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6. Course of fulfilment of tasks and achievement of goals (for 10 years, from 1990 to 1999)

For the analysis of a course of fulfilment and tasks of education in Republic of Tajikistan, the National Commission on Drawing-up the Country Report on EFA takes as its statistical basis the data of the State Statistical Agency under the Government and a large volume of information (statistical and analytical) given to the Ministry of Education and its management bodies. In order to permit another perspective, views of NGOs and international organizations are also covered.

Tajikistan’s statistical data of the researched period are impacted by the instability connected to the civil war, as well as instability as a whole within the republic during several years, with the absence of steady communications with some regions. Despite this, a large volume of information is included, allowing to analyse achievement against the goals and fulfilment of proposed tasks.

In accordance with the normative-legal documents, Law "About Education", Concept of Pre-school Education, and the Rule about Pre-school Establishment in our country, the education of children at early and pre-school ages in children's pre-school establishments (CPE)* is ongoing. These are busy helping the family with the purposes of creating the most favorable conditions for the education of children, in view of the interests and needs of the family. Children's creches, kindergartens and other pre-school establishments (part-time, full-time and boarding), and kindergartens of various structures are operational, where a child’s development is provided, in order to develop his abilities as much as possible. Additionally, at this level a more particular or specific task is undertaken – the preparation of children for training at school. The general volume of knowledge and skills to be mastered in pre-school is determined by the "Programme of Education in Kindergartens". The programme of a kindergarten provides physical, intellectual, aesthetic, labour and moral education of children under schoolage according to their age and individual psycho-physical peculiarities. Education and the training of the children of early and pre-school age comes true in various games, labour and in diverse occupations. The training on occupations is the basic form of educative work with the children in a kindergarten.

The training on occupations will be carried out according to basic didactic principles: within a certain system, taking into account the age peculiarities of the children, through gradual and consecutive increased complexity of the contents. In a kindergarten, focus on acquainting children with environmental life and nature, on development of speech, preparation for literacy training, development of elementary mathematical concepts, and representational activity, and designing will be carried out through physical and musical activities.

Working with young children through planned dialogue of the adult with each child, and directed towards the development of the speech and movements of the children are a preparatory stage to training on occupations; in accordance with development of children of any attention of occupation will be organized with several children, and then with a group.

The system of pre-school education, directed on securing childhood and development of younger children, and development of abilities of perception of the environmental validity and preparation the children for school, has been unable due to financial and political instability of the last years to meet its requirements to an acceptable degree.

* In RT in all acts, normative documents the legal terms " children's pre-school establishments " and " pre-school education " are used which meet " pre-school educational establishment " and " pre-school education".

By the beginning of 1998, there were more than 1 million pre-school aged children in the country. Of this number, only 44.2 thousand persons, or 4.2 %, were brought up in 456 pre-school establishments. Statistical data testify that, despite the increase of the number of children in the population, the percent of scope of the children by pre-school establishments fell (see Table 2).

Table 2

Number official age group of the population

(1 - 6 years old and their scope children's pre-school facilities in percentage)

Years Official age group of the population (0-6 years) Number of regular functioning CPEs Amount of children covered by them (thousand people) Provision of children with regular CPEs in % out of children of corresponding age On 100 places in CPE fit children
1990 1 070 487 958 150.9 15.2 116
1991 1 116 056 944 141.5 13.7  
1992 1 140 043 822 115.4 10.5 105
1993 1 110 435 792 114.4 10.4 100
1994 1 329 410 790 108.9 9.4 100
1995 1 303 018 555 78 6.9 90
1996 1 301 951 601 71.3 6.3 93
1997 1 033 972 562 61.6 5.5 90
1998 1 034 972 456 44.2 4.2 82

Source: State Statistical Agency

In 1990 the Republic had 958 pre-school establishments with 150.9 thousand (or 15.2%) children in them. In 1998, quantitatively the network of pre-school establishments has decreased to 502 units, and the number of children in them reduced to 106.7 thousand (or 11%). It is necessary to note that in the Republic in 1990, the need for children's pre-school establishments was not satisfied, despite an essential increased number of pre-school establishments. Data from the beginning of 1990 in the Republic stood on turn for a premise in kindergartens about 8,000 children. Overload of pre-school establishments in 1990 meant there were 100 places for every 116 children. For the period 1995 to 1998, for every 100 places in pre-school establishments, there were 90 - 82 children.

