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The table #22


Parameters(indexes) in the operational currency (millions of Roubles

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
state expenditures

on elementary


261,3 461,8 2510,2 22097,9 47841,8 545 2647,9 5545,1 10157,8 6602,6
Total state


on education without

capital investments



1189,7 6978,4 56356 129629 1495,5 6494,7 12743 22059,5 11018
Total number of

elementary classes

(Number of pupils)



538959 519701 570916 593526 612308 638674 686737 690306 700660
Total population

of the country in

the current year

(in thousands.)



5448,6 5555,3 5621,7 5722,6 5809 5903,8 5995,5 6071,9 6226,3
State expenditures

on elementary

education in %

from the total state

expenditures on




38,8 36 39,2 36,9 36,4 40,8 43,5 46 59,9
State expenditures

on elementary

education in %

from GDP in

the current year



3,4 3,9 3,1 2,7 0,8 0,9 1 1 1,2
State expenditu-res

on elementary

education on one

pupil in % from

GDP per capita



34,8 41,6 30,8 25,8 7,4 8,6 9,3 8,7 14,2
Percentage of GDP

per capita

(in roubles)



2461 11608 125773 312181 12015 48288 86457 168845 64832
State expenditures

on one pupil of ele-

mentary classes

(in roubles)



857 4830 38706 80606 890 4146 8063 14715 9243
GDP in the

Current year

(Millions of roubles)



13407 64487 707060 1786489 69797,5 2850806,4 518352 1025211,3 403661

Sources: 1. The report of the Ministry of finance of Tajikistan;

2. Information from the Sate Statistics agency of the Republic of Tajikistan;

3. Analysis of selected information of regional educational bodies.

In order to present state expenditures (real) on one pupil of a secondary school more objectively the calculations on transfer of the currency in circulation into US dollars have been conducted. The data analysis demonstrates a decrease of state expenditures on one pupil of secondary schools from 48,5 US dollars in 1993 to 19,5 US dollars in 1998, that is almost by 2,5 times.

State expenditures on one pupil of secondary schools in US dollars:

Years 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 6 months of 1999
US$ 15,5 28,5 48,5 45,4 10,8 16,5 16,4 19,5 10,8

The domestic and world experience demonstrates that in order to make education accessible and meeting the present standards, it is necessary, that the state would guarantee financing at a level not less than 10% of the national income. And also special system of fiscal incentives for organizations and citizens (including foreign) should be formed, investing into development of the education system.

A serious consequence of the chronic lack of means for financing of education is a decrease of access to education, in particular among children from needy families and among those who live in the country. Visits to places, and the available data indicate that fact, that some part of children from needy families are not able to visit even the elementary school. The direct and indirect costs, connected to attending school lessons, rise. The indirect costs include those means, which children can earn for family, working, instead of attending lessons. But also, not having received the high enough level of education, these children are deprived in the future of obtaining some life values in material and spiritual terms. Direct costs are the expenses on different school fees, acquisition of the school uniform, footwear, textbooks and other teaching materials. The general negative effect from an increase of these costs for the population, connected to the attending schools by children, leads us to an increase of the number of children from needy families or families living in distant rural areas, leaving schools not having finished them, or those who never went to school.

Distributions of costs can be entered step-by-step cautiously with the help of well calculated tariffs for services. Tuition fees can be introduced later first of all for subjects having big demand at the appropriate quality level and then for other subjects. The juridical prohibitions against payment for education need to be brought in conformity with direct costs on training, allowing educational institutions to cover costs, not financed in a full volume by the state, at the expense of other sources, even if the outcomes appear minor. For example, it is possible to use a fee for library services in secondary schools, for tutoring, for organization of clubs, for use of musical instruments, for extra lessons with pupils with poor progress, and for better general educational services going beyond of the school program, for rent services, for organization of educational - production activity on producing goods and services and so on. And at last, quantity of insufficiently used time of teachers should be lessened and old and minor educational programs should not be used or re-grouped as agreed with Ministry of education; and the means should be allocated according to the needs of the programs experiencing great demand.

