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2 - 8: Learning achievement outcomes:
The results of the basic level certificate examinations will be used to assess learning achievement, which is measured in respect to the mastery of curricula. The minimum degree of mastery is determined by the success in the taught subject. The pupil succeeds at the acquisition of 50% of the total marks fixed for the subject, regardless of the recommendations of the Study of Measuring Learning Achievements in Sudan. The reason lies in the non-publication of the study results at the moment of preparing this report.
The basic level certificate is granted to the pupil who successfully passes the final exams of the basic level. It includes all curriculum courses prescribed in the eighth grade of the basic level, in addition to some information that the pupil has learned in the first grades of the basic level. These exams are elaborated by educationalists and specialized teachers. The general results of the basic level certificate exams, is as follows:
- 148.167 out of 224.543 passed the exams with a success rate of 60.7%. It is worthwhile mentioning that females represent 50.5% (113.367) of the total who submitted themselves to the exams.
- There is no big disparity between success rate among males and females, for general success rate for boys is 67.99% while it is 59.16% for females.
- Difference between the states is quite obvious, even if it tends to be intense, for the highest success rate lies at 77.6% while the lowest at 39% and that with a standard deviation of 10.23% and an average of 60.76%.
- And when grouping the states to become as for the reference year 1990, the result will be as follows:
The success rate of pupils in grade 8 who passed the basic phase certificate exams is 66% for both sexes: 66.2% for males, 65.7% for females. The percentage varies according to the state. It reaches a maximum of 74.2% in the State of Khartoum. This is followed by the northern states (the Nile River, the Northern State) with 69.7%, then the Central State (El-Jezira, Snar, the Blue Nile, the White Nile) with 66.1%, Darfur (North Darfur, South Darfur, West Darfur) with 64.5%, the Eastern State with 54.5% and Kordufan 50.5%.
As table no10 defines the subjects to be compared between the states and which represent the minimum, we will content ourselves with discussing the pupils' results in the Arabic language exam, which represents reading and writing and mathematics. Afterwards, we will discuss the pupils results of science and geography exams, which represent the life skills. Table no10 shows us the following:
In examining the percentages of grade eight pupils who master basic skills in the same table, the percentage of those who master reading and writing skills reach 76.3%, and the percentage of those who master mathematics is only 27.7%. This is a poor result compared to life skills represented here by science and geography courses, for the percentage reach successively 66.4% and 79.6%.
While comparing the pupils' results in these courses in the different states, we find that the difference is not important as what concerns Arabic language, science and geography courses. The success rates in these courses are considered as acceptable; but there is a disparity in the mathematics course for the difference reaches 31.6%: 44.1% in the State of Khartoum and 12.5% in the State of Kordufan.
It is obvious that there is no State where pupils master this course (for the minimum mark for mastery is to have a success rate of 50%). The reason for that is less the pupils weak capacities than the school environment, inclusive teachers, teaching methods, curricula, the nature of the mathematics course and its pyramidal structure, which does not allow gaps in understanding the course or in dealing with it.
3 - Eliminating illiteracy and educating adults:
3 - 1: Literacy rate of population in the age-group of 15-24:
In examining table no11, we find that the literacy rate in Sudan for the age-group of 15-24 years, reach 71.2% for both sexes. It is the group of those who can read and write. It slightly increases to 80.5% as for males who represent the futuristic human resources. The percentage of females who can read and write reaches 61.4%, which is a weak percentage compared to the one for males.
This percentage differs from one State to another. It reaches a maximum of 91.9% in the State of Khartoum as the capital of the country; which is characterized by a population density and the centralization of services in it. It is followed by the State of Ash-Shamaliyah (Northern State) where the literacy rate reaches 90% for both sexes as this State is characterized by a small population density, and by its tradition in education long ago. As for the central states of Kordufan, Darfur and the Eastern State (Ash Sharqiyah), the literacy rate reach successively 56.2%, 55,1%, 68.7%, while it reaches in the southern states of Bahr El-Ghazal, the Upper Nile and the Equatorial 59.2%, 63.4%, 79.6% successively.
The average literacy rate reaches a maximum for males in the State of Khartoum, then in the Northern State, then in the Central State (Al Wasat) successively 95.3%, 91.4%, 86.8%. As for the rest of the states, this rate reaches successively for males 69.2%, 72.3%, and 75.6% in each of Kordufan, Darfur and the Eastern State.
