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(1989), Convention on the Struggle Against Discrimination in the Field of Education (UNESCO, 1960), and also the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minority (1992) minorities have the integral right to preserve their ethnic origins, including schooling in their national, cultural and linguistic environment at all educational levels. This is a priority for functioning national schools.

State guarantees of RT in maintenance of these rights are the appropriate articles and rules of the Constitution, Law "About Education" and Concept of national school. Under National school we have to understand an educational institution as the centre of national, cultural, spiritual, moral and intellectual education of the person, training which is conducted in the native language. The programmes are oriented on profound knowledge by the pupils of their cultural and historical legacy, and in technologies of education ideas, tradition and achievement of national pedagogics are widely used. Thus, compound components of national school include:

By the beginning of 1998 - 99 academic years classes was conducted in Tajik, Uzbek, Russian, Kyrgz and Turkmeni languages. The basic language groups are Tajik, Uzbek and Russian. From 3,420 comprehensive schools, education in Tajik is conducted at 2147 schools, in Uzbek at 1081, in Russian and mixed languages at 144, in Kyrgyz at 41, and in Turkmeni at 7 schools. After the collapse of the USSR and establishment of state independence in former allied republics, appreciable moving of population to their ethnic state occurred. As a consequence, the reduction of national schools and pupils was observed. (see Table 16)

Table 16

  On begining 1991/92 On begining 1995/96
  Quantity % quantity %
Total 1 305 119   1 308 748  
Tadjik 881 262 67.5 932 367 71.3
Uzbek 315 913 24.2 325 559 24.9
Russian 89 115 6.8 34 282 2.6
Kyrgiz 14 657 1.1 13 300 1
Turkmen 4 122 0.3 3 240 0.2
Kazakh 50 0.01 - -

Source: Ministry of Education

Comparison of data from the beginning of 1991 - 1992 academic year with data from 1984 - 85 academic years shows that the amount of students in classes taught in Russian decreased almost on 20 %. In 1993 this figure has increased much more. It is connected first of all to the tendency of outflow of the Russian Population out of the Republic.

The given tables show that from the total of 1 308 748 pupils in 1995 - 96 academic years, 932 367 (71,3 %), were trained in Tajik, 325 559 (24,9 %) in Uzbek, 34 282 (2,6 %) in Russian, 13 300 (1,0 %) in Kyrgyz, and 3 240 (0,2 %) in Turkmeni. Alongside with that, in the last years, an identical level of a percentage ratio and the absolute gain of quota learning at schools with Tajik and Uzbek languages of training has been maintained. Nor has there been observed a strong divergence of quota of pupils being taught in Kyrgyz and Turkmeni languages, although there has been a reduction in the amount of students observed. We believe that with complete stabilization of political conditions in the country and the return of refugees to places of former residing, enrolment in Kyrgyz and Turkmeni schools by the pupils will reach former levels.

By contrast, Russian schools and classes have experienced the opposite, with the quota of pupils in comparison with 1991 - 92 academic years indicating a sharp decrease.

Analyzing the conditions of national school through a prism of the new approach and definitions stated above, it is necessary to ascertain that in the Republic there was one national type of school: Tajik, Uzbek, Russian, Kyrgyz and Turkmen. Today it is possible to speak only about formed components of national school, as by the only difference between them is the language of instruction. Each national school, whether it be Uzbek, Russian and so on, can become united, and national, and informational and bringing up centre of the people in case of deep knowledge by the pupils cultural - historical legacy of a nation. This requires the development of specific educational materials, and broad introduction in the process of training of both traditions and achievement of national pedagogics.

At the moment, the national schools of the Republic carry out the educational process on the basis of the adapted educational plans and programmes of the ethnic origins of minorities and additional inclusion in them of components of the national standard of secondary education of Tajikistan (Tajik language, history and geography of Tajikistan and other). However the updating of educational plans in this connection is not always possible. There is not enough precise structure of the educational plan of national school, its scientific substantiation and optimum parity between this or that components of the educational plan. Largely these problems are due to the fact that in the Republic there doesn't exist in a uniform way a scientific-methodical centre on problems of national schools. Simlarly, centralized sources of information on problems of national schools such as journals or magazines, which would direct their activity, generalized advanced pedagogical experience and other sources of information are lacking.