During the military actions of 1991-1992, many kindergartens were destroyed and robbed. 152 of pre-school establishment from more than 900 have appeared closed. The financial difficulties and absence of building materials prevent their repair and functioning. Nevertheless, for period 1990 – 1999, the construction of pre-school educational establishments did not stop, though it was appreciably reduced (see Table 3).

Table 3

Data on Commissioning Children's Pre-school Establishments (person-places)


  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Republic of Tadjikistan 4240 2914 1135 1270 520 50 280 230 90

Source: State Statistical Agency

The constant increase of pre-school educational establishments, and also percentage parity of the children, was marked till 1990, after which has gone return process. In a determined measure, increased children's mortality and migration of the population have also resulted in attrition from pre-school establishments. These establishments were closed, due to lack of financing by local authorities, enterprises and departments, departure of experts, fear or unwillingness of the parents. A significant number of such establishments function at the expense of the parents, international and non-governmental organizations, which provide the funds, food, and services. The overwhelming majority of such establishments at the moment lack any educational, methodical materials or other help on the part of the state.

In a significant part of kindergartens, especially in rural district, the conditions of the children do not correspond to sanitary norms: of all pre-school establishments 26.3% are without central heating, 23.9% without a waterpipe, and 34.7% without water drain. In the country, there are no special facilities for manufacturing furniture and toys for children of early and pre-school age.

Until recently, the activity of children's pre-school establishments did not differ by a variety from rigid binding of pedagogical process to uniform normative - methodical requirements and completely did not allow to take into account national - regional specifity of organization of education of the children. There were the following types: creche, creche-kindergarten, and specialized care centres for children with deviations in development, in which the technique of education, regulated by decades' old requirements of a never-varying programme, differed by uniformity and in essence was unified.

Low scope of the children by system of pre-school education allows to assert, that it be not capable to solve the important problem of preparation of the children to training at school, especially in rural district. Bringing up – educational occupation with the children in many pre-school establishments differ by primitive, copy school system of training, that has negatively an effect on physiologic and mental development of the children and reduction of requirement in getting knowledge.

Important to the theory and practice of pre-school education are the goals of becoming a free person, democratization of mutual relations between children and adults, acquainting the children with national traditions, customs and acquiring the culture of the people, as it is impossible to better reflect national character.

In our country, the pre-school education programme is defined by the Concept of pre-school education, on the basis of which complex work towards changing the system of pre-school education has begun. Taking into account the needs of the family and the interests of the child, issues such as differentiation of an existing network of pre-school establishments and organization of the new approaches in education of the children are raised. Pre-school educational establishments, alongside with traditional types, have received distribution of new non-traditional forms of work.

Lately, primary attention has been paid to questions of updating of organization of pre-school education according to the requirements of the Law "About Education" and Concept of pre-school education about the new forms of work on training of personnel for pre-school educational establishments, about ecological education of the children, about importance of national customs and traditions in education of the children of the given age and creation of pre-school establishments of a new type. The essential place in a Rule belongs to the Parental contract and Charter of pre-school establishment, which are the real mechanism of an establishment of the legal attitudes between the parents and establishments in view of the opportunities and conditions.

According to the recommendations of Ministry of Education "About Organization Paid Additional Educational of Services" in pre-school educative establishments a spectrum of services has extended: groups on study of foreign languages, studios, groups of applied art, music, training to navigation and sport and other work.

