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Table 6

Number of Pupils in Class 1 in the Country

Years

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total (people)

164 923

164 394

137 711

130 759

177 898

173 108

173 793

180 074

177 484

Population in age of 7 years

151 041

158 392

167 630

179 419

180 176

182 983

181 767

188 295

188 295

In %

109.2

103.8

82.15

72.9

98.7

94.6

95.6

95.6

94.3

Source: State Statistical Agency

The analysis of data of the present table shows that until 1992, a large percentage of the Class 1 pupils, concerning an aggregate number of the children who are 7 years old, is caused by the presence of pupils who are six-years old. Moreover the reduction of pupils in Class 1 in 1992-1993 is explained, on one hand, by the instability of the situation in the country because of war and, on the other hand, with the reduction of 6 year olds admitted into schools. The more detailed picture can be found out in Indicator 3.

It is necessary also to note that for this period, almost equal parity in gender submission was provided. (see Table 7)

Table 7

Number of Pupils in Class 1 in the Country

Academic years

  1990-1991 1993-1994 1995-1996 1997-1998
Total (people) 165 495 131 942 173 892 180 793
Out of them: boys 84 338 67 967 88 751 93 784
Girls 81 157 63 975 85 141 87 009
Girls in % to common number 49 48.5 48.96 48.12

Source: State Statistical Agency

As the given table shows, in 1990–91, ninety-six girls per 100 boys were admitted, in 1993–94, ninety-four, in 1995–96, ninety-six,and in 1997–98, ninety-three. We therefore can assert that, in Class 1 in Tajikistan’s schools, there is gender parity, as the small difference in gender parameters corresponds to the overall difference indicated in the general population of the country by sex in age for children aged 6-7 years old. According to the data of the State Statistical Agency, the number of the female population at these ages is less than 2 thousand up to 4 thousand persons (see Table 9).

Table 8

Years Age Boys Girls Difference
1990 6 years 77 143 75 103 -2040
  7 years 73 482 71 281 -2201
1993 6 years 90 149 88 282 -1867
  7 years 84 670 82 960 -1710
1995 6 years 92 709 90 808 -1901
  7 years 91 312 88 864 -2448
1997 6 years 96 397 92 183 -4214
  7 years 92 429 89 338 -3091

As a whole the analysis reveals that until 1990, females enjoyed a rather favorable position in terms of receiving education: from entrance into Class 1 and transition from class to class, onto higher levels of education, and also general quota of trained youth. Thus, there were no large deviations in achieving a level 10 - 11 year secondary education. Due to this and the current scope by training of the women in comprehensive schools, especially up to Class 10, large problems are not present. Nevertheless the heavy economic and social problems of the transition period sharply change the situation in terms of gender, and not for the benefit of women and future society.

In the Republic of Tajikistan, the principle of equality and equal opportunities of men and women is guaranteed in Article 17 of the Constitution: "Everyone is equal before the Law and court. The state guarantees the rights and freedom of each individual, irrespective of his nationality, race, sex, language, creed, political convictions, education, social property position. A man and woman are equal." The mechanism of practical realization of equal opportunities of women and men is reflected in a number of laws and resolutions of the Government. But, despite this, gender inequality in the country remains an urgent problem. Having the equal legal rights, man and woman use them differently in practical life.

The disproportion in receiving an education is evident in previous times. According to the last population census in 1989, the educational level of men was higher than that of women: per 1000 population at the age of 15 years and 908 persons is higher at men 959, and at the woman. The analysis of these data indicates a disproportion in reception of education between men and women even in the rather "safe" Soviet period.

At the moment the sharp decrease in the number of girls attending a comprehensive school begins after Class 9 (see Table 9).

Table 9

Distribution per class of full-time pupils attending general educational schools during the 1997 - 1998 academic year:

Classes % boys % girls
1 classes 51.8 48.2
2 classes 50.4 49.6
3 classes 51.7 48.3
4 classes 53.6 46.4
5 classes 52.4 47.6
6 classes 52.4 47.6
7 classes 52.9 47.1
8 classes 52.5 47.5
9 classes 54.4 45.6
10 classes 60.8 39.2
11 classes 61.7 38.3

Source: State Statistical Agency

In many respects, the reduction girls in Classes 10-11 was promoted by the Law "About Education", recognizing the need for at least nine years of study. The comparison of the number of boys and girls studying in Class 11 during the 1990-1991 and in 1997-98 academic years is shown in the Table 10.

