of the district authority. The district authority establishes schools and educational establishments according to network of schools within the framework of its competence. It performs additional activities of State administration similarly as the regional authority.

4. Cooperation in EFA

A constituent part of the education system are also non-state (private and denominational) schools, for which the executive rules are binding: the decree on private schools (No. 280/1994 of Digest) and on denominational schools (No. 536/1990 of Digest).

In 1990-1996 the performance of State administration was adjusted by the Act of National Council of the SR No. 542/1990 of Digest on State administration in education and school self-government and the founder was the education sector. After restructuring the State administration and territorial arrangement of the SR the performance in pre-primary establishments, primary schools and educational establishments is managed by the Act No. 222/1996 on organization of local State administration, and the function of the founder and financing at this level of state education have been transferred to district and regional authorities.

The allotment of finances for education from the State budget is annually carried out in the form of act of the NR SR approved by deputies.

The education sector falling under the regional and district authorities administration, that means, pre-primary education, basic schools, gymnasia, technical secondary schools, apprenticeship as well as all the public school providing for the operation of the education system within their management, are allotted the finances through the regional authority, while there is a limited part as special-purpose funds for the educational system in the region.

The economy of the state-owned schools is ruled by the Act of the NR SR No. 303/1995 of Digest on budget rules for budgetary and partially-subsidized institutions. Almost all state-owned schools and some state-owned educational establishments which are not partially-subsidized organizations, use the form of economy of budgetary organizations. Some schools (basic schools of art, open-air-schools, etc.) and some educational establishments (leisure-time centres) use the system of economy of partially-subsidized organizations. All private and denominational schools and establishments use the form of economy of partially-subsidized organizations. The details of their economy are also adjusted by directives and regulations of the Ministry of Finance of the SR on economy of the funds of the State budget for budgetary and partially-subsidized organizations.

Pre-primary education is provided by state-owned and private pre-primary facilities. Pre-primary facility may be established by an authority of State administration in education, church, religious society, community or other legal entity or natural person. In state-owned pre-primary establishments the financial resources are allotted from the State budget (district authority budget) and from contributions by parents. Private pre-primary establishments are funded from the State budget subsidies (district authority budget), from the funds of the founders and contributions of parents.

The non-investment costs of pre-primary establishment the founder of which is the body of state administration in education or the municipality are partially covered by contributions of the parent, or a person with sustaining responsibility for the child.

In private and other private kindergarten and special kindergarten the founder may demand from the parents a voluntary monthly fee to cover the non-investment costs of pre-primary establishments. This regulation is to support the development of network of non-state pre-primary establishments. If the child is taking meals in pre-primary establishment a part of costs for the meals are covered by parent in the form of direct payment and the rest is financed from the State budget.

The basic schooling is provided by public and private primary school. Private schools include denominational and private schools.

The founders of denominational primary schools are bishops and monasteries. The expenditures of denominational schools are covered by State budget in the same amount as those in state-owned schools. Another resource may be funds covered by the founder and contributions by the parents.

The founders of private schools are natural persons and legal entities. Private schools are funded from subsidies of State budget (for operation of schools in the amount of 50-70 per cent) from the funds paid by the founders and parent’s contributions.

In connection with this form of funding, there are no independent private and denominational schools in the SR in the spirit of European criteria, as all are funded by public funds by 50 per cent at least and denominational schools to full amount of operational costs with a comparable kind of a state-owned school. In practice it means, that the expenses per one pupil of a public school for the respective type of school which is similar in demands (to kindergarten, primary school) is not calculated for well-known indicators (i.e., number if children/pupils) in individual types of denominational schools (establishments ) private schools (establishments) as a multiple of expenses per one pupil while the resulting financial amount is allotted by the respective district/regional authority in the form of a contribution for operation of the school (establishment).

The Government cooperates with the partners sheltering the denominational and private schools – the School Commission at the Bishop Conference and the Association of Private School Founders.

