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Table 20

Need for the teacher's from 1999 – 2000 by regions of the country

Name of subjects On Republic On Khatlon area On Leninabad area GBAO Dushanbe Hissar Leninskiy Kofarnikhon
Tajik and literature 877 339 203 52 28 40 37 14
Russian and literature 1025 333 284 42 11 55 92 33
English 1102 394 239 82 100 40 70 19
Mathema-tics 879 336 198 46 25 34 60 17
Physics 604 233 131 35 21 23 28 11
Chemists 719 276 157 49 80 25 46 8
History 675 278 174 48 22 14 43 9
Primary classes 1611 743 164 58 36 45 125 105

Source: Ministry of Education

For maintenance in future education establishments of Republic by the pedagogical staff it is necessary to develop the state programme of preparation of the pedagogical staff, providing reorganization of structure of pedagogical high schools and colleges, change of existing specialities; ensuring increase of a wages, social protection of the teachers and their social status. In Ministry of Education the work in this direction already is begun.

Structural division, closely connected to a comprehensive school, and one of decisive parts of education of growing up generation are out-of-school-school establishment. Main problem of out-of-school establishments is creation of conditions for intellectual development of the children, satisfaction of their interests and spiritual inquiries, propensities and talents in various areas of a science, engineering, literature, art, physical culture both sport. The structure and establishments of out-of-school work create conditions for specification by the pupils vital , interests, for display, development, strenghtening of abilities, will, opportunities in an elected kind of activity.

As against training and education at schools the basic principle of construction of occupations in out-of-school establishments has applied character. Children of the group make various products, design and model, study games, rehearse and execute stages from performances, draw pictures, write the scripts of parties, holidays and will carry out them, that is embody knowledge received by them and skills aquired by them in direct public useful businesses. In 1990 in education system of Republic function 113 out-of-school establishments. In the same acadmic year by group’s work was covered 8,2 % from a general quota of the schoolboys. Since 1992 - 1995 years for the objective and subjective reasons recession of scope of the schoolboys up to 1,5 % from total of the schoolboys was felt.

In 1996 the structure of out-of-school establishments was reorganized and from this period beginning the tendency of growth in scope of the children by out-of-school measures is observed. At the moment in education system of Republic functions 66 out-of-school establishments, including: 58 centres of out-of-school bringing up work, 5 stations of young technician and 3 stations of young naturalist. In them works 1 436 groups, from them: 230 groups of technical creativity, 80 groups of the young tourists, 182 groups of young naturalist, 440 groups of art creativity, 104 sporting section and 400 other directions.

In out-of-school establishments of Republic 45 703 pupils, from them in groups of technical creativity - 7 129, young naturalist - 5 773, tourist structure - 2 841, art direction - 14 842, sporting - 2 424 and other - 12 694 are occupated. Thus, on Republic in 1998 - 99 academic years by system of additional education is covered 45 703 persons or 3,2 % of the schoolboys (source: State Statistical Agency).

In out-of-school establishments work more than 800 chiefs of groups, 288 (36,0 %) from them with high education, 20 (2,5 %) with unfinished high, 285 (35,5 %) with secondary special and 208 (26,0 %) with secondary general. The majority of the workers of out-of-school establishments, have pedagogical education, the chief of groups have got the skills during work. Other part of the workers is made by the experts without pedagogical education, work have propensity with the children in out-of-school establishments.

For a present day all out-of-school establishment are supplied by the staff, though not all experts have the appropriate qualification on a structure of groups. However it is necessary to note, that today any high and secondary special educational institution does not prepare the experts for work in out-of-school establishment. In connection with necessity of opening groups of national creativity, groups on modern engineering and technology there is the necessity in preparation of the highly skilled experts with target assignment, for that it is required to open branches on faculty of pedagogical universities. Weak financially - technical base not always allows completely to realize present problems and to carry out the necessary educational programmes.