Since 1997, despite known problems and difficulties, children's educational establishment of different types have appeared: complex "a Kindergarten-school" (Khudjand, Dushanbe, Tursunzade), "a Kindergarten-gymnasium", private children's pre-school establishments (Leninabad area, Dushanbe), group short-term and group for the gifted children in pre-school establishments (Dushanbe, Leninabad region). It is necessary to note this positive phenomenon (see Table 4).

Table 4

Scope of the Children in Children's Pre-school Establishments

Regions Groups on Learning foreign languages Creation art group – scope of children Applied art group-scope of children Number of complex CPE "Kinder-garden-school" Talanted children group Music group-scope of children Number of complex CPE "Kinder-garden-gymnazium"
GBAO 5/110         1/18  
Leninabad area       17/438     1/32
Khatlon area 4/98   5/138        
Dushanbe 8/129 10/118 12/176 4/232 1/20 12/176  
RRS 10/248 17/300 6/106 7/175 1/20 8/165  

Note: denominator = amount of groups; numerator = amount of children

Source: Ministry of Education

The Ministry of Education worked out and adopted through the board of the Ministry of Education on July 30, 1999, # 9/4 additions to a Rule about pre-school establishment, where a normative -legal substantiation of establishment and functioning of complex, family and private pre-school establishments is given.

In the Republic determined work to identify gifted and talented children is conducted. In this direction, groups for gifted children in kindergartens of Leninabad area, Dushanbe and Leninskiy region are open, where profound training on various directions is conducted.

For the decision of problems, determined by the Concept of pre-school education, introduction of the new approaches in organization of pre-school education the Ministry of Education RT does essential work. On the basis of pre-school establishments in Leninskiy region, a regional seminar was held on April 24, 1996, where an exchange of experience under the decision of urgent problems of pre-school education in view of local conditions, to increase of quality pedagogical process, to perfect administrative activity for methodists of departments of education, teachers of pedagogical institutes and schools. Employees of the Tajik Scientific - Research Institute of Pedagogical Sciences, the Central Institute of Improvement of Qualification, retraining of the staff and methodical service participated. In November 1996 in Dushanbe a scientific - practical conference on ecological education of the children of early and pre-school age for the workers of pre-school establishments was held. The issue discussed was the influence of a polluted environment to health of the children, about organization environmental work in pre-school educational establishments, about strenghtening health of the children, etc. Alert has been raised concerning the condition of health of young children. A growing number of children with inherent pathology, easing immune systems testifies that the pollution of the environment threatens the health of the children of the country.

The Ministry of Education, in implementation of the Government’s February 23, 1996 for No. 93 "About the State Programme of Ecological Education and Education of the Population of the Republic of Tajikistan from 2000 until 2010", works in accordance with the orders of Ministry of Education RT No. 71 (April 2, 1996) and No. 38 (January 28, 1999). The CIIQTSMS enters in the educational plan for ecological training: for biology teachers, 6 hours; for the directors of comprehensive schools, 4 hours, and; for other workers of educational establishments, 2 hours. The Tajik Scientific Research Institute of Pedagogical Sciences developed methodical recommendations on "Ecological Education and Economy", creating a role of ecological knowledge in the development of a national economy. In the educational programmes on biology, chemistry, geography, and natural science, new themes about environmental protection, behaviour in extreme situations and other aspects of ecological education of the children and teenagers introduced. In June 1997, the Ministry of Education, together with Ministry of Health and Ministry of Environment prepared and carried out a regional seminar "Ecology and Child’s Health" in Tursunzade for the workers of pre-school establishments.

The special place in children’s education is given to the development of skills of behaviour in extreme situations. As the information of Management of State Auto Inspection of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, reports on conditions with road transport trauma remain extremely intense. Children cause from 15 % up to 45 % of road transport incidents. In many pre-school establishments, because of weak equipment, the rule of businesses with study of traffic rules remains unsatisfactory. In this connection and with the purpose of reducing road accidents involving children and study of Traffic Rules, the joint order of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Internal Affairs RT (of February 17, 1999, No. 59) authorized a Rule about realization of republican review, creating a competition in pre-school establishments "Green Light" (from January to May 1999), in which pre-school establishments in almost all regions of republic participated. At the end of May 1999, an exhibition on the results of the competition was organized, victors were determined and awarded letters and money premiums from the Ministry of Education and MIA RT.

