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Part I Descriptive Section

Introduction :1 - Background

Social, Economic and Political Background of the Republic of Sudan

The location :

Sudan occupies the north-east part of Africa and is located between two latitudes (22.4) north of the equator and two longitudes (38.22) east of Greenwich; this somehow privileged location enabled Sudan to perform an important role in inter fertilization of ideas and cultures in the Middle-East region, and in carrying and exchanging political, cultural, economic and social ideas between Africa and the rest of the world. Sudan is characterized by cultural and ethnic diversity; the multiplicity of tribes, languages and dialects had a clear influence upon the enrichment of public patrimony. The language of conversation is Arabic.

Sudan can be divided into three different climatic regions: Tropical in the southern part, seasonal (savanna) in the middle and desert in the north. Sudan is considered as an extended plain pierced by the Nile River, the longest in the world (length 6.963km). Its two principal components are the White Nile that flows down from Victoria Lake in Uganda and joins at Khartoum, and the Blue Nile which rises up from Tana Lake in the heights of Ethiopia. Both, the White and the Blue Nile have tributaries, like Soubat and Arab Sea in the south of Sudan and Dander and Rahd in the heights of Ethiopia, which are densely populated areas. Sudan is bordered by nine countries (revert to form 1: Sudan’s map): Egypt on the north, Libya on the north-west, Chad and the Central African Republic on the west, Zaire and Uganda on the south, Kenya on the south-east side, Ethiopia and Eritrea on the east. Sudan has two harbors: Port-Sudan and Sawakin.

The population :

The results of Sudan’s population projection 1993-2018 show that the number of population in 1998 reaches 29.357.424 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. This rate is one of high growth and has repercussions on education services. Besides growth rate is different from one state to another which is attributed to immigration due to security or natural reasons, like dryness and desertification, that invaded regions in the north of Africa and Sudan during the eighties.

The demographic classification according to the Fourth Census for 1993 shows that townsmen represent 25.2%, settled countrymen 66.3% and nomads 8.5% but this classification varies from one state to another. Children below 15 years represent 45% of the total population, which demands deploying a greater effort by the sector for education services.

Sudan covers a surface of 2.506 Mio. km2. The population density reaches 10 persons per 1km2 and it varies according to state and region.

The density in Khartoum is 163 persons in 1 km2 while it only lies at 3 persons in the northern State Al-Shamaliyah.

The rate of labor forces reaches 53.3% and active forces for those between 15 and 64 52.3% of the total population. The group of population 64+ represents 52.7% of the total population and the sustenance rate lies at 91%.

Unemployment doesn’t represent an intense problem in comparison with the world around us; never the less it progressed till reaching an average of 15.5% of the labor forces bulk (8.8 million). This is due to the regression of the economic performance during the eighties as a result of dryness, desertification and immigration from the production regions, while absorbing abundant employees exceeded the capacity of investments' plans. One of the causes of unemployment is the expansion of academic education at the expense of technical, handicraft and professional education, leading thus to a drop of the technical secondary education rate to 9% only in comparison with academic education. Add to that the shortage of professional training centers and their inability to contain the increasing number of graduates from the different education levels. The total of the drop-outs forms the educational loss, which is directed to the labor market. Their number reached in 1998 43.564 students from the academic secondary level - i.e. a rate of 36.6% - and 5.462 students from the technical secondary level, which makes 62.1% of all those preparing for the technical diploma.

The economic structure :

The growth average of the Gross National Product (GNP) for the fiscal year 1998 was 6%. The mass of exports reached 595.7 million dollars and the imports 1924,6 million dollars(1).

The agricultural sector :

The agricultural sector represents the essential support for the Sudanese Economy and embraces 60% of the labor forces mass; the useful land for agriculture is evaluated at approximately 200 million acres.

The agricultural sector represented 48.4% of the Gross National Product in 1998 with products contributing to the national income like cotton, sesame, peanuts, gum arabic, turnsole, and products reserved for local consumption like corn, sorghum and wheat. The growth average of this sector is estimated at 8.3% in 1998.

(1) Center for Strategic Studies, Sudanese Strategic Report. Khartoum: Center for Strategic Studies, Khartoum 1998.