Taking into account further development of Republic as of the independent state, the necessity of increase of intellectual and cultural level of growing up generation, professional orientation is required the special attention to out-of-school establishments. With this purpose it is necessary: a) to develop the programme of measures, ensuring strenghtening financially - technical base, its resourse maintenance and perfection of educational-bringing up process of out-of-school establishments on period till 2010; b) to support the initiatives of rendering of alternate services, development of NG sector of service of the children; to consider questions of increase of the salary of the workers and training of personnel for out-of-school establishments in pedagogical, technical high schools of Republic.

The analysis of a condition educational - material base of education establishments shows, that in the last years it is sharp getting worse. After disintegration of Soviet Union (during the last five years) financially -technical maintenance of education system is practically shown to zero. The education system of Tajikistan has not an own infrastructure (factories, plants, other enterprises, making necessary equipment, furniture, school fittings and means of training), for its needs literally everything was delivered from other countries former USSR. Owing to civil war the situation is much more getting worse, has taken place fast wear and destruction of material base of schools, that worsens conditions of their normal functioning and is reflected in decrease of quality of education.

Till 1991 education establishment were equipped by 47 names of school furniture, 5 sizes. Annually the comprehensive schools received school furniture on replacement failed at the rate of 8 - 10 % from number of the pupils of the first change.

Comprehensive schools in 1990 had educational studies in % the attitude

  Physics   Chemistry   Biology  
  Town Village Town Village Town Village
Secondary schools 94.9 77 94.7 71.7 74.6 43.7
Basic schools 44.4 27.6 22.2 16.2 18.5 10

However and in 90-ies the condition of education - material base and resourse maintenance of education system did not satisfy needs fast growing quota of educational establishments. In this connection in 1991 the Ministry of Education has developed the complex programme on construction and financially - technical maintenance of educational establishments on 1992 - 2005. According to which for 1991 - 1995 should construct of school buildings on 385.7 thousand student's places, actually of school buildings was constructed total on 45.3 thousand student's places. Unfortunately, the further realization of the given programme was interrupted by civil war, economic crisis and it has lost a basis financial and resourse maintenance in conditions of transition to the market attitudes.

Condition of education system of the country, its problem and the difficulties are connected to a low level of economic development, high rates of a natural gain of the population, geographical peculiarity of republic, where 93 % make mountains, approved by constant natural desasters (earthquake, flood) with significant destructive force, dead-lock of economic space.

In RT there is not enough school industry and all educative - evident manuals, means of training, bench equipment, sewing machines, computer facilities, school chalk, school - writing fittings and large part of school furniture were delivered from the CIS countries. Since break of economic connections, non-transfering payments since 1992 delivery them in our country has stopped. The civil war, nature desaster have put significant damage financially - technical base of education system, are destroyed and school buildings on 145 thousand student's places are plundered. More than 159 school buildings require rehabilitation work and complete equipment by furniture, educational equipment, educative - evident manuals. In exchange of 126 destroyed schools construction of new school buildings is necessary.

At all schools the training is conducted in 2 shifts. However, takes place, when at separate schools, because of small capacity, the training is conducted in 3 changes. From total of schools only 840 are constructed under the typical projects, including in urban district 268 schools, other are constructed from local building materials, without centralized water supply and heating. Schools with a draft ceiling, without by weeding, with small windows, weak natural and artificial illumination are available. The elementary schools, place in basic in buildings from 2 - 3 class rooms.

Spent by UNICEF in May 1995 monitoring inspection of educative schools have shown, that from total of visited schools 12 regions Kurgan-Tyube zone, Dangara, Parkhar, Khovaling, Kulyab, Moskovskiy, Muminabad, Nurek, Sovetskiy, Vosey regions of Kulyab zone, eight (Faizabad, Gissar, Kofarnikhon, Leninskiy, Shakhrinav, Varzob, Tursunzade, Tavildara) regions of Republican subardination water supply, heating have:


Kurgan-Tube zone

Kulyab zone



General amount of visited schools





Water supply system

Brought water





From channels





Tip water





From river





Well water





From springs





Without water





Heating supply system

Centralized heating










Electric heating





Without heating





Financially - technical base and in 1999 was not improved, as because of heavy economic situations, post-conflict situation the construction of new schools is conducted by extremely low rates. So, in 1996 was constructed of schools total on 1. 64 thousand student's places, in 1997 - 4. 14 thousand student's places, in 1998 - 3. 28 thousand student's places, in 1999 is planned to enter - 1. 99 thousand student's places.