The order of the Ministry of Education of March 13, 1996 (No. 52), with the purpose of realizing the Concept of pre-school education announced the Republican review/competition "Toys to the Children - Hands of Teachers", which will be carried out annually. In pre-school establishments is made much plying material for realization of programmeme tasks, connected with subject - role, mobile, didacted by games for the children.

In pre-school educative establishments of the Republic, the sharpest problem remains a question regarding the staff. The pedagogical workers of special education in Kurgan-Tyube zone of Khatlon area, Shakhrinau, Kofarnikhon, Leninsky regions total 15-20%. In pre-school establishments, 10.8% of the managers and bringing up with high education, and 38% with secondary special pedagogical education (see Table 5) work in the sector.

Table 5

Number of pedagogical workers in CPE in the Republic of Tajikistan












Number of pedagogical workers in CPE: in Republic







No data



Source: Ministry of Education

As the basic reasons causing the current situation in training of personnel it is possible to name the following: large outflow of the qualified experts; misirable wages (on the average, 1800 roubles); default of the plans of reception in secondary and high pedagogical educational institutions on a speciality of preparation of the pre-school workers; absence of accessible materials for self-education; non-provision of methodical manuals, and absence of a periodic seal for the workers of DPD of the Republic.

Centres of preparation of the experts on pre-school education are the faculty of "Pedagogics and Psychology" for Pre-School in the pedagogical universities of Dushanbe, Khudjand, Kulyab, Kurgan-Tyube and pedagogical colleges in Dushanbe and Khudjand. In April 1997, the Ministry of Education investigated the work of the Faculty of Pre-school Education in the Dushanbe University Named After K.S.Dzhuraev, on realization of joint measures with the Ministry of Education for the preparation and education of pedagogical workers. The Faculty of Pre-school Education prepares students under the new educational plan, developed and authorized by the Scientific Council of the Pedagogical Faculty, in view of the requirements and peculiarities of development of pre-school education in the Republic, and in accordance with the new educational plan, the teachers in close interaction with Republican methodical center of Ministry of Education (1995). Educational programmes were updated, and developed methodical recommendation to the students on Tajik language.

In the plans of work of faculty of pedagogical high schools of the country, the decision concerning interdiciplinary communications on special subjects and private techniques is provided. This will be carried out and open lectures and practical occupations for the teachers are discussed. In the last years the laboratory studies were more often carried out in kindergartens, where the students gain knowledge of techniques, and develop creative thinking. Dushanbe’s Pedagogical University supports scientific communications with the Institute of Pre-school Education of the Russian Academy of Education. However, because of difficult economic difficulties scientific missions are not used, and teachers of faculty do not have the opportunity to upgrade their qualifications in other high schools, affecting the professional level of the young experts of the faculty.

Large importance is placed on perfection of quality educative – bringing up process in pre-school establishments in order to increase qualifications of the CPU managers and teachers. Till 1992 at Central institute, improvement of the teachers of Dushanbe the pre-school workers of all regions of Republic raised the qualification and had an opportunity to improve the experience on rates, seminars at CPU, university of pedagogical knowledge, method unit, on pedagogical lectures and so on. In the given time, because of economic difficulties, the named measures will be carried out in area's Institutes of improvement of qualification (Leninabad and Khatlon area), and the Method Center of GBAO. MC* will carry out courses and seminars for all categories CPI in the Regions of Republican Subordination and Dushanbe that are unsufficient and does not meet the modern requirements.