The preparation of pedagogical staff occurs in two ways: in pedagogical high schools of the Republic and in the states of the teachers’ ethnic origin (i.e. Russia, Uzbekistan, etc.). In the last years there were large difficulties in preparing teachers in other countries for schools in Tajikistan, as Tajikistan was unable to cover the expenses of their training, and the host countries, except the Kyrgyz Republic, could not cover the costs themselves. Therefore at national schools there is a large shortage of teachers and first of all under the native language, literature, history and other is available. The needs for the pedagogical staff for schools with Russian and Uzbek languages of training in basic are provided by high schools of Tajikistan; and Kyrgyz and Turkmen languages of training is through the high schools of these states. The system for increasing teachers’ qualifications requires significant updating, in view of the new quality of national schools as a result of the change of curricula and the introduction of national pedagogics. The Republic’s system for increase of qualifications is not able to independently solve the whole complex of problems. Therefore, it is necessary go on a way as the invitations of the qualified experts from the countries near abroad, and target passage by the teachers of national schools of courses of improvement of qualification in the states ethnic origin.

In conditions of formation and development of state independence of Tajikistan a problem of non-Tajik population (Uzbek, Russian, Kyrgyz and Turkmen and so on), passing in the category of national minority, get qualitatively other level and demand the new state approaches. By the major tool of preservation and development national - cultural and language environment of these peoples, determining condition of preservation and development multimeasuring national - cultural space of Tajikistan act educational establishment.

Under the current conditions, it is very important to define areas of competence and responsibility of state institutes and bodies of self-management of national minorities concerning the development of national schools. It is necessary to develop joint cooperation of bodies of management by the education system with national communities and associations.

The new approach to defining the concept of "the national school" and its functional problems, and also account of a real situation, usual in education system RT, put forward on the first plan qualitative updating of the contents of education by all-round use of variety of culture, spiritual and historical affinity of the peoples, populated Tajikistan. We should aspire to in educational process of schools values, bringing together the peoples, instead of value, informations, dividing them were actively included. At the same time the inclusion of the pupils in sphere national originality and cultural legacy should come true at all stages and steps of education, and at stages of pre-school education and initial training it is necessary to them to give the status priority. Alongside with it, stage by stage and on an increasing degree in the contents of education, study of culture and the history of Tajik and other peoples of Tajikistan, CIS countries and world should be included.Each step of school is called to carry out the specific functions on formation of the child’s personality on the basis of a principle through national to world culture and is scientific - technical progress.

Formation of educative – bringing up process at national schools expediently to carry out on the basis of the educational plans, including the following components:

Such structure of the educational plan demands a substantiation and definition of an optimum parity between all its components. Development of the person, revealing of her/his individual peculiarities, creation of conditions for development of abilities should become a basis for determination of criteria by this optimum. Thus it is necessary to be guided by the international standards of education.

Limited part of educational-bringing up complex should become out-school education and training, carried out by means of activity of various clubs, centres, groups, theatres, studios and so on in view of national specifity. Creation of conditions for adaptation of national schools to new reality and the maintenance of their stability of functioning is the basic purpose on transition period. The realization of this purpose depends from legal, programme - methodical, personnel, financial, financially - technical and scientific - informational maintenance.

Prime problem is maintenance of national schools by the educational programmes, textbooks and other educational - methodical literature, that will require preparation of a package of the offers in this direction. Realization of this problem is planned to carry out on the basis of the Agreement on cooperation in the field of education between the state-participants of CIS and bilateral agreements between the states. In the plan of realization of a component of state standard of education in Tajikistan is rather sharp there is the problem of study Tajik language at schools with other language of training for the lack of effective techniques, textbooks and other means of training.

By independent and urgent direction creation of system acts is scientific - information maintenance of activity of national schools. It is possible on a way of creation is scientific - methodical division on problems of national schools on base SRIPS and edition of the appropriate magazines.