In the southern states, it reaches successively 69.4%, 73.6%, and 87.1% for each of the states of Bahr El-Ghazal, the Upper Nile, and the Equatorial.
It is noticeable that states, which have satisfactory high intake and enrollment rates are the same states where illiteracy rate in the age-group of 15-24 years has decreased. This confirms the provision of educational services to these states. It also shows the necessity of expanding basic education, promoting its efficiency and keeping pupils until the completion of the basic level. In the central states, we notice, that rates of intake and enrollment are medium. This is due to the fact that great sections of the population in these regions are Nomads or farmers. Add to that, that these regions were - in the last two decades - subject to natural disasters, and also adjacent to war areas which means that they were also receiving the emigrants of those areas. As for the southern states as mentioned before in the report they are regions, which suffer from civil war and emigration.
We notice through the table a clear disparity in the literacy rate in the age-group of 15-24 in the favor of males; the general average is 0.8%. The illiteracy rate is high among females in this age-group, the fact that requires focusing on females in eliminating illiteracy programmes, in educating adults, and in carrying out several studies to know the reasons and then to find solutions.
3 - 2: Adult literacy rate in population aged 15 +:
In examining the same table no11, it is worthwhile noticing that the literacy rate among population aged 15+ reaches 57.2% in 1999, i.e. more than half the population can do simple reading and writing during their daily life. This rate increases in favor of males to 67.3%. This is an acceptable rate compared to the rate of females who can read and write which is only 47.1% for all Sudan.
By following up the literacy rate, we find that there are states like the State of Khartoum, the Central and the Northern States, which has got the highest literacy rate for both sexes of successively 75.9%, 70.3% and 64.4%.
As for the rest of the states of the Eastern (Ash Sharqiyah), Kordufan, Darfur, Bahr El-Ghazal, the Upper Nile and the Equatorial the literacy rate reaches for both sexes successively 55.3%, 42.0%, 37.5%, 47.6% and 46.4%.
It is noticeable that the states with the highest literacy rates in the age-group of 15-24 years are the same with the highest literacy rates among population aged 15+. This shows that these states possess educational services, and are characterized by a coefficient of efficiency rate above the medium as for basic education.
One can also notice that the literacy rate for females varies considerably, for it reaches 72.3% in the Central State and 65.4% in the State of Khartoum. It reaches a minimum of 20.1% in the State of Darfur, which is a very low rate compared to the high population density and the large areas of this State.
3 - 3: Literacy gender parity:
In examining table no11, we notice a disparity in equal opportunities for both sexes regarding literacy and that the level of learning opportunities is less for females than for males. This is shown by the literacy gender parity index known for the age-group of 15-24 for it reaches 0.8. The same indicator among the population aged 15+ reaches 0.7. This is due to social and economic factors, which prevented females from participating in learning. There is a clear difference according to the states where females find better opportunities. This is the case of the Central State, for the literacy gender parity index among population aged 15+ reaches 1.1% compared to 0.8 for the age-group of 15-24 in the same State.
In the State of Darfur where illiteracy rate among females reaches a high degree, the literacy gender parity index for adults is 0.4% in favor of males and 0.5% for the age-group of 15-24.
Information about literacy rates in rural and urban areas are not available.
4 - Teaching for better living:
This kind of training is carried out by an administration under the Federal Ministry of Education and Teaching. It supervises subordinated nutrition centers in the states, which alternately supervises centers on the local level.
Training in nutrition care and agriculture at school is divided into two kinds:
4 - 1: Basic training:
The duration of this training is of six consecutive months and is supervised by the Nutrition Care and Agriculture at School Department at the Federal Ministry. It normally trains basic level teachers who are mostly females. One of the most important goals of this programme is to ensure nutrition officers who work on establishing nutrition and school agriculture centers in local regions - which are mobile centers - and on organizing sessions. Some of them supervise nutrition in schools, cultivation and the establishment of school gardens, especially at basic education schools.
The table noIIV clarifies the number of trainees in the field of nutrition care and school agriculture during the period 1990-1998:
Number of sessions
Number of trainees
Data Sources: Ministry of Education and General Education, Administration of Nutrition Care and School Agriculture.
The other kind of training is supervised by the nutrition and cultivation centers in the states. Female guides and housewives are trained there in right nutrition education, and in finding alternatives to improve the family income through the possibilities offered to them by their environments. These sessions increase health and nutrition awareness and teach how to deal with the environment.
