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   Somalia
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5.2.3 Teachers

According to the 1998/99 survey there were 5,310 teachers (female=784 or 15%) in primary schools in Somalia. The survey questionnaire did not distinguish between the academic and professional qualifications of the teachers. The

qualifications were reported on the basis of four categories: (a) teachers with university degrees (trained and untrained as teachers); (b) non-graduate teachers with pre-service training (most trained in teachers colleges before 1991); (c) non-graduate teachers with in-service training (trained under emergency arrangements after 1991); and (d) non-graduate and professionally untrained teachers. Table 8 and Figures e and f summarise the survey data on the teaching force.

Table 8. Primary School Teachers by Gender and Qualifications, 1998/99

QUALIFICATIONS

TOTAL

MALE

FEMALE

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

University Degree (UN)

998

19

951

21

47

6

Pre-Service (PS)

2,118

40

1,695

37

423

54

In-service (IS)

1,212

23

1,038

23

174

22

Untrained (UT)

982

18

842

19

140

18

TOTAL

5,310

100

4,526

100

784

100

Source: UNICEF Primary Schools’ Survey Data, 1998/99

It is significant that university graduates comprise nearly a fifth of the primary school teaching force in Somalia. Few (if any) other Sub-Saharan African countries enjoy this apparently enviable position. To a large extent the situation in Somalia reflects lack of alternative employment opportunities for university graduates, including teaching positions for those who trained as second and third level teachers.

A number of informants who have knowledge of the education system in Somalia have indicated that (a) the academic qualifications of many of the untrained and the post-1991 in-service trainees are inadequate for the purposes of teaching in primary school; and (b) the post-1991 in-service training was carried out under severe time and curriculum constraints, thus the pedagogical ability imparted to many of the trainees is below the essential minimum. Thus, it is not unreasonable to extrapolate from the available data that at least two fifths of the teaching force lacks the academic and/or professional qualifications that are

essential for effective teaching.

Table 8 and Figure f show that in all categories the teaching force is characterised by gender disparity. Gender disparity is much larger among the school head teachers. The 1998/99 survey data shows that only 4% of reporting schools were headed by women. These disparities mean that pupils, particularly girls, do not have enough female role modes in the school teaching staff, inter alia a factor contributing to lower enrolments of girls.

EFA 2000 Indicator 11 Pupils per Teacher Ratio

Data on grade repetition is not available. The 1997 and 1998/99 school survey questionnaires did not require that such data be provided. Thus Indicator 12 cannot be responded to. It is noted that repetition can be inferred from the class register and individual pupil’s cards that are in the process of being introduced. However, data collection would be greatly facilitated if a repetition column was included in the class register so that against each repeater a suitable identifier is inserted.


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