Table 10

Quantity of pupils in 11 classes:

Academic year % of boys % of girls
1990-1991 48.7 51.3
1997-1998 61.7 38.3

Source: State Statistic Agency

The scope by education received by girls in regions of the Republic is varied, often depending upon the attitude of the family to the issue. As female students’ age increases, the percent of schooling, especially in rural district, is much reduced, with the exception of GBAO, where the education level of women at all steps of training is maintained.

The total number of students in comprehensive schools registered in 1997 - 98 academic years increased in comparison with data for the 1994 - 95 academic years. However it also indicates the tendency of female students to leave school between Class 8 and Classes 9 - 11. For example, in 1997 - 98 academic years, from the total number of students, 48.4% of students in Classes 1-8 are girls, but this proportion reduced to 39% in Classes 9-11 (see Table 11). Thus,

present statistics indicate a reduction of the general educational level among women. This divergence will have an effect in the future, as the reduction of an educated portion of women will lower their participation in social and political life of society.

Table 11

Quantity of Pupils in General Educational Schools

  1994-1995 academic Years 1997-1998 academic years
  total Out of them girls In % total Out of them boys In %
1-4 classes 592 898 288 285 48.6 686 207 332 387 48.4
5-9 classes 562 041 271 898 48.3 572 935 271 023 47.3
9-11 class 116 415 47 493 40.8 110 877 43 260 39
             

Source: State Statistical Agency

The percent of female student admissions in SSEEs increased from 41 in 1990-91 academic years up to 48 in 1998-99 academic year. The basic specialities pursued by women entering educational institutions are pedagogy and medicine. Therefore entrance of women in pedagogical colleges and schools annually exceeds more than 75%. So, in these educational institutions the following percentage of females were accepted: in 1994 - 81,4 %, in 1995 - 89,5 %, in 1996 - 84,3 %, in 1997 - 83,3 %, and in 1998 - 74,8 %.

Moreover, the transition period of economy, described by decreased employment of the population, curtailing of manufacture and reduction of working places, is reflected in the psychology of the younger generation, who plans optional reception of education, in connection with what employment opportunities are available.

In high schools, the percentage of admitted female students is reduced every year, primarily as a result of material difficulties within the family and educational priority being given to young men. At the moment in the country, the proportion of female students in high schools has fallen to almost one-third of all students (see Table 12).

Table 12

Gender distribution of the pupils on all kinds of education in 1997 - 98 academic years

Type of education Total thousand people % of men % of women
High Educational Estabilishments 76.7 73.9 26.1
Secondary Special Educational Estabilishments 19.4 51.3 48.7
Professional-Technical Estabilishments 26 72.3 27.7

Source: State Statistical Agency

Thus it turns out that women have less opportunity for receiving that or other educational level, reflected in a parity of educational levels among men and women. Assuming an educational level of men equalling 100%, this parameter for the women will equal 94,11% (1990), 94,20 % (1991), 94,14 % (1992), and so on:

 

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Mens’ education level

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Womens’ education level

94.11

94.2

94.14

94

93.88

93.92

93.98

93.82

94.1

Source: State Statistical Agency

A few reasons for gender disbalance in the country are put forward, but probably most insuperable are the economic reasons. Absence of hostels at high schools, compulsion to marriage, decrease of population of the girl from rural regions: all of these factors interfere with a girl’s ability to continue education after school. Special measures intended to guarantee equality between men and women, especially from rural areas include the introduction of quota for admitting into higher educational institution for females from remote mountainous regions. More detailed information concerning these measures are indicated in Part 1 of this Report. These measures, accepted by the Government of Tajikistan, address this plan and outline efforts to compensate the imbalance disbalance of staff in rural districts, where the amount of girls and women, who have traditionally worked in the education, public health services and other sectors, has sharply decreased because of war and the socio-economic crisis in the Republic.

Currently in the Republic efforts to protect and maintain the potential of educated women are in force. But parameters of present high education force will reflect on the future participation of the women in scientific and educative spheres of development of society. Gender parity in regards to post-graduate education are shown in the tables.