The questions of financing and financially - technical maintenance of national schools will come true at the expense of the state budget, including on the basis of the special articles for preservation and development of culture of national minority. As budget and financially - financial sources special funds of development, formed by various national communities, the associations and public associations, can act. The special article financially - financial support can make receipts of the countries of ethnic native land of national minority.

Creation such intergrated structure of national schools is in the long term planned which completely satisfied national-educative requirement of all ethnic groups, living in Tajikistan. It will be possible with the assistant of development NG types of national schools, the founders of which can be national communities, private persons and so on.

After proclaim of independence of the country, acceptance of the Law RT " About Education " and the Concepts of national school have immeasurably increased volumes of work on development new and processing of the old textbooks and educational - methodical literature for all educational levels, acceleration of their edition on state (Tajik) language. It is in essence the basic and key direction in reformation the education system of the country.

The Ministry of Education, realizing the responsibility, undertakes all necessary measures under the decision of the given problem. In the last years is prepared or completely a large part of the textbooks, educational - methodical literature for a comprehensive school is advanced, and on other planned work proceeds. At the moment more than 50 names of the textbooks are handed to publishing house "Maorif" of Ministry of culture.

However annually the orders of Ministry of Education for the edition of the educational literature are not carried out for the lack of a paper and other polygraphic resources, though in the country are available necessary typographical capacity for printing the textbooks (see Table 17).

Table 17

Issue school educational - methodical literature in the Republic of Tajikistan

Academic years The request of Ministry of Education Issued     Not issued  
  Q-ty of names Copies in mln. Q-ty of names Copies in mln. % Q-ty of names Copies in mln.
1990-91 65 4.9 60 4.7 84.4 5 0.765
1991-92 79 6.7 47 3.3 49.1 32 3.4
1992-93 53 5.6 28 2.6 46.5 25 2.9
1993-94 48 4.3 19 1 24 29 3.2
1994-95 50 5.5 15 0.84 15.2 35 4.6
1996-97 47 4.1 21 1.1 28.4 26 2.9
1997-98 44 3.8 1 0.95 1.2 43 3.8
Total for 7 years 386 35.1 191 13.2 37.5 185 21.9

Source: Ministry of Education

In result at schools of the country there was the disturbing situation: sharp lack of the textbooks and other means of training is everywhere felt, new in due time and in the necessary quantity are not issued, and the old textbooks (though under the contents do not correspond to the present requirements) are strongly worn out and are unsuitable to use. Certainly, such development of events complicates functioning schools, has negatively an effect for qualitative realization of the state educational programmes, conducts to decrease of quality of a level of training and fall common literacy of our pupils. All this can bring in future in deterioration of quality of human resources. Other problem is connected to finishing of the textbooks up to the pupils.

The most urgent is the maintenance by the textbooks and other means of training of learning national schools. The former mechanism of scheduled delivery of the textbooks from ethnic countries does not now work, moreover in some of them the alphabets are changed and is entered of the latin diagram. A unique way - edition of these textbooks in Tajikistan or their purchase, that demands the large state investments.

Therefore the Ministry of Education has developed the mechanism of rent use of the textbooks through school libraries, that will enable to use the textbooks during three - four years, and parents to get the textbooks for a small sum on favourable terms.

The decision of the given problem is not possible without the external investments. The edition 50 names of the basic textbooks of general circulation 5 mln. copies for maintenance of a minimum of need 1 - 11 classes of schools of republic will require financial assets in volume 6 mln. american dollars. Since 1998 at support of UNICEF the Project under the edition 11 names of the textbooks for initial classes is begun, 18 names of the textbooks 5 - 9 classes are stipulated in innovation - education Project of World Bank, the realization of which will begin since 2000. Work on mobilization of internal resources is conducted. However any suspention of the decision of the given problem can negatively have an effect (and already has an effect) for quality of education. Such fact, certainly, will weaken stimulus of reception of education, will limit opportunities of access to education.

Factor of scope and level of access to education qualities of received education do not usually reflect directly. The children can be recorded in school, but not regularly to attend it. Or can attend, but the quality of teaching can be so low, that "access" to the present education in genuine meaning of this word will not be. As in transition period the school with each year is worsened, the qualitative structure of the pedagogical staff is reduced, is sharp there are no enough textbooks and financings of education.