In conditions of transition to market economic relations the problem of use of internal reserves of increase of material motivation of the pedagogical workers by the extension of the sphere of education becomes actual. As till now teachers receive training, as a rule, just in one subject and, according to operational instructions they can teach only in this subject. For example, the teacher of chemistry can not teach in physics or biology. This practice is one of basic factors of low salaries of the teachers, who are not always supplied with work even for one full working tariff, especially at small schools. Therefore the prime objective in the solution of this problem should be training of the teachers of a broad profile having several specialties, what will cause economies of costs in connection with reduction of the number of teachers and simultaneously will allow to increase wages to teachers, having several specialties. And granting full economic independence to school management would allow to differentiate the official rates of payments of the teachers having different quality level of teaching.

Some tendencies to gradual transition to partial form of payment of general educational services can be seen in Tajikistan since 1996. So, a paid grammar school «Tajikistan» has been organized in. Dushanbe at the Tajik technological university, paid Liceum «Tidjorat» at Commercial institute and the paid Liceum «Oli Somon» at the Tajik state pedagogical university. The expenditures for one pupil for an academic year make up from 227 000 up to 300 000 Tajik roubles (including meals)in these educational institutions completely funded by parents’ fees.

At the same time since 1998 paid gymnazium classes are created in some secondary schools, pupils of which together with state financing pay at the expense of the parents extra fees from 6 000 up to 36 000 Tajik roubles per ear(only for general educational lessons, extra to the established standard lessons, without the cost of meals,).

Besides paid elementary classes are organized on the basis of state preschool children's institutions, accommodation and training of the pupils in which make up from 72 000 up to 120 000 Tajik roubles per year, considering also the state grants.

In 1998-1999 actual costs per year for one pupil of the state general educational institutions funded from the state budget, were notably different from those costs necessary for a quality educational process, and which at the present time are reached only due to parents’ voluntary fees. So, at state secondary schools completely funded from the state budget they (fees) make 15 200 tajik roubles per academic year;

- At schools with partial payment for general educational services - they make 53 600 tajik roubles per year;

- At non-state schools completely funded by the parents - from 263 000 up to 400 000 tajik roubles (including food and other services) per academic year.

And though the paid general educational services in Tajikistan only start to open a path to a more progressive and quality obtaining of knowledge, the main obstacle to their development is a very low material level of the population, and more often – its poverty.

According to the data of examination of international non-governmental organizations (UNDP, UNICEF, Red Cross and others) the Republic of Tajikistan is a poor country, whose income per capita makes 127-138 US$ annually from 1993 till the present time. Approximately 85 % of the population of the country is below the poverty level. Mostly it was a consequence of the civil war, destruction of economics, unemployment and low level of wages. In public sector the wage of the workers of the field of education has ceased to be the main source of the family income. So, to the end of 1996 the real wage made less than 5 % from the average- annual level of 1991, and the monthly average salary of the teachers in 1996 made 2400 tajik roubles, that corresponded to 7 US dollars. That is much lower than the calculated cost of the minimum food level for one adult man (300 Kallories per day). *

According to the37th article of the law in force « About education » of the Republic of Tajikistan the minimum official wages rates of the workers of general educational institutions should to be set at a level of official bodies and of workers of industry. But data of the conducted analysis demonstrates, that wage of the workers of the sphere of education is steadily falling since 1990 both in relation to workers of industry and on comparison with the average level of wages in the country as a whole (see table #23).

The table #23

Monthly average calculated wage of workers on branches of economicy (in roubles)

YEARS all working people industry education

1989 188 214 180
1990 207 231 183
1991 348 405 295
1992 2035 2643 1734
1993 17452 26905 12072
1994 34904 65162 28341
1995 7311 559 448
1996 2805 8080 1377
1997 4975 14977 2647
1998 8590 25886 5350
1999 10374 31746 5508

Source: the data of State Statistical Agency of the Republic of Tajikistan.

 * Source: the report of the World Bank ¹ 18985 - TJ from 11.03.99.

The table #24

Difference in wages between the workers of education and the average level of wages in the country as a whole and in industry (in percentage)

Sector 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Industry 84,1 79,2 72,8 65,- 44,9 43,5 28,7 17 17,7 20,7 17,4


In 1998, receiving wages (nominal) at a rate of 5350 roubles per month, the teacher of a secondary school, of course, can not provide himself even with a minimum living standard ensuring normal vital activity of the man. So, the following data (see table #25) are given for comparison.