Among the problems that encounter the growth of the agricultural sector are internal exodus, external emigration and immigration. They caused many learning problems to emigrants' children who’s number exceeded three million; and there are many causes that led to the rise of the internal emigration average like dryness, desertification and natural disasters like floods, rains and landslides.

The important reasons for internal emigration are work opportunities in the cities, the centralization of commerce and industry, and the spread of marginal businesses with quick revenues. The average of internal emigration is expected to decrease due to the pursued policies intending to develop the countryside, to transfer authority through dividing Sudan into 26 States, and due to the call to stop war.

Animal resources :

Sudan benefits from a great animal resource in form of sheep, cows, goats and camels which reached 116 million head in 1998.

The animal resource sector contributed by 21.7% to the (GNP) Gross National Product in 1998 while employing 8.5% of the population. As this group of population is obliged to move seeking for pasture, its children need a certain kind of ambulant schools with one teacher during the basic education level. The government took care of educating the nomads' children and the plan to expand basic education covered all the sectors of the Sudanese society.

The industrial sector :

The industrial sector is affected by agriculture; thus it relies on the industrial processing sector which represent 7.2% of the GNP in 1998. The industrial sector represents 15% of the GNP and it’s growth average reached 4.5% in 1998 compared to a negative growth average (-5.9%) in 1989. Among the most important industries are sugar, textile, cement, oil and soap, and among problems that this sector suffer from, are the shortage in the supply of electricity, the increase of outer port costs, and the lack in qualified workers. Thus the Ministry is asked to intensify efforts to increase the technical education rate and to train the pedagogical staff as to meet the sectors' needs. There are other important secondary sectors as mining, electricity, water, construction which contributed by 2.7% to the GNP in 1998.

These secondary sectors suffer from the lack of spare parts and skilled workers that could be provided by the professional and technical education sector.

The political course :

The cultural, ethnic and religious variety in Sudan plus the dimension of the geographical area led to the adaptation of federalism as the ideal pattern of governing Sudan. The constitutional decrees established 26 States at the beginning of 1994, and in each State there is a government presided by a governor and the membership of a number of ministers. These constitutional decrees nominated parliaments as a temporary measure.

The federal government takes care of planing, coordinating, training and foreign affairs; while the States perform executive work, plus their contribution to national planing through different channels.

To complete the constitutional structu’s course and in order to move from the revolutionary legitimacy to the constitutional legitimacy, the parliamentary elections in the States were carried out in July 1995 while the national council elections and the presidential election were carried out in March 1996. Thereby Sudan had the first elected president, an elected national council and elected parliaments.

The constitutional development backed up the political commitment to expand education and the States took up their responsibility for the general education administration (annex no1) in addition to their contribution to build up new universities and to support university students.

The structure of the educational system in Sudan :

- The present structure of education in Sudan consists of three levels: the pre-school education level (that became a part of the educational system according to the cabinet resolution no1799, 4 November 1990) followed by the basic education level then the secondary education (refer to form 2 teaching scale).

- Children join the two-years-preschool education (kindergarten) at the age of four. Pupils enter basic education school at the age of 6. The primary level consists of eight years, then those who succeed move to the secondary level, which lasts for three years.

- Basic education became compulsory in 1998 and starts at the age of six.

- The legal period of the scholastic year according to general education is 210 days and the federal government fixes the days of the scholastic year and the date of the secondary level examinations. The State fixes the appropriate calendar according to it’s circumstances and this according to the general education law of 1992. The scholastic year is divided, in both primary and secondary levels, into two intervals separated by holidays. The second interval finishes when the transference examinations come to an end.

2 - Presentation

The implementation of «Education for All - The Year 2000 Assessment » started in January 1999. Due to the fact that it demands special information about required indicators for assessment, the ministry formed a Technical Committee for providing and analyzing data. This Committee was composed in a way that all parties involved in basic education were represented:

- Experts in field work and in treating and analyzing reports in the ministry

- A member of the Central Organization for Statistics

- A member of the federal local authority’s office

- A member of the Ministry for Social Planing

- A member of the Ministry of Finance and Economy

- A member of the organizations working in the education field.