In method rooms of regional and urban departments of education, in a study on pre-school education of CIIQ, IQ and MC is ongoing, and generalized and advanced pedagogical experience of the pre-school workers is distributed. In order to help the pre-school workers, the experts of TCRIPC, CIIQ, IQ and MC were prepared and issued methodical manuals on pre-school education: the collections "In the Help to the Pre-school Workers", "From Experience of Work of Rural Kindergartens", "Tajik Dances in Kindergarten", "Organization of a Group on the Study of English Language in Kindergarten", as well as a number of booklets, albums, relay race on ecological education and others.

The special concern in pre-school establishments is the question of health care of the children, which is of paramount importance in the formation of children. Therefore strengthening of health and providing of a meal should be considered as a priority direction of social policy of local Khukumats, administrative structures of education and public health services.

In April 1996 by order of the Ministry of Education CIIQ and REMC (Republican Educational Methodical Centre of the Ministry of Education) were incorporated and now referred to as CIIQ, IQ and MC.

Till 1990 and in the beginning of the researched decade, there was much for improvement of conditions in specialized pre-school establishments for the abnormal children. The activity of special pre-school establishments for the children having physical or intellectual development problems is directed on correction and indemnification during development, preparation of the children for psychological adaptation and rehabilitation. The existing network of special educational bringing up and pre-school establishments for the children having psycho-physical development problems does not satisfy the objective requirements in them.

The analysis of statistical data shows that during 1990, the network of special pre-school establishments for various categories of the abnormal children was reduced, and accordingly the quota of the children has appreciably decreased. The prospect of opening special establishments and accommodation of groups of special purpose in view of all structures for last 1994 - 98 years has not been realized owing to the migration of the population, outflow of the experts, and the absence of a stable economy.

Today, on a rather inexact data, the tens of thousands of pre-school children and students suffering from diminished intellectual and physical development do not get the necessary special bringing up and education, as many of them attend regular kindergartens or schools, where such special requirements are not taken into account.

Special children's pre-school establishments during 1990-98 have remained outside of control (except urban), that has brought serious weakening of their activity in terms of organization of medical rehabilitation of the children and educational process. Personnel potential in these establishments is lost, and there are not enough experts, teachers and medical workers. These establishments are poorly equipped with special equipment for training. Frequently the children are in establishments which have not passed medical-pedagogical commission or do not have health certifications. In many of them the working specifications do not stipulate the posts of pediatricians and nurses.

In Tajikistan there is the urgent problem of sanatorium/health resorts for children. There are approximately 160 thousand children of pre-school age with various diseases, requiring recovering in children's sanatoriums. However, only 7,000 children, or 4.6% of the total requiring treatment, are able to receive the full treatment per year.* The existing network of children's sanatoriums is not capable of handling all cases and issues connected with the children’s recovery. Additionally, the sanatorium establishments are placed in shabby premises, not allowing to organize the necessary level of recover process. There is not enough systematic increase of qualification therapists, speech therapists, teachers of the blind, tutors, and teachers skilled at working with children with various problems.

* Source: Ministry of Public Health

Despite material difficulties, special pre-school establishments give attention to the preservation of earlier aquired medical equipment, equipment of group rooms, studies for treatment and occupations. It is necessary to note the positive work in special kindergartens for the children with infringement of hearing, orphanages and special groups in pre-school establishments in Dushanbe and Khodjent on realization with the children frontal subgroups and individual occupations. Therapists and tutors of these establishments own a technique of realization of occupations, competently determine the contents, and skilfully use methodical tasks. In special pre-school establishments in Dushanbe, well-equipped studies for lessons with the children are available, and has well-developed manuals on development of speech and acquainting with the environmental world, but all this without the account of national traditions. However there are not enough methodical manuals or programmes on training children in the state language.