When we speak about quality of education in post-soviet time, frequently in a certain measure we embellish a true situation of businesses. Speaking about achievement of education system in last, it is not necessary to overlook that fact, that in teaching subjects the approach prevail, when the basic attention was given to mastering of the items of information and facts. In result poorly developped functional literacy, ability of the children to carry out problems, with which the person should collide in daily life, including on a working place, in varied the world. Now only the knowledge of subjects, included in the educational plan, cannot satisfy neither person, nor society. In this connection before school there was the problem of change of the forms and methods of training of the pupils.

Original reaction on this inquiry there was the search of ways of updating of school, contents and methods of education, occurrence of new types of schools, application of the diverse educational programmes and educational plans.

In education system of Tajikistan in the last years there were the new types of education establishments: lycees, gymnasiums, colleges, boarding-schools for the gifted children. The school is obliged to prepare the preconditions that each schoolboy irrespective of age has displayed the abilities, talent and developped as the person. Mostly this is promoted the contents of education, by the forms and methods of training. The contents of education in new types of schools differs by that induces interest of the pupils to knowledge, forms skill independently to conceive, freely to state the attitude to the laws of a nature and public life, creates as much as possible favorable conditions for development of abilities and talents.

The Ministry of Education of Republic of Tajikistan in the last years undertook a number of measures on revealing gifted youth. In particular, with the purpose of definition of quality of the gifted children in all PED, it of cities and regions were dispatched the instructions, methodical development. According to the developed instructions annually at schools of republic competitions of the schoolboys in educational subjects will be carried out and victors of competitions - gifted children come to light. The gifted youth also comes to light by realization competitions " the Young chemists ", " the Young physics " and " the Young mathematicians ", " the Connoisseurs of the rights " and other.

In republic for the gifted pupils new types of schools are open: republican lycee – boarding-school for the gifted children, Tajik - turkey lycee, gymnasiums, lycee under high schools, colleges, experimental school in Dangara region and other. The gifted children participate in International trials, in the programme Bredly of an information centre of America "ACCELS".

In republic, the amount of schools of a new type (lycees, gymnasiums, private lycee and gymnasium) with each year grows, and it is one of parameters of fulfilment of the Concept of national school. In 1996 - 97 academic years in republic function 44 schools of a new type, out of them - 12 gymnasiums and 32 lycees with scope 11 350 pupils.

Besides in republic classes with profound study of group of subjects and 4 pre-school lycee were organized. In 1997 - 98 academic years at state pedagogical university after named K. Dzhuraev was open lycee, in which 250 gifted children and gymnasium at Technological university are trained. In ??????? are open 3 experimental lycees, in which are trained 2 163 pupils.

With the purpose of revealing gifted youth in current to a year competition in the basic educational subjects is spent, in which 140 000 schoolboys participated, from them 370 pupils have reached before the fourth round, and 144 pupils of steel by the victors of republican competition. Under the initiative of Ministry of Education RT many comprehensive schools have passed on differential training. Now in republic 320 schools work on a technique differential training. These schools should work under the special programmes. For them also drawing up of the textbooks and education - methodical manuals is necessary.

It is necessary to note, that to today new types of schools (lycees,gymnasiums, boarding-schools for the gifted children) and those schools, which work according to differential educational plans, are not supplied by the educational programmes, textbooks and educative - methodical manuals.

By the decree of the President RT ? 256 of May 24, 1995 and according to it by the order of Ministry of Education ? 22-0 of June 6, 1995 in Dushanbe was open republican lycee – boarding-school for the gifted children. Lycees – boarding-school works on three structures: public - humanitarian, it is natural - mathematical and chemical - biological.

In 1997 in lycee-boarding-school is enlisted 550 pupils from Dushanbe, Kulyab, Pendjikent, Kofarnikhon and Aini, Pyandzh, Kumsangir, Vakhsh, Kabadiyan and other regions. Republican lycee - boarding-school cooperates with many high schools of the country, scientists of Academy of sciences and small Academy of sciences.