The Committee held several meetings to decide on how to implement the project according to the suggested broad outlines and the required indicators.

The required information came as follows:

- ages of pupils in basic phase according to class and sex

- number of pupils in the fourth class during the last year

- number of those same pupils in the first class for the scholastic year 1994-1995 without repeaters

- numbers of repeaters in each class from the first to the eighth for the scholastic year 1998-1999

- numbers of drop-outs in each class from the first to the eighth class for the scholastic year 1997-1998

- children in pre-school education between 4 and 5 years

- children in the first grade who had a pre-school education

- general education budget classified in the States for the year 1998 and the part of allowances for basic education

- the current budget for general education for the year 1998

- number of teachers with required academic qualifications in the different States

- number of teachers with basic training in the different States.

Considering the fact that most of these data were not available the committee came up to the conclusion that it is necessary to make a field survey to complete the missing data in order to implement the project.

The Committee asked the team formed by Jomtien partners- coordinated by the UNICEF organization- for help and presented it’s budget in two meetings with team members representing all the United Nations organizations working in Sudan. The budget was reduced to a minimum within a range of 25.000 dollars. UNICEF paid 15.000 dollars, and the United Nations Fund for Population 2.000 dollars; while the government of Sudan provided most of the logistic facilities necessary to accomplish the mission as vehicles and fuel, computers and cameras and most of the necessary desk and office needs. Still the amount of 8.000 dollars hasn’t been provided yet. The amount was to be invested in holding more than a meeting to discuss the report in its different phases.

Efforts deployed in the field of Basic Education for All


Education is the means for social and cultural change and the basis for economic progress and civilized change. The Holy Koran confirmed in the Sura Al-Zaher (9) the value of education and scientists when Allah, be he raised far above, said: (Say: are those who know, to be considered equal to those who do not know? Only prudent men reflect on this).

The educational and teaching sector was paid great attention and was given political support from the government, which enabled it to achieve some of its ambitious goals. This support was illustrated in the Revolution’s Command Council initiative in 1990 through the issuing of resolution no39 which stipulates the carrying out of the Education and Teaching Policies Conference, which is considered as a milestone in the educational path. Another proof for political support is the issuance of the cabinet resolution no1800 in 1990, which approved the recommendations of the Education and Teaching Policies Conference and ordered their implementation. Moreover, the President of the Republic issued in December 1990 a statement confirming Sudan’s commitment to Jomtien Conference decisions concerning Education for All. This report treats the aspects of achieving basic Education for All (pre-school and basic education phases, adolescent education programmes, elimination of illiteracy, and educating adults) since 1990, the recommendations implemented since then and the adopted plan of action.

The first part of this report describes in brief the goals to be achieved, in what concerns the expansion in pre-school education, and expanding and completion of basic education by the year 2000. It also treats improving learning, lowering illiteracy among adults, narrowing the gap between males and females, enlarging basic education range, teaching skills needed by youth and adults, and increasing the acquisition of knowledge values and required skills necessary for better living using all education channels.

The first part of the report also deals with major milestones of the strategy deployed for Education for All, its plan of action and also management of taking decisions, cooperation and investment according to Education for All.

The second part of the report is analytic and deals with the goals realized for achieving Education for All. It reviews and analyzes the statistical data according to different levels showing geographical and qualitative dissimilarities in learning opportunities in the field of basic education, through the use of basic indicators from available data. The analysis is grounded on a reference year which is 1990 then in mid decade 1995, then 1998. The data of the analysis are provided from a field survey using the sample method. This part deals with a general assessment of the efficacy of the strategy, the plan and the programmes of Education for All and the problems already faced and will face the implementation in the future.

The third and last part treats the futuristic vision showing education policy guides for the future, based on the assessment results of what has been achieved in the period 1990-1998.

1 - 1: Goals of Education for All:

The purposes of Sudanese education as stipulated in the law regarding the Organization of General Education for the year 1992 and the national strategy which includes the sector of education, rest on five pillars:

1. The consolidation of the religious doctrine.

2. The establishment of an independent society, and the trust in God and in self - reliance.

3. The building-up of the sense of patriotism and loyalty.

4. The encouragement of creativeness, development of abilities and skills and possession of technology placed in the service of truth, good and righteousness.