Female guides can also organize sessions for the educational loss (drops-out and repeaters among girls) and for girls during the yearly school vacation. The usual training period lasts between forty-five days and three months, with 25-30 participants for each session. The most important sessions are those prepared for male and female teachers, for female guides and housewives and those concerning food production and first aids.
In the context of technical cooperation between the Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations) and the Sudanese government the project for promoting training in culture nutrition and communication started in 1998/1999. The most important goals of this project are the elaboration of special training curricula in culture nutrition and school cultivation, as well as means of communications, under the supervision of experts from Sudan and abroad.
Supervisors participated in these culture nutrition sessions destined for all Sudan in September 1999, at the Culture Nutrition Center in the Federal Ministry. A questionnaire about the success and the benefit of these sessions was laid down.
According to the answers given of the kind of behavior changes, accompanying the different training programmes, it was noticed that supervisors agreed unanimously on the benefit of these sessions. For there are clear changes as for taking care of the nutritive value while preparing and presenting meals, especially for children. In addition to that a clear change occurred in the north Darfur region, where rice was replaced by wheat in nutrition meals. It is possible to say that there is a change in nutrition habits for the best, with an obvious change in health behavior, especially concerning the care taken of early childhood and of basic education school children in the regions where these sessions were held.
Supervisors noticed through the answers given about the effects of the social programmes, that there is a total believe in group work and in participating at associations bringing in income. It was possible to profit, especially from the food production programmes in learning the technique of conserving vegetables and seasonal fruits and using this knowledge to increase family income. This simultaneously reflects on the families spending on educating their children and promoting their economic level, especially in rural areas. Implementing those programmes also helped mothers to give improved prepared meals to pupils of basic education phase.
8 - The efficiency of Education for All strategy, work plan and programmes:
Basic education represents with its three dimensions (pre-school education, basic education and eliminating illiteracy and teaching adults) one of the important axis of the national strategy which includes the sector of general education. It has adopted this advanced concept of basic education which appeared in the Arabic concept at the beginning of the seventies (the Strategy of Arabic Education) and which took root in the international concept at the beginning of the nineties- Jomtien 1990.
Basic education was given the first priority of the strategy, considering that it is a fundamental human right that was guaranteed by divine laws before positive laws. In addition to that, the economic and social revenue of basic education is great, compared to other investments in human or material fields; studies proved that.
Basic education represents a fundamental pillar in building up society and a starting point to enter the horizons of knowledge for what it imparts of life skills (literacy, eloquence and numeracy), knowledge (human and scientific) and spiritual and cultural values. All this constitutes a solid basis to build knowledge and renaissance, and to develop personal, family, social and environmental behavior which start from the principle of succession and responsibility.
The education strategy and what followed from plans, programmes and projects aim at achieving a basic education, characterized by several aspects like comprehensiveness, balance, diversity and integration. That is for what it achieves of intellectual, cultural, sentimental, corporal and social development in the personality of the individual, what it combines of practical and theoretical activities, what it meets of personal, social and intellectual needs, and what it imparts of life and productive skills.
The basic education strategy in Sudan is very ambitions, but considered as practical in the light of predominant and surrounding circumstances at the time it was worked out in 1992.
And if we consider international scene, the world came out of the cold war period with more optimism and joy. It was looking for a peaceful reconciliation and a great coordination between countries in the light of scientific, cultural and useful development, and a galloping informatics revolution that could be invested in human welfare. In spite of the impact that the Golf War had on the regional situation, yet the strong and deep - rooted regional bonds, and the natural, cultural and emotional tendency towards union and common destiny absorbed the negative effects of war.
The strwas brought out in a time where Sudan witnessed a big change and an honest firm will to achieve comprehensive development. That orientation had a positive effect on the education sector, which enjoyed a great political support enabling it to achieve a lot of the strategys goals, although they were very ambitious.
The strategy of expanding basic education was characterized by comprehensiveness. This is manifested in the way of treating most of the educational matters connected, correlated and represented in the following:
- working out plans, and following its implementation and assessing them yearly
- preparing school environment as to reach basic education and following up through the provision of schoolbooks, school buildings and qualified teachers
- issuing legislation and resolutions supporting basic education and establishing structures and auxiliary administrative bodies
- mobilizing the Sudanese masses, and attracting national and foreign technical and financial support and investing it to achieve basic Education for All and working on diversifying its sources of finance
- The new axes for strategy are represented in making peace and encouraging foreign relations through:
- highlighting cultural, linguistic, religious and environmental diversity in Sudan, through teaching curriculum in a way which shows the positive aspects of each of these items in order to support the national unity.