4.1 International cooperation

In the period assessed the international cooperation in the field of early childhood development and basic schooling was focused on:

A. Research projects:

B. Cooperation with institutions:

C. Cooperation with the European Union:

D. Stays, study stays:

 

E. Cooperation with the Council of Europe:

Within the framework of the above projects, international research the workers participating in solution of pre-primary establishments and primary schools cooperated with the above institutions. Within the framework of one project cooperation with five institutions from various countries existed.

5. Investments in EFA from 1990

The state-owned and denominational primary schools are financed from State budget in full extent with exception of the parents’ contributions for meals. Private schools are funded by a contribution from the State budget in amount of 50-70% in the form of school fees paid by parents.

The development of expenditures for primary schools in 1990-1998 represent a mild increase, but the growth of expenditures is not proportionate to inflation and increase of prices for energy (electricity, gas, liquid and hard fuels, water heating and heating, water energy, etc.), services and material equipment needed for the provision of school operation. This is also true of wage development in which the educational staff is ranked in category with the lowest monthly salaries within the SR.

Tab. 1: Total state expenditures for education, total expenditures for primary schools and their portion in total expenditures for education system in 1990-1998

Indicator

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Total expenditures for education in billion Sk

14,2

17,6

19,6

19,1

18,98

25,7

25,8

30,4

31,5

Expenditures for primary schools in billion Sk

3,9

4,8

5,5

5,2

5,4

7,8

8,4

9,1

9,3

Portion of expenses for primary education from total expenses for education in %

27,5

27,2

28,1

27,4

28,4

30,3

32,5

29,8

29,5

The development in Tab. 1 shows an increase of portion in current expenditures for primary schooling, which means a decrease of financial provision for other levels of

education, in spite of the fact that material and technical equipment is financially more demanding (e.g., technical secondary, universities of technical and artistic orientation, universities of agriculture and veterinary, etc.) in spite of the fact that population diminishes at the basic level.

Tab. 2: Development of capital investments for education in total and for primary education in the SR in 1990-1998

Indicator

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total capital investments for education in mil. Sk

692,6

1 126

1 249

1 284

1 131

1 488

1 186

2 077

1 560

Capital investments for primary education in mil. Sk

38,8

162,5

290,3

368,0

338,9

430,1

188,0

467,6

341,0

Portion of capital investment for primary education to total capital investments for education in %

5,6

14,4

23,2

28,7

29,96

28,9

15,8

22,5

21,9

The capital investments are used particularly for elimination of disrepair, such as repairs of roofs, internal equipment of new – completed objects and equipment of schools and educational establishments. The funds are allotted according to urgent needs.

In connection with lack of funds in the education sector a majority of schools and educational establishments was stopped or sold to other sectors and private entrepreneurs and the financially less demanding objects are being finished.

Tab. 3: Development of structure of non-investment costs for primary schools in the SR in 1990-1998

Indicator

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Wage means

58,8

57,4

62,7

72,2

75,5

59,2

59,4

62,8

64,19

Maintenance and repairs

15,1

14,6

10,6

4,5

4,7

5,0

2,8

1,5

0,98

Others

26,1

28

26,7

23,3

19,8

35,8

37,8

35,7

34,8

In "Others" the expenses for material equipment and services of non-productive nature are included but their comparison in time horizons in more detailed division and using present economic classification, would not be correct as a result of its change from 1996. The formation of comparable data would require complex conversion and formation of fictive items.

Within the framework of foreign help no remarkable changes occurred in investments. Since 1992 there is a foundation operating in Slovakia (Open Society Fund – OSF) the aim of which is the development of civil society, the support of humanist activities, educational initiatives and programmes, inter alia, in education, too. The OSF activities are aimed at increase of level and efficiency of schools in the SR. They effect almost all levels of education. For orientation of the report let us mention, e.g., kindergarten and primary school teacher and head teacher training for work with new projects which are experimentally verified, for the provision of material-technical equipment of classes in kindergartens and primary schools, etc.



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