International organizations render assistance in recovery, rehabilitation of schools damaged from armed conflicts. A little explicitly the contribution of international and non-governmental agencies into the strengthening of educational - material base of schools was marked in Part 1 of the Report.

Despite this the situation with financial - technical and training base of educational institutions is extremely difficult. Now more than 494 secondary schools require big repairing works: the roofs flow, ceilings and floors have rotted or do not exist, the plaster has fallen off, the electric lighting, heating and sanitary system don’t work, there are no window-glasses. The majority of secondary schools have no new educational - visual instruments, devices in the basic educational subjects, the replacement of school furniture is also required.

During preparing of the National Report with the purposes of obtaining the illustrative data about physical condition of school buildings (July, 1999) a monitoring examination of schools of Hissar region was conducted situated 30 kms away from the capital of the country.

From 40 inspected schools, 18 were built on standard projects, 2 in urban places and 16 in the country, 22 schools are situated in appropriate buildings. In schools #28 three educational blocks are in an emergency condition, in the schools #12 and #44 one block respectively. 39 schools require realization of a general and maintenance repairing works, from them in 22 schools the roofs flow and in 17 schools the ceilings have rotted through or they are not present, in all of the schools the glasses partially are absent. 9 schools have heating-houses, which do not work, one school #128 has no any heating at all, 30 schools have bucking furnace heating. As a whole from 135 schools of the Hissar region two schools have the centralized heating, 30 schools have independent (autonomous) heating-houses, 103 - bucking furnace heating. From the tested schools 8 elementary schools have a reserve of fuel for the whole winter season, 7 basic schools for two–three moths, 15 secondary agricultural schools for one-two months.

Except for one school #3, all of the remaining tested schools experience an acute need for school furniture. The available school furniture has not been renewed practically for the last six - seven years, that’s why school desks and other furniture and equipment have an unattractive view. The minimum requirement of furniture on the tested schools makes:

During examination the fact has been discovered, that children irregularly visit those schools, which are not heated or are badly heated in cold seasons, which don’t have electricity, etc. All this gives the basis to think, that the absence of necessary conditions at schools results in reduction of access in obtaining education.

The education in Tajikistan is the largest branch of a social infrastructure, both on number of people employed in it and on a volume of costs. The modern demographic situation in Tajikistan is characterized by the fast growth of the population. For last decade the annual pace of the growth of the population means 1,9 %. Under the preliminary data of the State Statistic Agency the population of Tajikistan in 1998 was 6,1 million from which 1,4 million are students at secondary schools, what makes 23 % from the whole population.

According to particular mission criteria all resources of the education system are divided into the following groups: 85 - 90 % goes on working expenses and 15 - 10 % on a capital investment and capital repairing works.

As the investments in social infrastructure in the other republics of former Soviet Union made during the Soviet time have allowed Tajikistan to reach an educational level among the population, which is comparable with a level reached by countries with moderate income, even though the majority of these investments was the budgetary grants allocated to Tajikistan by the government of the former USSR.

The access to educational institutions of any level was open for the majority of the population both from the point of view of their geographic accessibility and from the point of view of their seats’ capacity (student admittance capacity). The advantages and fruits, which are given to the man by education, are a good reason for steadfast attention of the state to the education system. This incentive promotes economical growth of the country and a higher level of social responsibility of everyone, and also is the doubtless factor of decrease of the crime rate. Unfortunately, in the beginning of 1990s this situation began to change fast. The number of the pupils not attending schools, grows from year to year. Also the number of the pupils leaving schools grows on all stages of education. According to the data of the State statistical agency approximately 20 % of the boys and 25 % of the girls at the age from 7 to17 did not attend schools in the countryside in 1996. If in the past literacy was universal, now there are children of school age, who do not know how to read and write.