Currently the functions of identifying children with anomalies are assigned to psycological, medical-pedagogical commissions, which should carry out in-depth inspection of the children, living in families, brought up and training in various institutions. However these commissions, as a rule, work on the public beginnings and do not function systematically, and the effectivness of their work is low. In order to improve the conditions of the work of special pre-school and school establishments, it is necessary to create constant psycological-medical-pedagogical advices in regions, called in due time to identify children with various deviations in development and to give the necessary recommendations for their rehabilitation, bringing up and education . At the moment there are difficult conditions in usual pre-school establishments of large towns (Dushanbe, Khodjent) special groups for such children, as there are the complexities in their acquisition and maintenance by the experts. Therefore attempts to create multi-profiles on the basis of emptied or half-emptied kindergartens are undertaken to establish specialized children's pre-school.

With this purpose the Ministry of Education, by Order No. 13-0 of April 24, 1995, has ratified the Instruction on reception of the children with impaired psychological-physical development in special pre-school establishments and group of special assignment of usual pre-school establishments.

Proceeding from the above-stated, it is necessary to note that the situation of the children in the country causes alarm. To create conditions necessary for high-grade of childrens’ development and with the purposes of realization of the rights of the children on high-grade physical, intellectual, spiritual, moral and social development according to the norms of the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, international obligations are as follows:

Development of the Programme aimed at developing pre-school education in the country till 2010 is necessary, where the basic directions of development of pre-school education should be the creation of variation system, and providing inhabitants an opportunity to have a choice of educative programme and children's educational establishment. The basic idea of the Programme is the idea of development, directed toward qualitative transformations of the given system by creative realization of internal potential, its reserves and efficient use of resources of the country. The programme to develop a pre-school education structure should contain a conceptual substantiation of development of pre-school education in new conditions, its scientific reference point, social-pedagogical design and measures of practical application with the appropriate financing and resource maintenance.

Acceptance of the Programme should be preceded by detailed work on the analysis and study of problems of transition period, such as the tendency of reduction of quantity of pre-school establishments, reduction of scope of the children of pre-school age; reduction of volumes of state expenses; stability of changes in demand for places in pre-school establishments, and determination of the future of traditional state pre-school establishments. On the other hand, the Programme also should be aimed at the creation of conditions conducive to diverse establishments (state, non-governmental) with different sources of financing, the scope of the children, which are in the most unsuccessful conditions, the creation of the new educational programmes for the children of pre-school age and for education of the parents. The latter especially is important for Tajikistan, as in the near future large numbers of children cannot be reached by pre-school education.Therefore basic attention should be paid to the education of the parents, to increase education of the women, encourage the non-governmental sector of services, and mobilize the community in rural districts to create forms of a centralized maintenance for the children and their training in small groups.

The Programme should promote realization of the concept "Education For All". In many respects through capital investment in the programmes of development of the children in early age, the expenses on pre-school education open good opportunities to receive education, to have time at school and then conduct a productive life in the adult world. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan a uniform system of continuous education works. General education (Classes 1-11) is a determining part in a circuit of continuous education and provides the student with basic scientific knowledge, labour and initial professional skills, and also develops their individual creative abilities and moral qualities, preparing them for a future independent life.

The system of general education in the country includes three basic levels: primary education, basic education and secondary education. In the structural plan, training in comprehensive schools is to be under construction under the circuit "4-5-2", in which primary classes (1-4), and senior classes (10-11) enter. (See Table 1 in the Appendix). Depending on local conditions in the Republic, this can take the form of separate primary school, base or basic (nine years study) and the secondary school (1 - 11 classes), ensuring unity and continuity of all levels of training. In the country availability of a comprehensive school by means of optimal school by regions is provided.

Historically Tajikistan created a rather wide and diverse network of general educational establishments, generating scientific-pedagogical potential to meet the population’s devotion to a "cult of knowledge". Nowadays every fourth inhabitant of the country is covered by training in the different forms of education. In its plan concerning availability of education Tajikistan is not worse than other countries. Access to education and participation in it is a high priority in the policy of the state, and supported with the political will of the Government of the country.