5. The development of environmental awareness with the young generation.

The quantitative goals are in line with theses purposes and are represented in the following:

making basic education accessible for all by the year 1995 and compulsory by the year 1998 as to absorb all children at the school-age of 6;

lowering the illiteracy rate among adults by the year 2001 to 10% while stressing on eliminating illiteracy especially among women in order to lower the current gender disparity in illiteracy rate;

expanding the basic education range through additional pre-school education institutions and Holy Koran teaching places and through non-formal teaching in order to enable individuals and families to acquire knowledge, skills and values that secure a decent life using all possible education channels, and expanding them by the year 2000;

raising equality in learning opportunities by giving special attention to groups that did not benefit from available education services and putting an end to existing gender disparities in what concerns learning opportunities by the year 2002;

improving basic education quality by training teachers, raising their academic level, procuring school books and improving school environment;

The achievement of these goals and purposes is backed up by the great political support represented in Sudan’s commitment to the Jomtien conference decisions, according to the declarations of the President of the Republic in December 1990 (refer to annex 1). It is also reflected in the issuing of a law regarding the organization of education in 1992 which stipulates in the fifth article the priority of basic education as a right for all. The commitment of Sudan becomes also clear through the recommendations of the National Conference for Teaching Policies (1990), approved by both, the Council of Revolution Command for National Rescue and the cabinet, and which became an obligatory policy to be implemented. The recommendations show and even stress on expanding basic education phase and on eliminating illiteracy of adults.

1 - 2: The Strategy of Education for All and the plan of action:

Sudan participated in the discussions of the World Conference of Education for All at Jomtien in March 1990 with a high ranking delegation presided by the Minister of Education and Teaching. It also participated in the UNESCO meeting in Geneva to follow up on the Jomtien decisions in the field of illiteracy elimination. It also participated in the discussions of the «U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child» held in New York in September 1990. The President of the Republic headed the delegation. These efforts reflect the great importance that Sudan attributes to the subject of Education for All reflected in the Sudanese goals, purposes, educational strategies, policies, declared plans, taken measures and issued laws as to follow up implementation in order to achieve the declared national goals.

For the sake of achieving the goal of Education for All the Conference of Education and Teaching Policies was held in September 1990 under the sign of «reforming education is reforming Sudan». As for basic education the conference recommended the following:

1. expanding basic Education for All children at school-age including the handicapped according to a temporal plan which starts in 1991 and finishes in 1994;

2. issuing by the government of a political statement assuring its commitment to expanding basic education within the suggested temporal time schedule as a first priority in global development strategy;

3. establishing a national institution which supervises the achievement of the plans' goals and the implementation of its programs, which is responsible for attracting financial support from local financing parties and regional international organizations;

4. relying, in implementing the plan, on different education modes, according to every region’s circumstances, like the Koran teaching places, two-shift-schools, coeducational schools and one-shift-schools;

5. committing the government to provide complimentary education during all general education stages on the condition that it financially rations those capable of teaching their children.

In the field of pre-school education:

The Conference recommended to work towards the expansion of pre-schooleducational institutions by inventing new modes which could be spread in all regions of Sudan. The age of four years is considered the entrance-age to pre-school educational institutions.

This intensive and accelerated work towards expanding basic education has placed the education sector in the lead as for achieving the goals of the action plan that saves, protects and develops the children of Sudan. In the following we are reviewing in brief the components of the plan and the measures undertaken to implement it.

The goals of the plan:

The goals of the plan are based on the World Conference recommendations about Education for All, on discussions and recommendations of the national conference for education, and on the directives of the international «U.S. Convention on the Rights of the Child». The following goals to expand basic education during the nineties were defined as follows:

1. expanding the range of care and development activities exclusive to early childhood;

2. universal access to primary education and its completion;

3. improving learning results permitting for new entrants to achieve a specific level of learning achievement;

4. lowering illiteracy rate among adults with sufficient emphasis on eliminating illiteracy among women in order to lower the gender disparity index in illiteracy rates;

5. expanding in the provision of basic education and training and other essential skills needed by youngsters;

6. increasing individuals and families acquisition of knowledge, skills and values necessary for better living and for positive continuous development.