In 1997 - 98 academic years in Leninabad area function 12 gymnasiums and 11 lycees. From 419 374 trainees of the schools of area 6 668 schoolboys (1,6 %) were trained in gymnasiums and 2 578 (0,61 %) in lycees. In area was 36 gymnasiums’ and 22 lycees’ class. The amount trainees in commercial schools made 476 and private - 599 persons. As a whole on area at schools of a new type was trained 15 632 pupils, which make 3,72 % of general number of the schoolboys.

Gymnasiums and lycees in basic are established in town and the greater amount them is in Dushanbe and Leninabad area. In rural districts on republic are available 2 gymnasiums and 7 lycees. The amount of the pupils in gymnasiums in a village - 53 schoolboys, and in lycees 915. In 1998 - 99 academy years total of schools of a new type on republic makes 56, in them is trained 16 994 pupils, from them in gymnazims is trained 7 544 (44,4 %) learning and in lycee 9 450 (55,6 %).

In the initial stage (1990 - 1994 years) at establishment of similar schools was not inverted of due attention to the status of these educative establishments and contents of education in them. In the subsequent years after intervention of Ministry of Education a part from these schools because of discrepancy to the assignment were abolished and consequently statistical data, submitted from regions, in quantitative aspect do not sometimes correspond to the normative documents and are incomplete.

At schools of profound study of various subjects 23 193 schoolboys, from them in towns 14 479 schoolboys and in rural district 8 714 are trained.

The Government of Republic mostly gives attention to attraction of the gifted children from needy families on all regions of the country. With the purpose of development cognitive interest of the gifted children Small Academy of sciences was established, and its graduates have the privileges at receipt in high schools of the country. It is necessary to note, that on faculty of psychology of National State university since 1991 the laboratory of diagnostics and training of the gifted children is functioned, the purpose of which is determination of a level of development of thinking of the pupils. On the basis of the recommendations of the given faculty is organized differential training at schools of republic.

By Ministry of Education RT according to the Law " About Education " is developed and adopted the Rule about externate and republican competitions, that enables gifted youth to display the maximum individuality in training and education. The Ministry of Education also develops a Rule about diagnostics and definition of criteria of the gifted children, where the basic requirements to definition of concept talanted, criterion of its definition and condition of their formation are stated.

For further development of new types of schools and the displays of care about gifted youth are necessary for creating centre, where it would be possible to develop psycological - pedagogical criteria of definition talanted and to develop methodical bases of training of the gifted children. Also it is necessary to create laboratory of diagnostics of intellectual development, where the intellectual tests on definition of a level of development of thinking of the schoolboys and model of training adequate cognitive abilities of the gifted children would be developed. Expansion of a network of schools of a new type and efficiency of their activity should be determined by the uniform national programme of work with gifted youth.

Alongside with formal education system in expansion of base education and training other important abilities and skills, perfection of cognitive achievement of the children and adults other state institutes and mass media bring in also the contribution. So, under the initiative of Committee on youth at Government RT in 1998 in Pendjikent the competition " the Schoolboy of a year ", Kurgan - ???? the competition " Personal interest ", " Youth and trades ", in Zafarabad region competition " the Best trade " were carried out, in which 1070 pupils participated. Youth - Cultural Centre "Oriyono" is created -, where studio of creative youth was organized. The given studio has carried out more than 25 concerts in towns and regions of Leninabad area, in which participated about 10 000 youth. The committee will carry out round tables, seminars, conference for youth on various cognitive problems.

The Ministry of Culture has a wide network of educative establishments. At the moment in republic there are 70 children's musical schools, in which is trained 10 000 pupils. At 24 children's art schools is trained more than 2 000 pupils, at 6 children's schools of arts more than 1000 children. At the specified schools 1100 teachers are engaged by teaching activity.

In 1996 number children - youthful sporting schools (DCYSS) Committee on sport and physical culture RT has made - 108, in them by various kinds of sport (wrestling, track and field athletics, football, boxing, water kinds of sport and other) were trained - 28 200 persons, in 1997 in 94 DCYSS the number engaging has made 27 370 persons, in 1998 in 96 DCYSS the number engaging has made - 27 370 persons.