Financing of education in the Republic of Tajikistan has a plan-centralized nature till now. The main sources of financing of general educational institutions are the means of the state budget, but since 1996 in connection with a difficult economic situation of the country, a part of the expenditures on education is covered by extra-budgetary fundings, such as the means of state firms, commercial organizations and fees of the citizens for educational services on the basis of the achieved agreements.

The school and pre-school general educational institutions are budgetary organizations. They, as a rule, have no own incomes and receive all means for covering their expenditures from the local budgets, which are subject to district, urban and regional Hukumats (governments) and are controlled by their bodies. So, for example, in 1997 82 % of the actual State expenditures of general educational institutions was funded from the local budgets.

A part of the State expenditure on higher and secondary - professional education and financing of special schools for children with mental and physical deformities is controlled and planned by the Ministry of education.

The Ministry of education also bears responsibility for policy of the education system as a whole and for the budget of education, with the exception of vocational - technical educational institutions, which are operated and are funded through the Ministry of labor and employment of the population. The changes in volumes of financial resources directed on education create huge difficulties for children, parents and teachers putting difficult problems for the Ministry of education, whose duty includes maintenance of equal access to quality education. However it is necessary to say, that the changes in subsidies average, to some extent, a change of possibility of obtaining quality education, as they directly affect the outcome of training.

In the basis of planning the expenditures on education the normative method lies, outgoing from quantity of classes, number of the pupils and quantity of the pedagogical salaries. Strict target-based usage of means of the state budget means, that the general educational institutions can receive and use them only for defined and beforehand considered purposes. It is not allowed to spend these means for the purposes, not foreseen in the estimate, or to reallocate them between the articles of the estimate. The present standards on the average size of classes and on the ratio of teachers and pupils, which determine the budget of education, lead to inefficient usage of financial means, and a large flexibility at the level of local management and school institutions is required in mobilization and allocation of resources, which should be accompanied by implementation of open «transparent» gears of planning and reporting consisting of several elements including an improved information system of management and hardening the requirements of reporting to school councils and parent committees. The financing should be made outgoing from quantity of educational services, instead of using the old standards, but nowadays it is not possible to do it not engaging money resources of the population.

The system of planned financing of general educational schools and pre-school institutions starts within district departments of education, where the projects of the estimates of the incomes and expenditures of these institutions are made according to the available standards, and are directed further to city, regional financial bodies for generalizing, where they are corrected according to planned target indices of development of region as a whole and after that are approved on session of the respective city or district Hukumant (Government) and are directed to the Ministry of finance, where in view of the proposals of the Ministry of education and control parameters of the project of the republican budget as a whole, the branch budget project of education of the whole country is formed. And further according to the existing order the project of the state budget is evaluated by the Government and is approved on session Majlisi Oli (National Parliament) and receives a force of law.

On the pattern the budget of general educational institutions consists of the following articles:

% Ratio ofcosts in 1998:

In connection with demographic features of the country, the financing of education was reduced up sharply to the critical minimum sizes because of the economic crisis and political instability in Tajikistan. According to the data of the Ministry of finance and analysis conducted by the Ministry of education of the Republic of Tajikistan, the share of the state expenditures on education in the budget of the country decreased from 22,1% to 10,9 %in 1999 compared to 1990, that is by 2 times. Thus the expenditures on the salaries of the pedagogical workers have decreased from 75,8% to 48,8% during this period; the expenditures on acquisition of the school equipment and furniture have dropped by than more 2 times, expenditures on sports - health and cultural - educational activity among the schoolboys were reduced by more than 3 times, since 1994 the grants of the government for updating of the funds of school libraries have stopped (see Table 21).

% Ratio ofcosts in 1998:

- Expenditures on wages 38,6

- Deduction from the salary to fund of social

protection of the population - 10,2

- Clerical and economic expenditures - 15,6

- Expenditures on meals of the pupils attending

groups of the prolonged day - 14,3

- Acquisition of the equipment and stock - 4,0

- Acquisition of soft stock - 1,3

- Big repair works - 4,3

- Cultural and physically-health measures - 2,7

- Capital investments - 9,0

The table #21

State expenditures on education as part from expenditure article of the state budget of the Republic of Tajikistan:

Years 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
1. State expenditures on education

without capital


704 1189,7 6978 56356


129629 1495,5 6494,7 12743 22060 11018,2
2. Expenditure part of the state budget 3186 5035,7 37454 336358 936167 9442,5 57547 105081 178748 100869
3.Part of state

expenditures on education- in the budget of –

Tajikistan in %.