Table 13

Number of Post-Graduate Students in the Republic

Years Total post-graduates Out of them women
1992 500 6
1993 531 40
1994 607 28
1995 626 186
1996 650 210
1997 676 200

Source: State Statistical Agency

Table 1

Number of Experts Carrying-out Scientific Research, Project Design and Technological Work

  Doctor of Scientis Candidate of scientis
  Total Also women Total Also women
Years        
1993 273 32 1697 469
1994 203 28 1163 323
1995 105 32 551 363
1996 163 28 669 289
1997 295 16 635 170

Source: State Statistical Agency

In our view, at the moment and for the forthcoming decade, it is necessary to develop such governmental complex measures that are directed on maintenance of education for all as a priority, and also increased admissions in education for all members of society, particularly women. If not social support desiring will on the part of the state be amplified to learn, threat of unemployment of youth after end of study, useless expenditure of means for education and personal efforts, appreciable growth of an inequality in sphere of education is eliminated.

However, the data on admission in schools, the scope of training, and rather positive parity of boys and girls represented in the student body are not yet proof of ample opportunities for reception of education for all. In our view, such factors as attendance and attrition during an academic year, retaining of a quota of the pupils and, lastly, the quality of received education, define in many respects the relation between society and the quality and value of education.

Civil war and its consequences resulted in the present hard economic situation of the country, impacting the problem of scope by training of school-aged children. In the last years, despite common growth of number of the pupils, the increased change of students passing quota is observed. So, for example, in 1995 - 96 academic years 178,942 students were trained in Class 2; in 1996 - 97 academic year, only 170,014 students continued in Class 3, a reduction of 8,928 students. The losses at transition from Class 3 to Class 4 equalled 4,744 students. Thus, loss of pupils between Class 2 through Class 9 equals between 2-6%. In 1997 - 98 academic years the average number of students lost between elementary and basic school country-wide was 37,900.

The analysis of a cohort movement of the pupils and issue from the ninth class (level of certain education) shows that, for Tajikistan, the problem of preservation of achievement in the sphere of certain education is urgent. If factor of scope both initial, and secondary education and the issue from 8 classes in republic in 1980 on data of state statistics makes 95,0 %, and in 1987 - 96,5 %, in the last decade sharp fall of these parameters takes place. (see Table 15).

Table 15

Movement of Pupils and Graduation From Class Nine (full time schools) (input and output)

On beginning of academic year 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 % of graduated 9-th class
Entered in 1 class 165495 164858 132763 128715 178529 173778 174195 180538 177827 100
Girls 81157 84678 63451 63227 86400 85085 83475 86929 85236 100
Entered in 2 class   166298 154520 133148 130108 178942 169145 169145 177827  
Girls   81366 75420 64073 63462 83890 81796 81796 85236  
Entered in 3 class     154844 154289 131971 129487 169145 167604 170014  
Girls     75438 75035 64182 62214 81796 81073 85517  
Entered in 4 class       151260 152290 129696 124745 166800 164023  
Girls       73743 73941 62706 59852 79645 78953  
Entered in 5 class         148748 147571 125914 122268 162565  
Girls         72816 72289 60254 58252 77645  
Entered in 6 class           142747 143116 123482 117506  
Girls           70955 68454 58795 55282  
Entered in 7 class             138414 139536 118463  
Girls             67126 65848 55869  
Entered in 8 class               132364 134087  
Girls               62923 62542  
Entered in 9 class                 124759 75.4
Girls                 58399 72

Source: Ministry of Education

The given table testifies that those pupils accepted in 1990 - 91, 1991 - 92 academic years, up to 5 classes made almost 90%, and girls - from 85 up to 90%. Graduation of cohort 1990 - 91 academic years from 9 classes has made in 1998 - 99 academic years 75.4%, and gradiation of girls at a level 72%. These figures have improved in the last few years as a result of the establishment of peace and stability in the country. For example, reach of cohort, accepted in 1992 - 93 and 1993 - 94 academic years, up to 5 classes has made in 1996 - 97 years 94,8 %, and in 1997 - to 98 years - 95,0 %, and reach of girls from this cohort is expressed accordingly 95,0 % and 92,1 %. The deterioration of parameters during the reporting period in comparison with the previous period is a result of the consequences of civil war, instability, economic crisis, large-scale by movement of the population, and also increased direct expenses placed on the family for education combined with the sharp reduction of central financing of the education system, as well as the deteriorating conditions at schools.