Committee of the women and family on the basis of the contract about cooperation with NGO a Bureau " Woman in development " opend the Centre of education and training, the purpose of which consists creation of training course on the computer, English language, book keeping and other. At the expense of the investment of the foreign states under the programme of this Centre 63 women and girls in Dushanbe and 60 in Leninskiy region and GBAO passed courses of foreign language, book keeping, rights and training on the computer.

Under the offer of the Ministry of nature and Ministry of Education in 1996 was developed and State programme of ecological education and education of the population RT till 2000 and on period till 2010 " is adopted by Government RT " which contains special Section on ecological education and education of the pupils and students. According to data of the Ministry of Nature today more than 80 % of the population of republic is covered by ecological education and education through a mass media. Only for period 1998 - 1999 years by ministry was organized 131 performances on the radio and is spent more than 60 of cycles of transmissions and performances on TV on ecological education theme.

Committee the radio and TV at Government RT in the transmissions will constantly carry out education work on improvement of a level of knowledge and bringing up of school youth. Among diverse transmissions, comes out in an ether an important role transmission "Navnikhol" plays which comes out in an ether since 1992 and directly is devoted to the children of school age. Other educative transmission -" Furugi Oriyono ", existing since 1993, in which lessons of English language are conducted. This transmission comes out in an ether 6 times in a week on 15 minutes. The transmission of Tajik radio "Marifat" ("Education"), created in November 1996, comes out 2 times in a week on 30 minutes. In this transmission the basic large attention pays to cooperation of family and school, reform of education, to problems trainees, scope of the children by training,. In transmissions constantly participate the chiefs of Ministry of Education of Republic, areas, towns and regions, known scientists, teachers and psychologists.

In the last years the number of teenagers and young men, consuming narcotic substance is increased. It makes about 70 % illed with narcotic and consumers narcotic drugs the persons till 25 years. One of measure of struggle against distribution narcotic both prevention and use teenagers of narcotic drugs are realization of preventive measures.

Agency on the control of narcotic unerd the President RT in 1998 - 1999 has carried out seminars under the name " Preventive Maintenance on narcotic among teenagers " together with NGOs " the Right and Gratitude"," Peculiarity of narcotic influence on female organizm together with NGO "Modar", " a Role of the school organizers in the prevention narcotic effect among the pupils " together with a department of education of Oktyabrskiy region of Dushanbe. Since April 1998 on Tajik TV monthly a telemagazine " From curiosity up to tragedy " is broadcasted, in the Programme "Dzhavoni" of the republican radio monthly there is in an ether the special radiomagazine " Youth of Tajikistan for non-narcotic future ", is widely used a TV and radiomagazines " Inson va Konun " (" the Person and Law "), "Iztirob", "Shifo", "Oila" for explanatory work.

By agency are developed and are let out anti-narcotic poster on Tajik and Russian languages under the name " Az khavaz to fochia " (" From curiosity up to tragedy ") circulation 10 000 copies, three books under the general name "Narcotic" in circulation of 9 thousand of copies and are widespread among trainees comprehensive schools of Dushanbe. Is made 5 anti-narcotic videoclips on Tajik and Russian languages, which are at the moment broadcasted on Tajik TV and TV "Poitakht".

In connection with reformation of school, the expansion of independence educational establishments, deligate a part of the rights by a local body of authority and in order to prevent danger of weaking of education system in transition period occurs necessity of preservation of the control of central bodies for observance of the normative requirements, and also for progress of the pupils and educational level at schools. Therefore special actuality at the given stage gets a problem of a pedagogical basis of check of knowledge, abilities and skills of the pupils, its control form and estimations of knowledge, system transitive and graduate examinations.