During independence, movement towards the construction of a democratic, legal and secular society, strengthening of its position globally, and with the support of the country, despite all difficulties and complexities of transition period, has retained the achievements in the field of education, the functioning of educational establishments in all regions, and gradually the stabilization and reformation of educational system. In the last years:

a) The radical image reconsiders the purposes and contents of education:

b) Structural changes are completed:

c) New normative-legal base of branch is created :

d) Economic and financial policy of branch is much reconsidered:

Acceptance by the Government and Ministry of Education of a measure have allowed to avoid the destruction of the education system during the transition period and to achieve functioning all educational establishments in all regions of the country. Access to education for all, irrespective of nationality, sex, residence, social or financial situation, is thus provided.

In the education system of Tajikistan, the highest priority is initial education and practically whole age group on an extent already of several generations receives initial education. This has positively taken deep roots in the consciousness of the people; an understanding of the responsibilities and gravity of training of the children in an primary school and accordingly the responsibility and attitude of the parents to school on this educational level.

Children will be accepted into first class at the age of 7 years. This has been the practice since 1994 and is fixed in the Rule of comprehensive school. Up until 1991, children entered school at aged six and sometimes seven years of age, as part of the school reform of the Soviet era in 1984. Tajikistan on this respect occupied one of the last places in comparison with other allied republics. For example, according to data from Russian State Statistical Agency, the number of children aged 6 trained in the first class in 1990 - 1991 academic year numbered 79.5 thousand, and the specific gravity of the 6-year old pupils in an aggregate number of the children of the appropriate age was 51%. However the practice and research have shown that in Tajikistan, the necessary conditions for training children only 6 years old were not created, taking into account that more than 70% of the children of this age lived in rural areas.

Therefore the admission into school occurs at 7 years and partially from six-years old. According to 1991 statistical records, acceptance of children of six-years old stopped. However, some parents are interested in training their children at an earlier age (five to six years). It is characteristic of the urban part of the population. Therefore pedagogical collectives of schools, the bodies of education department react according to understanding to similar situations of the parents and organize opportunities for such children in kindergartens and schools. In the long term, in accordance with improvement of the economic situation in the country, and the increased level of living of families, the introduction of training at schools from six years and increase of duration of education in high school till 12 years is possible.

The rules and order of transfer of the children in schools are defined by administration and pedagogical Council of school within the framework of the Law "About Education" and other normative acts of the Ministry of Education. Depending on the programme of education and structure of training of school, entrance rules in Class 1 require testing, interview, special inspection of physical and intellectual development, and the child’s mentality. But the parents have the right to choose which school their child attends.

The lessons at school begin September 1 and proceed until May 25. For the pupils, vacations are established: autumn - 8 days, winter - 12 days, spring - 10 days and summer - no less than 8 weeks. For learning first classes additional week vacations are established, the term of them determined by the pedagogical Council of school. If necessary the Ministry of Education, under the request of local bodies of Education department, can change the duration of vacations and the educational year in regions.

The children mastering the programme of a secondary school are transfered in the fifth class of the basic school. For all children it is certain continuation of training after secondary school. The persons finishing basic (nine-year) school receive a certificate for incomplete secondary education. The persons finishing a secondary comprehensive school of all types receive a certificate for general secondary education. Educational establishments give graduates the document on an educational level and qualification only of a nation-wide sample.

Reception in the first class and scope by training of the children of school age occupies a special place in the policy of the state in the field of education and constantly is at the centre of attention of the Government, local Khukumats, Ministry of Education and its local bodies. Traditionally during the summer period, recording of the children in the first class of schools begins and annually in September "pupil’s month", with the purpose of scope by training of the children of school age, is carried out. These measures are accepted by the workers of education as well as with the active participation of deputy’s commissions, local administrations, law-enforcement bodies. As a result, despite military events, political instability, and migration of part of the population, it was possible for period from 1990 till 1999 to enrol the children in initial classes and to keep a stable number of the pupils (see Table 6).

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