The preservation of former levels of access to education will require considerable efforts and investments of means by the Government. In particular, the reconstruction of damaged and destroyed schools and educational facilities, as well as construction of new schools especially in rural districts are necessary. At the moment, one factor impacting the number of students coming to school is the lack of transportation from remote villages. Previously, any student living more than 3 kilometers from the school was provided free transportation, at the expense of local authorities and state enterprises (collective farms, state farms). This is no longer feasible, due to lack of financial and transportational means. However, the resolution of this problem depends not only on the state but the citizenry as well. Participation in education is determined not only by state policy and legislation, but also cultural traditions, prospect of reception of work, and the personal attitudes of the people. It is noted that the children from needy families cannot attend school in winter due to the lack of footwear and warm clothes, and the parents are not capable to help to the children. Moreover the astable conditions in a number of regions of the country during the last years have brought in easing state institutes (djamoats on a village, housing managements, establishment of statistics and so on), children conducting the account of school age, their communications with pedagogical collectives of schools. In this connection there is the sharp necessity of realization though single monitoring for determination of real scope of the children of school age in regions of republic. This work will entail require financial expenses and the input of several experts, and is possible only with the support of international organizations.

Taking into account actuality of scope by training of the children of school age and maintenance of safety cohort of the pupils, the Government annually regularly considers the given question and determines particular measures. The Ministry of Education carries out the constant control for scope of the children by training and safety cohort of the pupils. So, since 1996 data concerning these questions and a summary material on the country and in a section of regions with the practical recommendations are annually generalized are directed to local bodies of education department. In 1997 - 98 educational years on the given question a series of measures in areas, cities and regions of the country was spent, that promoted activization of work of administrations of schools, attraction of attention of a public and association of efforts of state bodies and public organizations in attraction to training greater number of the children of school age. In the last years local and international NGOs have paid considerable attention to children staying outside of schools.

The Working Group reviewing the materials collected for this National Report concluded that in the post-conflict period, the majority of work implemented to attract children to study was through school-feeding programmemes and the restoration of school buildings. Since 1996 Save the Children/USA and Save the Children Fund/UK have been very active in Kurgan-Tyube zone of Khatlon area. Similarly, over several years, ORA International’s activities have focused on training of ill children and orphans. Local NGOs such as "Children, Refugees and Vulnerable Citizens", "Society and Child’s Rights", and "Adabsaro" in Dushanbe have carried out projects with the support of international agencies since 1997, aimed at training street children and children from needy families. The Ministry of Education and the local bodies of the Education Department have strong cooperation with non-governmental organizations and assist in their charitable activity.

In post-conflict Tajikistan, a serious problem has arisen, concerning the growing number of the orphans and homeless children, demanding acceptance of cardinal economic and political measures on the part of government and other organizations. So, according to an assessment made by UNICEF in 1995, the number of orphans and homeless children, living without trusteeship and charge, was 60,000. Although these figures require classification, specification and legal substantiation concerning the actual status of the person, nevertheless the results indicate the true state of affairs in this regard.

The Ministry of Education and its local structures have accepted local state authority’s specific measures for the establishment, training and education of these children at boarding schools and orphanages. In the last two years in the country more than ten boarding schools for orphans have opened. However, to ensure placement of all needy children in boarding schools in order to receive the necessary training and education obviously is not possible. As statistical data testify, 30,700 orphans are registered in 24 regions of Khatlon area alone. To provide the necessary for them would require the creation of more than 150 boarding schools (200 students each), which is impossible under the current economic conditions.

The boarding schools and orphanages nowadays suffer serious difficulties from limited financing. They are supported from humanitarian assistance and international charitable funds, which partially solves some problems. However, with the reduction of the social programmes the basic key issues remain unsolved. It has been more than five years since these establishments received centralized state assistance, which used to consist of food, clothes, footwear, educative- methodical manuals and equipment, and other items for the well-being of the children.

In this connection one of the priority options to this problem is adoption. However, the families which accept the responsibility of taking care of the children, including an education, require economic support.

Tajikistan faces the growing problem of street children, the number of which in post-conflict years has appreciably increased and is becoming a serious social problem. Also of great urgency are the problems faced by refugee children, returning to Tajikistan after years out of the system. In 1997 - 98 academic years in Khatlon area 4,190 children refugees of school age were entered into schools, with special programmemes aimed at recuperating the lost study time and experience, while also helping them reintegrate into the student body. However they require additional help and care.

Modern Tajikistan, despite civil war, public-political crisis and migration of the population, remains a multi-national state. It requires the adequate approach on the part of the state to address the issues of preservation of the national and linguistic heritage of minorities in the Republic. Practically the speech goes how to live in the world, in the consent and mutual understanding. Education both bringing up of children and youths is a major direction in this question. And the degree of access to education for all is in many respects determined by the answer to the given question.

According to such international legal acts, as the Convention on the Children’s Rights


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