The priorities of the plan:

  1. achieving the provision of basic Education for All as to raise its quality and suitability according to the needs of the society;

2. putting an end to illiteracy among adults and citizens who are between 10 and 45 years, with special stress on eliminating illiteracy among females;

3. enlarging services for early childhood development and pre-school education, consolidating them by using small expenditures, and relying on family efforts and contributions of local societies;

4. according special attention to underprivileged parties and those not profiting fully from learning opportunities like girls and emigrants due to natural disasters and civil wars, in order to achieve equality.

Measures taken to achieve these priorities:

A political statement was issued about Sudan’s commitment to the decisions of the World Conference concerning providing learning opportunities for all by the year 2000 (annex 1) commencing on the 31 December 1990.

Efforts undertaken in the field of Basic Education for All and expanding its range and raising its efficiency:

A - Expanding basic education:

- a plan was developed to provide education for every child at the age of 6 who entered during three years (1991-1994AD);

- additional support from the public budget is allocated to face the establishment of classes with different sizes; underdevelopment situations of the different regions and their capacity to provide basic learning opportunities are taken into consideration;

- the Conference of the Round Table about Education for All by the year 2000 was held in December 1991 to discuss the general frame work of the Sudanese plan to achieve basic education for children, youth and adults in the light of an expanded vision of basic education. Four projects related to achieving basic Education for All and improving its quality were presented.

B - Pre-school education:

More attention is paid to Kindergartens and to Holy Koran teaching places because of their close relation to the basic education subject and direct connection to its continuity and success. Especially since 80% of the basic characteristics of the child are shaped before the age of joining the basic level.

- A seminar about the reality of pre-school teaching and future in Sudan was held. It came up with a formula for the pre-school educational institution, which steers away from the influence of the Occident and connects with the roots of religion and national values;

- pre-school Education Units were established and headed by the education authority in the different states;

- a national programme for pre-school education is set up taking into consideration diversity and responding to unification needs. In addition, guides were provided for supervisors who have been trained to perform their role.

C - Providing access to basic education for parties with less chances in view of achieving equality:

In 1991 the rate of boys who entered basic education reached 79.3% while that of girls 61.9%. In the same year the enrollment rate for boys was 68.1% and that for girls 54.2% in what concerns the northern provinces only.

To know the reasons for proportional discrepancies in enrolling girls, a study was performed on educating girls to find out the causes of the gap, not forgetting that neither laws, nor religion, nor educational policies endorse gender disparities concerning learning opportunities.

The study showed several historical, social, economic and cultural reasons responsible for girls not joining school in the required manner.

The Round Table meeting about educating girls in Sudan was held in October 1993 and came out with recommendations in four fields relevant to educating girls, and they are:

1. securing learning opportunities and providing alternatives and choices;

    1. shedding light on the importance of educating girls;
    2. presenting a good quality education, appropriate to environment and meeting pupils needs;

4. solving economic problems and difficulties.

The first field:

Providing learning opportunities, alternatives and choices:

1. Supporting non-formal education programmes and expanding them as to give out-of-school girls in school age a second chance and making them profit from all the capacities of the local society, its organizations and institutions.

2. Enhancing the opening of passages between formal and non-formal education and finding a formula of correlation and transition between them.

3. Expanding learning opportunities by proposing adequate alternatives:

a - One-shift-school in regions with a small number of population;

b - Two-shift-school in populous regions;

c - Ambulant schools in Nomad regions;

d - Dorms in cases of extreme necessity.

4.Profiting from girls teaching places and expanding them as a desirable choice in some regions.

The second field:

Shedding light on and discerning the importance of educating girls:

  1. taking into consideration objectivity and true educational and religious concepts within the awareness speech about the importance of educating women;
  2. benefiting to the maximum from means of mass communication like the religious plat forms, radio, television, theater etc;
  3. organizing local and national awareness campaigns especially prior to the scholastic year in order to catch girl's interest and benefiting from existing schools as radiating centers;
  4. consolidating and stimulating the programmes of eliminating illiteracy and teaching adults because educated parents are the best to carry the message of the importance of education to their children.