- adapting the pupils history, culture and environment to the curriculum and that by the following:
a - allowing the states to add a chapter or more to the national programme in the fields of ecology, health, culture, history and geography while considering the following:
- the information should be true from the scientific point of view
- it should be conform with the pupils capacities and the magnitude of national programme
- it should not disagree with national unity concepts
- the National Center for Curriculum and Educational Research supervises the additional chapters to the national programme, and authorizes it in the light of mentioned restraints
b - embracing of cultural and tribal groups initiatives aiming at developing their language and teaching it in their local schools;
c - paying special attention to teaching the Arabic language in linguistic overlapping regions since pre-school education;
d- preparing special curricula for those coming back from the rebellion movement, which take into consideration their ages and the kind of experiences they had to undergo at rebellion camps;
e- intensifying the efforts to expand education in the regions affected by emigration;
f- encouraging the cooperation with regional and international organizations as to attract financial and technical support in favor of educational projects (especially training, and laboratory and workshop equipment);
g- encouraging cultural agreements and protocols between Sudan and friendly countries;
h- supporting the National Committee of UNESCO by scientific and administrative qualified personnel and assistants, who shall coordinate with regional and international organizations;
i- supporting the Projects Unit responsible for the implementation of the projects related to the Islamic Bank and the African Bank for Development, in building up schools and upgrading technical education.
8 2 : The implementation of strategy, work plan and programmes:
The plan was subject to a great national discussion, with the participation of experts, technicians, scientists and politicians. It came out ambitious, clear and flexible but on implementation the necessary sources were not provided for the following reasons:
- The emergence of unexpected developments like the economic siege, the continuation of the civil war in the south and the opening of new fronts and axes for fighting (other than in the south). That led to the shortage and directing of national income, which affected negatively the strategy implementation. The priorities were changed leading thus to a decrease in the resources, which were at the beginning allocated to education.
- Sudan heading for a federal regime, is one of the biggest influences, which submitted education to local authorities. Unguided expansion resulted from that, which did not rely on scientific planning or on the school map, but came as a response to popular desires and pressures, thus deforming the fair distribution of learning opportunities and the shape of the existing school net.
- the weak potential of some less developed states, which are supported by the central government, effected teachers staying and the provision of the necessary inputs of basic education like books, buildings, training of teachers and school supplies
- the lack of sources; although the few which were provided, were used in a good way. This is reflected by the unprecedented expansion in basic education.
8 3 : Results and achievements:
The accomplished achievements are considered compared to the available capacities and circumstances surrounding Sudan satisfactory and suitable to the deployed effort. Moreover, they veiled the lack of materialistic capacities. This is linked to the nature and culture of the Sudanese people, to their reaction to educational matters and expenses, especially in the field of facilities, equipment and teachers motivation. It is also due to strategic orientations.
The most important achievements of the strategy to expand basic education are the following:
- upgrading educational institutes to university faculties, which had a positive effect on the quality of education and permitted to renew the content and ensure education in the desired manner;
- establishing the National Center for Programmes and Educational Research which enabled to develop curricula according to the new education scale;
- lowering the age of entering basic education to 6 years and extending attending years to 8 years instead of 6 years starting in year 1991.This permitted the definition of the content in adding and incorporating new concepts. This system has other advantages represented in increasing the productive age of basic level pupils, in the adoption of pre-school education as part of formal education and in lowering illiteracy rate among adults;
- expanding basic education, where the number of institutions increased from 7.682 in 1990 to 15.184 in 1998, the number of pupils from 2.076.855 to 2.976.718 (numbers of emigrant and refugee pupils are not included) and the number of teachers from 60.674 to 103.082 in the same period;
- unexampled expansion in pre-school education. This was translated in the increase of the number of pupils from 259.560 in 1990 to 365.723 in 1998, the number of institutions from 5.026 to 11.312, as well as the number of guides from 7.673 to 11.922 at the same time. It is worth mentioning that the government installs pre-school education institutions in poor regions, trains the teachers and provides books;
- completion of basic level curricula in their three stages from the first to the eighth grade. Printing and providing all books, despite the difficulty of financing and securing them in some schools in some states and local authorities. The government is trying to overcome this difficulty by using the States Support Fund. 19 states out of 26 benefit from this support;
- issuing the compulsion law in 1998 is considered in some overpopulated states among the most important achievements in the basic education field;
- taking care of underprivileged and marginal groups - like nomads - is also considered among the most important achievements; the number of their basic schools reached 265 in 1998; the same care was taken for emigrants and refugees;
- developing a curriculum for the basic level, which is founded on knowledge correlation and integration; it is also based on the principles of protecting the safety of natural instinct and the unity of knowledge - the universe is a field for mental vision and for religious and spiritual contemplation - and on sacredness of the language as means to guide human beings for their own good and salvation.