At schools of the country by the teachers come true current, the periodic and final forms of the control of an estimation of knowledge, abilities and skills,.Moreover methods are used: the oral control by individual and frontal interrogation, written control - written control work, written tests, laboratory control with use of devices, diverse means of training and method of self-checking, assisting to the schoolboys independent to find the correct answers, to reveal admitted errors. In practice such forms of the control and the estimation as " lessons of integration ", sort offsets are used also, that practises more new types of schools. However teacher of schools is sharp require methodical development and tolls (tasks books, questionnaire, tests and so on) on check and estimation of knowledge and skills of the pupils under the new educational programmes, state standards. As the known forms and the methods of the control require perfection, there is the necessity of introduction of the international requirements and mechanisms of research of efficiency of education.

Before Ministry of education a forthcoming decade there is the problem of creation of mechanisms of systematic quality checks of education. Special services on interrogations, on realization of formal checks and estimation of a general condition of progress at a national level, and also research centres on these problems in Universities should in future be organized. The decision of the given problem would speed up entry Tajikistan in system of International estimations and would allow to order the internal information (data at a national level, on regions, on schools) and to ensure readiness of Ministry of Education to give the information to Parlament, Government, public and International organizations, that is external, international sub-report.

Unfortunately, the creation of such centre or divisions in Tajikistan is at the moment unreal because of an economic situation. At support UNESCO and other International organizations the decision of the given problem in nearest of a year is possible.

Alongside with it, we believe, more effective to provide purchase of knowledge and development of the children, it is necessary to carry out the following changes:

  1. To develop the diverse school programmes, essentially by reconsidering the current educational programmes, and also development the educational plans especially in the senior classes;
  2. To develop and to introduce the mechanism of definition of ability of the schoolboys and to apply differential approach;
  3. It is necessary to reconsider structure post-compulsory education.

The problem of personnel maintenance of education system is urgent, as on development education establishments depends (on the one hand) development of the system and societies as a whole. Taking into account it, irrespective of crisis conditions in the country GOVERNMENT of republic and Ministry of education give large attention to a question of preparation of the pedagogical staff and becoming their professionalizm.

The general number of the teachers for October 1, 1998 makes 94 900 persons. From them 40 593 (43,2 %) make the women. In 80 -ies years this figure made 34 % (see Table 18).

Table 18

Number of teachers by educational level

Education level 1991-total 95022 teachers % 1998-total 94 900 teachers
High 75 61205-64.5%
Not full high 5.20 4602-4.8%
Secondary special 2.50 19424-20.4%
Also: Secondary pedagogical 14.50 16062-17.0%
Secondary general 2.80 9669-10.2%

Source: Ministry of Education

The facts show, that since 1991 in present time the number of the teachers of the women, teachers with special secondary and secondary pedagogical, and also with secondary general education has increased. Thus the general number of the teachers in 1998 in comparison since 1991 has decreased: with high education on 10,5 % and with incomplete high education on 0,4 %, and has increased with secondary special - on 17,9 %, secondary pedagogical - on 2,5 %, general secondary education- on 7,4 %. Especially the appreciable reduction of the teachers with high education is observed in Khatlon area - on 11 %, Leninabad - 7,6 %, GBAO - 15,6 %, regions of republican subordination - 24,9 % and in Dushanbe - 5,1 %.

The number of the pedagogical staff in basic has increased at the expense of those persons, which have not pedagogical secondary special education and secondary general education. Some supervision show, that it is possible these figures can be and more.

At the moment in initial classes of comprehensive schools of the country 41 130 teachers work, from them 22 688 have high, 1 513 - incomplete high, 11 116 - secondary special and 5 813 (14,1 %) - secondary general education (at a level 11 classes). As a whole complete the teachers of primary classes in account 1 class on 1 teacher makes 95,8 %, and complete the teachers with academic education makes 80 %. At the same time pedagogical colleges and the schools do not annually carry out the plans of reception (see Table 19).

Table 19

Data on reception and graduation of pupils from pedagogical colleges and schools







bringing up


Plan of reception



Plan of reception













































Source: Ministry of Education

With the purpose of maintenance of comprehansive schools with tutors on places yearly courses under the accelerated programme for finishing high school are organized. It not the decision of a question, but compelled measure.