The third field:

Presenting a good quality education, appropriate to environment and responding to pupils' needs:

1 . developing curricula respecting the necessary time to acquire skills related to environment and making a to assess learning;

2 . introducing subjects important to life complementary to other subjects like health and demographic education, as well as nutrition, in order to prepare girls for their role in life;

3 . providing and training qualified teachers to play their role at school and in society and improving their social standard of living;

4 . providing scholastic textbooks and other instructional media as well as places stimulating learning, like libraries, workshops and domestic management class, factories, theaters etc;

5 . providing necessary services like sewage system, drinking water fences and toilets;

6 . maintaining and embellishing schools, planning them with trees and gardening them.

The fourth field:

Solving economic problems and difficulties:

Indeed, the implementation of those recommendations has already started. Among projects that have been prepared, and which started to be implemented, are: the youth education project, the rescue project to educate emigrants and the Nomads education project.

These projects are conceived to serve girls in the first place. In the following, we will give a summary of these projects:

Project for Youth Education:

Background and justifications:

As Sudan commits itself to achieve basic Education for All at different ages and by using all channels, there is still a section of the society at school-age-group 8 to 14 years out of the formal education system, which has to find a learning opportunity. Add to that that freeing this group from illiteracy and opening paths permitting it to continue studies and develop its knowledge and abilities plays a positive role in achieving global and supportive social and economic development.

The concerned age-group between 8 and 14 years represent those children who did not join general education at first, or those who joined it and dropped out before completing the phase or acquiring continuous learning and vital skills, and those who finished primary phase and did not continue general education.

Justifications for carrying out the project:

Teaching youngsters is considered as an urgent necessity for the following reasons:

1. the great size of the concerned section;

2. the government's commitment to achieve Education for All;

3. the huge numbers of drop-outs before completing the phase and their fall back in illiteracy;

4. the shortage of available opportunities for girls to join formal education in rural areas;

5. the propagation of illiteracy among girls and the drop in enrollment rate in basic education schools;

6. the urgent necessity to develop human resources in order to face the demand for skilled labor in basic sectors;

7. the results of the Fourth Census of 1993 proved that out-of-school-children from both sexes, in the age-group 7 to 12 years reached the number of 1.480.410 out of which 54% are females. Those children improve the balance of illiteracy, which requires carrying out an educational project beyond formal education range to face their learning needs.

The goals of youth education project:

(1) The project aims basically at procuring good quality teaching to males and females of the age-group between 8 and 14 years who were deprived of learning opportunities. This shall be done through the following: providing learning opportunities, preparing education programmes and integrated methods for the age-group between 8 and 14 years in both sexes and especially for girls, who are out of school for the above mentioned reasons.

(2) Providing a kind of education which meets the needs, the preferences and the situation of this age-group. This permits youngsters to develop their abilities, skills and knowledge as to improve their lives and to contribute effectively to their society.

(3) Opening paths between this kind of education and the formal one as to permit to those who wish to continue their education.

(4) Developing flexible ways of education, which provide learning opportunities to all underprivileged persons and especially girls.

(5) Attracting local society to serve the goals of this kind of education activity on the basis of mass participation and self-assistance.

This project is innovative and experimental. After assessment, it could be made accessible to all the States of Sudan (revert to annex (2) project of youth education).

Rescue Project to help Educating Emigrants:


In the early eighties, dryness stroke most of the African regions south of the Sahara, and among them Sudan. This led huge numbers of people to emigrate from their native land to the borders of big cities in the north of Sudan. The dryness wave came along with the break out of civil war in the south of Sudan and caused an excess of emigrants - from south to north - looking for security and stability.

The Ministry of Education carried out a study on emigrant's educational situation in order to offer them educational services. The Ministry received support from Holland in response to the call of the United Nations General Secretary; 50% of this support was allocated to the southern provinces affected by the war; it was used to implement the project to help educating emigrants.