9 - The most important faced and eobstacles:
Obstacles, which slowed and affected the achievement of Education for All goals could be summed up in the following:
9 - 1: The entrustment of basic education to the supervision of local authorities according to the fourth constitutional decree of 1991, and the development of these authorities on an unequal economic basis. This led to a deficit in spending on education in some of the authorities, especially regarding the payment of teachers' wages. The weakness of the local authorities had a big impact on the learning environment. Thus, some authorities were unable to attract competent teachers, in the light of solvent local authorities asking for these teachers and presenting them additional support other than the usual salary. The weakness of local authorities affected the school environment inclusive equipment and other educational requirements, which attract pupils and teachers. The financial deficit of some local authorities made them unable to provide schoolbooks, which affected negatively on the pupils performance.
9 - 2: Demographic characteristics:
Population dispersal is one of the problems, which confronted the implementation of the strategy programmes. It is a problem to offer educational services in an ideal economic manner (taking into consideration the educational indicators related to efficiency and quality, like pupils per teacher ratios, class size, school building specifications and other learning requirements surrounding the environment) for an estimated rate of people living in unreachable areas.
There are overpopulated regions with problems requiring the use of two shifts at the schools. But that is impeded by many natural and economic problems as for the nature of Sudan's warm weather and the weakness of fundamental structures as transport means, electricity and communication.
As for the under-populated regions, reaching educational services requires building dormitories, which raise teaching costs in the current situation of Sudan. The problem of high sustenance rate where the population under fifteen represents 45% according to the 1993 Census - requires deploying more efforts to provide educational services, and to engage a great percentage of the productive group - even if it is a few in the teaching sector, instead of directing it to other sectors to increase production.
The emergence of the emigration phenomenon in the last decades, as a result of the on-going war in the south of Sudan, complicated the problem of ensuring educational services and planning it perfectly. Several problems resulted like clearing war regions from its population, causing a demographic dislocation, which lowered the capacity of service planning. It also made regions subjected to war unreachable as to present educational services to them.
- With the wide and opened borders of Sudan and the tribal overlapping in the frontier regions, the government is obliged to honor its obligations for providing learning services, though unplanned and unpredictable. This has an impact on the quality of the population composition, for those coming to Sudan were already less fortunate in their country of origin concerning learning opportunities.
- One of the problems facing the population which had a clear effect on the course of the plan to expand basic education, is the population's emigration to the golf countries. This drained the country of an estimated group of qualified productive force in form of experienced educationalists. Another problem is the internal emigration from the countryside to the city.
9 - 3: The basic structure:
The weakness of the infrastructure like roads, means of transport and communication affected to a large extent the transfer of educational services to distant areas and the close follow-up through supervision and administration. This was reflected negatively on the learning quality and efficiency, as well as on the quality of teachers who work in these regions. Besides that, the weak infrastructure also affected the flow of the necessary information for the planning operation as what concerns providing schools with their needs for books and supplies at the beginning of every scholastic year.
9 - 4: Financing:
Shortage of resources allocated to education which represent only 2.8% of the national product in 1998 (indirect expenditure «contribution of parents and local society» are not included in this percentage) as to be able to face the unexampled expansion in the basic education field and the pressure of national demand and the Education for All goals. Sudan, as one of the most underdeveloped countries, suffers from some economic problems which affects in particular the sector of education.
Another problem is the association of the economic problem with inflation. Although the inflation rate dropped to 12%, the expensive cost of education inputs made things worse. The economic problem and the weak finance of some local authorities, led to the decline of teachers' situations, their qualification level, and diminished their desire to join the field of education.
- The economic structure affected also the service sector as a whole, including education.