In 1998 in Khatlon area in primary classes worked 4 168 (14,3 %) teachers with general secondary education, and in regions of republican subordination - 3 331 (17,0 %). The number of the teachers of singing, representational art, plotting and physical culture on republic makes 10 700 person. In 1991 them was 11 435 person, 50 % from them had high education.

Number of the directors of schools in republic 3 501 persons, that is they make 3,7 % of general number of the teachers of republic. From them in an comprahansive school 773 (22 %), basic 820 (23 %) and secondary 1 928 (55 %) person. In the latter case in number of the directors basic and the high schools are included also the directors of boarding-schools. 144 (13 %) directors of secondary schools have secondary special education and 88 (11,3 %) secondary. 19 (2,3 %) directors of the basic schools work with secondary special education and 8 (0,9 %) with secondary.

The number of the assistants of the directors of schools makes 3 987 (4,2 %) of general number of the teachers of republic. From them at the basic schools work 760 (19 %), in secondary 3 227 (80 %). 58 (1,4 %) from them have secondary special education, and 80 (2 %) secondary general.

In years of instability and because of heavy economic conditions many teachers have abandoned schools, large vacancies were formed. In this connection in 1995 - 1997 for teaching at schools become to be involved the students of the senior rates, that brought in interruption of educational process graduates of high schools. It is reflected in quality of knowledge and skills of the future teachers. In 1995 was involved -3 390 students, in 1996 - 3 398.

Taking into account sharp shortage of the experts in separate branches of a national economy of republic and with the purposes of rational use graduates of high and secondary special educational institutions the Government RT has accepted the Resolution ? 406 of July 12, 1995 " About some measures on improvement of use of the young experts upon termination of high and secondary special educational institutions ". In the performance of this Resolution the Ministry of Education has issued the order ? 175 of September 14, 1995 " About attraction graduates of high educational institutions of a pedagogical structure to pedagogical work ".

Agrees of this order the young experts, finishing at the expense of means of the state budget day time branches of high and secondary special pedagogical educational institutions, are obliged to work according to assignment of a commission on personal distribution and direction of Ministry of Education no less than three years.

This temporary new provision of work order, which was legalized by the Resolution of Government and Order of Ministry ofm education, has a little bit ordered a situation of maintenance of the staff and promoted improvement of organization educative – bringing up work at schools of separate regions.

Nevertheless the negative facts of absence of the young experts on personal distribution take place. Checks of activity of pedagogical high schools and pedagogical schools (from February 6 to February 14, 1996) has shown, that from 1 320 graduates 628 not to the profit to places of distribution. In 1997 according to the information of Management of the staff of Ministry of Education requirement in the pedagogical staff has made 10 466 person. This year the Ministry of Education has directed at disposal of Departments of national education of areas, cities and regions 4 378 experts with high and secondary special education, that a coverlet less than 50 % from requirement. At the same time from them only 2 231 have acted to work at schools.

In 1998 requirement for the experts made 11 539 person, that is on 1 093 person it is more, than in 1997. In some areas, towns and regions the requirement for the pedagogical staff still remains high. In particular, need in tutors in Leninabad area made -1 819 persons, in Tursunzade region -261 persons, and in 1998 - 1999 academic year this figure increased in Leninabad area on 750 and Tursunzade region on 172.

It is necessary to note, that on 1999 - 2000 under the forecasts of Ministry of Education in republic is not enough 11 292 teachers. From them in Khatlon area - 4 424 (39,1 %), Leninabad area - 2 268 (20,0 %), GBAO - 643 (5,7 %), in Dushanbe - 511 (4,5 %), in Leninskiy - 659 (5,8 %), Gissar - 454 (4,0 %) and Garm regions - 450 (3,9 %) and etc..

If to consider lack of the pedagogical staff in subjects, is found out, that on republic there are no enough teachers of primary classes - 1 611 (14,2 %), English language - 1 102 (9,7 %), Russian language and literature - 1 025 (9,0 %), mathematicians - 879 (7,8 %), Tajik language and literature - 877 (7,8 %), chemistry and Biology - 719 (6,3 %), history - 675 (6,0 %) and physics - 601 (5,3 %) (see Table 20).

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