- more than 25.000 emigrants’ children benefited from better learning opportunities;

- 959 teachers were trained in the south of Sudan;

- schools for emigrants were equipped with educational means, school books and pure fresh water; environmental education was restored;

- 405 classes were built up with local materials and 500 classes were subject to maintenance work;

- schools were provided with scholastic furniture like seats and stairs to respond to the need of 15.130 pupils.

Project for Nomads:


Nomads constitute a great section of Sudanese society. They reach, according to the results of the Fourth Census of 1993, 2.119.908, which represent 8.5% of the population; and they travel in vast areas of about one third of Sudan’s surface.

Teaching Nomads in Sudan is among urgent necessities and that is for several reasons:

1. the province’s commitment to procure good quality basic Education for All as an educational policy priority;

2. education, in our cultural and religious heritage, is a duty and an obligation for every individual in society, whether male or female, and the government has to procure it;

3. educating Nomads enable them to intermingle in their society, to assume their duties and to increase their production;


The project was carried out on experimental basis in the province of Darfur by using a mobile school. The following was achieved:

- At the beginning of the scholastic year 1993/1994, the opening of one hundred schools in the provinces of different states was approved and a special administration for Nomad education was established.

- Teachers were nominated to these schools, and books and booklets were procured and distributed to the provinces.

- The commitment of Nomads to motivate teachers by using in kind and financial means manifested in giving the teacher 10 heads of sheep, one fertile she camel, one riding camel as well as 5.000 pounds per month, rations, and their commitment to transport school at their departure.

The launching of thproject is considered encouraging because of the enthusiasm manifested by the Nomads society and it’s contribution to motivating teachers and urging their sons and daughters to attend school.

Lowering illiteracy rates:

For achieving the goal of lowering illiteracy rates the following was done:

- The National Conference for Eliminating Illiteracy and for Educating Adults was held in May 1990 and laid down its recommendations regarding the 1990-2000 eliminating illiteracy decade.

- A high National Committee was formed to supervise the implementation of the project with regional and international organizations interested in the subject.

- In October 1991, the Special Seminar for Following-Up and Achieving the Recommendations of the Jomtien Conference and the Teaching Policies Conference recommended the necessity of accelerating the establishment of the national council for eliminating illiteracy and educating adults.

- As a matter of fact the recommendations were implemented in 1991.

- A plan was set up for the global campaign to eliminate illiteracy. It started in 1991 and finished in 1995 and aimed at putting an end to the illiteracy of 8 million analphabets in the age-group between 10 and 45 years.

- In the first year of the project, teachers were trained, curricula elaborated and the necessary books printed. In the second year, the declaration of the global campaign in every state started, and Darfur was the first one for it has got the largest number of illiterates - around 1.900.000.

The State of Darfur was able to eliminate illiteracy of 714.000 persons by 1992, while the State of Oum Kadada celebrated the eradication of illiteracy; this event was registered at the international education assemblies.

Darfur took measures to make the campaign succeed by directing and mobilizing public and official media as well as official and voluntary organizations.

The campaign found political support on the highest levels. 1993/1994 681.994 learners joined school; the costs were covered by popular and voluntary organizations as well as by professional unions.

- Efforts continued constantly throughout the last years in all the States of Sudan including the southern states.

Eliminating illiteracy and educating adults are common responsibilities of the federal government and the States. The budget of the national council for eliminating illiteracy and educating adults reflects a clear and tangible raise considered as proof for the attention paid to procure Education for All as shown in the following table:

Eliminating illiteracy and educating adults



1994 - 1995

1.164.200 Dinars


64.000.000 Dinars

Notes: In the specific period the exchange rate of the dollar to the Sudanese pound (sic) changed several times till it reached 250 Dinars in 1998.

The National Center for Curricula and Education Research:

After changing the education scale in the beginning of the nineties it was necessary to develop scholastic curricula to suit the new era. In the course of securing necessary sources, the Unit at the Federal Ministry of Education was furthered to become a National Center for Curricula and Education Research. A separate budget of the Federal Ministry of Education was endowed to this Center equivalent to that of Higher Education, especially concerning the first part of the budget. This was meant to keep the existing personnel and to attract a new qualified staff capable of implementing the plans of the Center and to assure its responsibilities in preparing the schoolbooks.