9 - 5: Training:
The lack of good qualified and trained personnel to implement education policies, and carry out education duties, is due to restricted capacities and emigration to oil (producing) countries.
The weak relation between the Ministry of Education and the education faculties affected the training of the basic level teacher, increasing thus massively the number of drop-outs for lack of survival.
In addition, the reasons that made this problem worse, is diverse parties spending on training (the province, the center, universities) and the absence of coordination and organization of the horizontal relation between the teacher and the Ministry in the State and the University. Although the universities have their fixed programmes and regulations concerning training, they go beyond it most of the time, in order to achieve a part of the strategy to qualify and prepare the teachers. All that led to a weak implementation in the field of training enough teachers for the university level.
9 - 6: Natural circumstances:
The implementation plan of education strategy was influenced by successive natural disasters: floods, rains and landslides, which swept away a great number of houses and educational institutions and led to the aggravation of the emigration phenomenon, which originally started because of the civil war in the south. This hindered the defining of an educational plan which could be implemented according to a fixed time schedule, in spite of decentralization attempts in Sudan (which started in 1971), and the introduction of the reduced planning method (school map since the seventies).
9 - 6: Problems that are expected to continue:
The problems expected to continue for some time are represented in the following:
- the demographic aspect. It is most difficult to stop emigration from Sudan that is linked to the improvement of the economic situation. Emigration from the countryside to the city also needs a long-term strategy in order to make the countryside attractive, secure and stable with easy-to-market productions and safe revenues;
- among major problems in this respect is the age bracket of inhabitants. The sustenance rate of those under fifteen and above sixty four is continuously increasing, as well as their numbers. This requires demographic policies to promote demographic characteristics;
- the economic problem is expected to continue for some time until peace is achieved, Sudans exports increased and inflation contained. With the continuation of the economic problem, the emigration of qualified personnel and productive manpower from the countryside to the city continues. This is accompanied by the failure of some local authorities in fulfilling their commitments to education;
- the lack of qualified personnel will continue for some time as long as training is not given maximum priority through the structural adaptation programmes of the governments' annual budgets.
10 - Public awareness, political will and national potencies:
Social demand for education is clearly strong. This is shown by the high increase in numbers of those accepted in basic education since Jomtien till 1998, where the number of enrolled pupils increased from 2.076.555 in 1990 to 2.976.718 in 1998 (numbers of emigrant and refugee pupils are not included).
The strong social demand for basic education is confirmed by the huge contributions of the local society, like building school premises, providing schoolbooks, equipment and motivating teachers. This support reached in 1995 a rate of 53% of the general education budget. Another big indicator for the strong social demand is the increase in the enrollment of girls, where their numbers jumped from 889.806 in 1990 to 1.370.653 in 1998. In spite of this strong demand, the given support is small in comparison to the demand.
Government commitment to achieve the national goals of Education for All is represented in the quantity of measures taken since Jomtien in 1990 and are shown in the following:
- the President of the State issuing a political declaration on Sudans commitment to the decisions of the international summit regarding ensuring learning opportunities to achieve Education for All by the year 2000 (annex no1).
- Sudans commitment to all international conventions concerning ensuring learning opportunities for all. An example is the Rights of the Child Convention, where two articles 28, 29 stipulate providing education. In addition to that, the international Convention for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which claims in article 14 from member countries, that could not provide compulsory and complimentary basic Education for All, to commit themselves, during a limited period, to prepare and adopt a detailed plan of action and implement it. As a matter of fact, Sudan started elaborating plans, programmes, and legislation to achieve the Education for All goal before the year 2002.
Sudan also committed itself to implement the Copenhagen decisions for social development and their ten commitments. One stipulates providing education and health services.
- The governments commitment becomes clear in the approaches carried out to increase the financing of education. One approach is the invention of the States Support Fund to support less developed states and local authorities to fulfill their obligations towards education. Another approach is to allocate 10% of the1999 budget to cover education arrears; another is by deducting an amount of 5 dollars from each immigrant to support education.
- The National Council plays a role in controlling education performance and in issuing and endorsing legislation supporting education matters. The law of organizing general education stipulates in article 5 that basic education is the right of every citizen.
- One of the most remarkable signs of the governments commitment to basic education, is the allotment of 40% of the local authorities budgets to basic education in the State of Khartoum, where 30% of education services are established.