22,1 23,5 18,6 16,8 13,8 15,8 11,3 12,1 12,4 10,9

Notice: till 1994 the Russian currency was in act, since 1995 the tajik currency has been acting.

Source: The reports of the Ministry of finance of Tajikistan.

Because of the absence of the necessary data about value of the Gross National Product (GNP), the index of the Gross Domestic Product has been used while evaluating indicators 7 - 8. The Gross Domestic Product is evaluated every year in Tajikistan describing end results of production activity of economic units - residents, both in the sphere of material production and in the sphere of services, which is measured by the cost of the goods and services made by these units for end usage. It represents the sum of the gross added costs of all branches. The Gross Domestic Product is estimated in retail prices and includes pure taxes for products, services and imports. The part of the state expenditure on education in the total volume of the expenditure part of the state budget of Tajikistan underwent changes triply during the last ten years. It is explained by the fact, that a rather stable period both in economic and in political life of the society was marked in the country during the period from1989 to 1991, planned-distributive order of financing and some grants from the former USSR to the state budget provided the investments into the field of education within the limits of 25,1 - 23,6 % from the expenditure part of the state budget.

Period of economic recession has begun in Tajikistan during the period from 1992 to 1995 in connection with the civil war, the state expenditures on supporting the foreign and internal political stability have increased, industrial firms have sharply reduced the volume of production because of the break up of external economic relations with the former republics of the USSR and because of the export-import restrictions on raw materials; people did not receive their wages for long periods of time, and it has resulted in the fact, that the receipt of taxes in the state budget has sharply fallen, and consequently all budgetary investments, including in education, have been deducted. For the period from1992 to 1995 the financing of education was continuing to fall from 18,6 to 15,8 % respectively.

From 1996 to 1999 there was a big deficit of the state budget in Tajikistan, inflation has increased sharply, the big expenditures from the budget were directed on stabilization of political situation, returning of the refugees who have left the country during the military conflicts. Besides the biggest part of the state budget was directed on recovery of economic facilities destroyed by the war: buildings, bridges and roads were restored and rebuilt; large financial means were directed on fighting with arisen epidemics of infectious diseases, on measures of purification of drinking water and other acute problems. In outcome the percentage of financing of education has gone down to 10,9 %, that is more by 2 times as compared to 1990. But the number of students of secondary schools has increased by 112,2 % for this period. At the same time the part of state expenditures on an elementary education has decreased in percentage to the GDP of the country from 3,5 % in 1990 to 1 % in 1997 and 1999.*

As in state reporting of Tajikistan financing of the expenditures on elementary education is not underlined, the National Commission while working out the report « Education For All - 2000 » have had some difficulties in definition of this parameter.

For this purpose preliminary indirect calculations were made on definition of percentage of costs coming about on training of pupils in elementary classes in view of the wage of pedagogical workers, expenditures on organization of groups of the prolonged day, publishing of the school text-books and so on. The data of this analysis allows us to say that the training costs of one pupil in elementary classes compared to training costs of one pupil in secondary schools as a whole make approximately from 76,8 to 96,8 %.

Percentage of costs on training of one pupil of elementary classes in comparison to costs of one pupil of secondary schools as a whole:

Years 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
% 94,7 95,8 88,1 85,2 80,3 78,6 85,6 88 96,8

Under the circumstances of a big deficit of the budget, change of the currency in 1995, instability of economic situation, impossibility of comparison of real retail prices annually and monthly during one year because of the inflation, it is difficult to make any comments on these changes. However it is necessary to notice, that the policy of financing of education is directed on usage of all present possibilities for creating opportunities for obtaining education, especially in elementary classes, including the possible donations on the part of the parents and restricted humanitarian help (see table #22).

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