The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum
   Somalia
Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region



Previous Page Next Page



5.2.5 Survival Rate

EFA 2000 Indicators 13&14 Survival Rate & Coefficient of Efficiency

Table 10. Enrolment in Somali Primary Schools by Grade and Gender, 1997

Grade

Male

Female

Total

Pupils

Pupils as % of

Total Enrolment

No.

%

No.

%

1

30,289

57

22,485

43

52,774

35

2

23,690

60

15,616

40

39,306

26

3

17,986

65

9,710

35

27,696

18

4

11,723

67

5,683

33

17,406

12

1-4

83,688

61

53,494

39

137,182

91

5

5,373

71

2,172

29

7,545

5

6

2,602

72

1,032

29

3,634

2

7

1,398

73

512

27

1,910

1

8

641

79

173

21

814

1

5-8

10,014

72

3,889

28

13,903

9

 

Figure 1a. Pupils by Grade and Gender, 1997

 

1-8

93,702

62

57,383

38

151,085

100

 

 

Emphasizing that the raison d’Ítre of an education system is to provide for active, meaningful and enduring learning by students, Heneveld (1994:3) observes that in many African countries the conditions essential for such learning are lacking:

Most primary schools in Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from very poor conditions for learning: dilapidated or half-completed buildings, insufficient desks, overcrowded classrooms, few or no learning materials, poorly educated and motivated teachers and choral recitation as the dominant mode of instruction.

For Somalia the conditions described by Heneveld are magnified by the unstable system of governance that (a) exposes schools, teachers and pupils to insecurity; (b) adversely affects the collection of public revenue, part of which could be allocated to the improvement of teacher education and incentives (see discussion on Indicators 9, 10 and 11); and (c) hinders the development of a viable above-school infrastructure for planning and managing the education particularly with regard to teacher guidance, monitoring and assessment / evaluation of pupils’ learning. The recent literature on primary education in Somalia (e.g. Bennaars et al., 1996; Development Solutions for Africa, 1998; Retamal and Devadoss, 1998; UNICEF-Somalia, 1998a & 1999; UNDP, 1998; Wamahiu et al., 1999) highlights severe inadequacies with regard to physical facilities, instructional materials (including pupils’ textbooks and teachers’ guides) and most important, dearth of classroom teaching-learning approaches that actively involve the pupils and thus facilitate the internalisation of knowledge and skills. Wamahiu et al. (1999:19) summarise their findings on teaching-learning approaches as follows:

With little to motivate them, and armed with training (if any at all) in traditional pedagogical methods, [teachers create a classroom culture that] is not very child friendly. Observations carried out during seven different lessons in the case study schools reveal that the talk-and-chalk methods dominate the classroom process; the only activity that pupils engage in, apart from answering teachers’ questions, is writing notes...The teachers tend neither to inspire confidence in the pupils nor to create a pleasant environment that is conducive to learning...In the majority of cases, the teachers do not have any scheme of work, long term plans, record of work done or lesson plans.


Previous Page Next Page