- The periodical meetings of the Ministers of Education and General Education to discuss educational matters and the following up of the implementation represent a great commitment to achieve basic education goals. These meetings are dedicated to solving problems, suggesting solutions and legislation and allocating budgets.
- The governments strong points are shown in its commitment to give education first priority. This is obvious through the declared policies, which are heading towards achieving a good quality basic education. The government also clearly pursuits the implementation of these policies through multiple legislation, measures and initiatives; and by urging the citizens to contribute, and by pointing out the importance of education in the political speeches and popular meetings.
- Although one must praise the big role carried out by the UNESCO and UNICEF organizations to back up the governments efforts to achieve the Education for All goals, there is a clear slackening and retreat, from big financing parties in supporting Sudan distinctly. Thus, declared policies concerning Education for All could not be implemented. We mention specifically in this context the World Bank which even stopped the Fourth Education Project, which was supposed to contribute to providing learning opportunities and especially improving the quality. What is said about the World Bank is also applicable to the United Nations Development Fund in the basic education field. Here we notice the pure political bases of this aspect, upon which, the support to human and social services is built.
- The great support of the society to education represents a strong point of the government. Popular support enabled it to direct its official resources to bridge gaps of disparity in learning opportunities, from the point of view of quality and geography.
- Implementing the federal regime since 1994 is considered a strong point of the government, where local authorities were given the right to build schools. Although the experience had some negative aspects, like the capability of fulfilling commitments, it also led to honest competition and motivated the citizens to invent means and new ways to increase income and spend on education. The Federal Regime helped expanding education in a distinct manner throughout Sudan.
11 - A general assessment of progress:
From the above-mentioned, it is clear that the achieved results - in the circumstances surrounding Sudan - were satisfactory, although below expectations. A great expansion was accomplished thanks to strategic directives, political commitment, popular support and to a certain limit to international support. The numbers of pupils could not jump from 2.076.555 in 1990, to 2.976.718 in 1998 unless those efforts were united.
In the field of eliminating illiteracy, there was a decrease in the rate of illiterates. This was achieved by virtue of the great political support, the elaboration and the following up and implementation of a cohesive plan. Many projects were established to contribute to the elimination of illiteracy and they are:
- The project of «Read in the Name of Your Lord» to enrich religious teaching, which was established by the Arabic Organization for Education, Culture and Sciences. It is a comprehensive curriculum to eliminate illiteracy relying on the contents of the Holy Koran and on prophetic tradition (Hadith). It takes advantage of the way of teaching the Koran and from the existing institutions (the teaching places). Field experiences in Sudan, in the State of Kasla achieved brilliant results which incited the organization to think of expanding it upon Arabic countries, and groups with religious orientation.
The project aims at the following:
- to benefit from efforts undertaken by institutions for religious education in eliminating illiteracy, educating adults and developing the pedagogical ways used in these institutions without touching the essence of Islamic teaching and its distinguished characteristics
- to contribute to the development of local societies through eliminating illiteracy - in its comprehensive concept to face underdevelopment
- to purify the soul, create an indulgent spirit, encourage solidarity and mercifulness, and aspire to an enlightened society
- the project aims at using 35 Koran cells for women where each one includes 35 pupils
- it aims also at opening 2 illiteracy classes for men and 14 for women, each one including 25 pupils. This project shall be expanded within the period between 1999-2000 to cover 19 states, three of them in the south.
- The results of the assessment process showed that the Federal Regime has contributed to and even accelerated the big expansion of education, but the weakness of some local authorities affected the fair distribution process of learning opportunities. To solve this matter, the central authority needs more power to achieve the balance in a period characterized by creation and transformation of great policies in the light of international commitments.
- It is noticeable, ththe strategy of expanding basic education was implemented in a scientific way. Huge steps were undertaken, like the education scale, which was applied on time; and the strategy of expanding basic education which started (to ensure an opportunity to whom desires), then moved to a compulsion period. But a law on the national level was not issued, and the matter was left to the states according to their capabilities. The achieved results were adequate to the efforts made.
In the field of basic education quality and efficiency, an expansion in university education in the field of educational sciences, and the attempt to convince university teachers to stay and settle down is required. Additional allocations should be given to them through reviewing legislation and fiscal lists. This will raise the competence of teachers in the basic education level, professionally and academically.
To benefit from technology, which has become now available, teachers could be trained by learning through correspondence. The University of Khartoum has already started training 3000 male and female teachers using this method.
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