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Table 6. Indicative Annual per Pupil Costs of a Reasonable Primary Education, 1998

COST CATEGORY

AVERAGE COSTS & PERCENTAGES

Amount US$

Line Item %

Subtotal %

A.

SCHOOL LEVEL

A.1 Annualised Capital Costs
Construction, Rehabilitation,
Equipment & Furniture
Subtotal (capital costs)

3.50

8.5

A.2 Operating Costs
A.2.1 Teachers salaries

18.86

45.6

A.2.2 Support staff salaries

2.57

6.2

A.2.3 Learning materials

2.64

6.4

A.2.4 Stationery (notebooks etc.)

3.75

9.1

A.2.5 Maintenance

1.75

4.2

Subtotal (operating costs)

29.57

71.5

TOTAL (SCHOOL LEVEL)

33.07

80.0

B.

INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT

(District, Regional, Central)

8.27

20.0

A + B GRAND TOTAL

41.34

100

Note: The estimates assume the following:

    1. the estimated capital costs are annualised based on the economic life of the assets (20 years

average) at a 4% discount rate;

(b) 35 pupils per teacher; teacher paid a minimum of $55 per month;

(c) 140 pupils per support staff; each support staff paid a minimum of $30;

(d) Learning materials: average of 6 textbooks per grade each @ $2.50, all teachers have 1 copy of each textbook, 2 pupils share one copy of all textbooks and textbooks replaced every 3 years;

(e) maintenance costs should not exceed 50% of annualised capital costs; and

(f) instructional support should be about 25% of average total school level costs.

Source: Development Solutions for Africa, 1998

The Phase I columns in Table 7 show that in order to satisfy the indicative cost in Table 6 without increasing the household contribution, international donors (multilateral and bilateral, and NGOs) would need to meet about three fifths of the cost of primary education in Somalia. Recognising that this situation, which in proportional terms (as opposed to the actual expenditures) reflects current sources, is both undesirable and unsustainable in the long-term, the donor community hankers for developments leading to a setting in which the bulk of educational costs are met from local resources. The three two-year phases in Table 7 and Figure d summarise donor thinking as to how the financing of the unit costs in Table 6 could re-balanced such that by year 2003 internal resources (community and public) meet 92% of the costs while external resources cover the remaining 8%.

The re-balancing of the financing of education, though not based on firm and detailed planning, is benefiting from agency and INGO efforts to cultivate Somali ownership of the education development process through (a) promotion of community education committees (CECs) to take responsibility for mobilising resources for schools at the community level and taking charge of the management of the institutions; (b) working with emerging governance organs at the district, regional and zonal levels to raise the proportion of public revenue allocated to education; and (c) building on traditional mutual social responsibility to promote civil society so as to expand educational opportunities to the needy. Some success is being achieved. For instance, in response to the 1998/99 school survey questionnaire, out of 633 schools with valid data 574 (91%) reported that they had CECs. However, the lack of viable governance organs in many parts of Somalia is a major hindrance. Moreover, the re-balancing of the financing of education is likely to be constrained by a set of demand and supply issues, including the following:

Table 7. Indicative Financing of Annual per Pupil Costs (in US Dollars)

COST ITEM

ANNUAL

PER

PUPIL COSTS

PHASE I (1998-1999

PHASE II (2000-2001)

PHASE III (2002-2003)

Community

INGO /

Donor

Community

INGO /

Donor

Public

Revenue

Community

INGO /

Donor

Public

Revenue

$

%

$

%

$

%

$

%

$

%

$

%

$

%

$

%

$

%

A.

SCHOOL LEVEL

A.1 Capital Costs

3.50

100

1.75

50

1.75

50

2.63

75

0.88

25

-

-

3.50

100

-

-

-

-

A.2 Operating Costs

A.2.1 Teachers’ salaries

18.86

100

9.43

50

9.43

50

14.15

75

4.72

25

-

-

18.86

100

-

-

-

-

A.2.2 Support Staff salaries

2.57

100

2.57

100

-

-

2.57

100

-

-

-

-

2.57

100

-

-

-

-

A.2.3 Learning materials

2.64

100

0.66

25

1.98

75

1.98

75

0.66

25

-

-

2.64

100

-

-

-

-

A.2.4 Stationery

3.75

100

1.88

50

1.88

50

2.81

75

0.95

25

-

-

3.75

100

-

-

-

-

A.2.5 Maintenance

1.75

100

0.88

50

0.88

50

1.31

75

0.44

25

-

-

1.75

100

-

-

-

-

Subtotal Operating Costs

29.57

100

15.41

52

14.16

48

22.82

77

6.75

23

-

-

29.57

100

-

-

-

-

SCHOOL LEVEL TOTAL

33.07

100

17.16

52

15.91

48

25.45

77

7.63

23

-

-

33.07

100

-

-

-

-

B. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT
(District, Regional, Central)

8.27

100

-

-

8.27

100

-

-

5.79

70

2.48

30

-

-

3.31

40

4.96

60

GRAND TOTAL (A + B)

41.34

100

17.16

42

24.18

58

25.45

62

13.41

32

2.48

6

33.07

80

3.31

8

4.96

12

Source: Development Solutions for Africa, 1998


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