The Sudanese education strategy in general education sector (1992-2002):

The Sudanese education strategy is the expression of the educational policies that emanated from the Educational Policies Conference in 1990, and ratified by the honorable council of ministers. Dividing these policies into axes concerning Education for All in order to achieve the set principles and goals during a decade. These axes could be summarized into the following:

The first axis:

To accept the principle of scientific educational planning and to promote educational administration and the means of follow-up and assessment through the following:

a - setting up educational plans and following-up on their implementation and ensuring the existence of links to achieve the goals of global economic and social development;

b - carrying out field studies and provide statistical data;

c - carrying out studies related to education savings, lowering costs and making the society participate in bearing these costs;

d - planning, implementing and following-up on upgrading of education projects;

e - qualifying personnel with specialized technical skills and offering technical advice.

The second axis:

To expand pre-school education, make basic education compulsory and eliminate illiteracy, by:

a - consolidating education in content and orientation;

b - procuring pre-school learning opportunities to every child between 4 and 6 years;

c - considering pre-school education as part of the general education stages;

d - encouraging local societies to establish Koran teaching places and Kindergartens and to participate in their administration;

e - encouraging local and foreign investment to build factories which produce learning and teaching media, including toys, for pre-school education;

f - using public establishments like schools, mosques, churches, social offices and youth centers to lodge Koran teaching places and Kindergartens;

g - expanding basic education until it becomes compulsory by the year 2000;

h - accepting the integral curricula which links between theory, practice and training as to reach the highest levels in knowledge, and prepare for the participation in developing and advancing society;

i - eliminating illiteracy and making the student reach the ability to use his experiences in reading, writing and calculating;

j - preparing a campaign for national mobilization to stress on the importance of pre-school education, elimination of illiteracy, teaching of adults and basic education. In addition to explaining education, teaching, national benefits and the policy of government and making citizens aware of their expected supportive role.

The third axis:

To develop and diversify secondary education:

a - providing secondary education to every one who succeeds in basic education;

b - engendering a qualitative change in secondary education which makes the secondary school cover academic and religious studies and all kinds of technical education;

c - raising the rate of technical education to 60% in the course of secondary school;

d - choosing the secondary school entity as to harmonize with the natural and social environment in which the school is established.

The fourth axis:

To consolidate and up-date curricula and educational researches in order to raise the quality of education as to help achieving social change and global development by:

a - reviewing the curricula of Kindergartens, Koran teaching places and basic schools; developing and updating in order to achieve national goals;

b - raising the level of the teachers of the basic education stage, updating curricula for preparing and training teachers as to attain the university level as a minimum;

c - taking into consideration the special status of women, talented and handicapped persons and qualifying the educational loss;

d - establishing a national center for curricula and educational research and attracting a staff of the best qualified experts.

The fifth axis:

To take care of the teacher beginning with choosing him, his qualifications and training and ameliorating his professional and social situation, and paying attention to his needs through the following:

a - up-grading the teaching profession so that the teacher would become an example from the moral, educational and behavioral point of view;

b - developing institutes for preparing teachers to colleges, and increasing the number of educational colleges in Sudanese universities as to guarantee that all who work in general education as a minimum obtain an academic degree.

c - improving teaching service conditio, so that the teaching profession can attract the best elements;

d - expanding teachers' academic opportunities, in order to head educational tasks in the field of curricula, training, guidance, assessment and school administration.

The sixth axis :

To upgrade publications and schoolbooks and to spread the use of teaching media by the following :

a - procuring schoolbooks meeting students' needs throughout all education phases, lowering their costs and improving elaboration, design and art work;

b - procuring cultural books and adequate education magazines as aid to pupils in the different school phases, and enlarging school libraries for teachers and students;

c - expanding the use of educational media and education technology;

d - developing and promoting personnel working in the field of publication and education techniques, with special care their further qualification;

e - using the third media (TV, radio, and new telecommunication means) to support the role of educational institutions, and providing learning by correspondence opportunities and further qualification.

The seventh axis :

To make the society bear teaching costs and to diversify financing sources, through the following:

a - mobilizing popular support and contribution to finance education;

b - adopting central and state budgets to achieve a balance between the states and narrowing education discrepancies;

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