The table #25

Ratio of value of the minimum living level per one month per capita (as a matter of fact) to a monthly average wage of the workers of education (In current prices):

Years 1994 / 1995 / 1996 / 1997 / 1998

Minimum living levelper capita 42500 / 7086 / 8768 / 21105 / 22000

Wages of theworkers of education 28341 / 448 / 1377 / 2647 / 5350

In % to value of the mini-mum living level percapita 66,7 / 6,5 / 15,6 / 12,5 / 24,4

The same data in US dollars:

The same data in US dollars:

Years 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Minimum living standard per capita 19,2 / 24,7 / 27 / 28 / 28,3

Wage the workers of education 12,8 / 1,6 / 4,2 / 3,5 / 6,9

The same in % to thevalue of minimum

living standardper capita 66,7 / 6,5 / 15,6 / 12,5 / 24,4

Source:a) input data State Statistical Agency of the Republic of Tajikstan.

b) Calculations of the Ministry of education of the Republic of Tajikstan

And as a consequence of the present situation in the national economy many pedagogical workers leave their occupation, being not able to manage the poverty, and in some cases leave the country in order to earn and to provide for the family. These factors were reasons for the decrease of quality of education, what negatively effected the level of pupils knowledge, especially of those children, who are included into the needy group of the population.

Poverty has become severe in many places, especially in regions, where the civil war took place. Many women-teachers, remained without the main provider for family, cannot supply even minimum conditions of physical development to the children on the salary of a school teacher, as wages are paid not in time. The cases are not seldom, when the delays last for 7 months and more.

The approach of the Government of Republic of Tajikistan to the decrease of poverty includes the following elements:

- Continuation of the policy of macroeconomic stabilization, directed on the substance of the budget, and also on acceleration of process of privatization;

- Providing of peace and safety, including repatriation and reintegration of the refugees and settlers. Demobilization and reintegration of the former participants of fights;

- Recovery of the objects, destroyed during the war, land reform;

Reorganization of farms, creation of extra jobs, in particular for rendering assistance to poor sections of the population and to those who has no land lots and can not receive a direct benefits from the reforms;

- Carries out the protection of the budgetary articles of the main social services, such as public health services and education. From time of signing the General peace agreement in 1997 between the Government of Tajikistan and the United Tajik opposition the country has had an opportunity to support macroeconomic policy through international credits and extraordinary help in postconflict conditions from international donor non-governmental organizations.

With the purpose of finding extra sources of financing for realization of reforms in education system according to the modern requirements, increase of internal efficiency of the investments of the state budget into the sphere of education is impossible without cancellation of old methods of financing, for example, standards calculated according to the number of the classes - complete sets.

It is necessary to elaborate such standards, which would characterize quality and quantity of submitted educational services. But for this purpose the condition of the full economic independence of educational institutions in usage of the investments should exist, irrespective of their sources and being aimed at a more effective and quality usage of labor and of financially-technical resources. And together with state reporting, the management of these institutions should report to school counsels, parents’ committees or school communities, which are supposed to be created. Together with this it is necessary to introduce changes to management system, in particular, to improve information system of management beginning from the Ministry of education up to local bodies of education management at a new quality level allowing a flexible and operational solution of all arising problems.

Extra sources of financing could be received by development of school farms or households, where one could grow vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants. In rural regions there is a possibility for the pupils of collecting and storing wild medicinal plants under the supervision of the experienced specialists.

It is possible to organize school farms or households in rural regions on rabbit growing or poultry-farming, and where there are needed conditions it is possible to develop gardening and wine growing.

With the purpose of support of education the Government of the Republic uses the investments of international non-governmental organizations. So in 1999 the joint Innovation-educational project with the World Bank for the sum of 5 million US$ was signed. The most attention will be given to the controlling over in-time issue of wages to the teachers and to protection of the part of budgetary fundings on implementation of a program of structural modification of an education system.

For implementation of the project the existing experience of international donor organizations, as UNICEF will be used, which has kindly given the paper for publishing the missing part of the textbooks for elementary classes as humanitarian help.

Big humanitarian help in development of education in the Mountainous Badakhshan is rendered by the Fund of Aga-Khan, which includes repair and equipment of school buildings, acquisition of the textbooks, school- writing accessories, provides the population with food, organizes summer camps for the schoolboys and funds a considerable proportion of costs the Khorog University, and also provides improvement of professional skills of the teachers of the region.

Besides, other international non-governmental organizations, such as UNDP, Red Cross, Institute «Opened society » (Fund of Soros), Funds «Save the children » USA, «Save the children » Great Britain work on problems of education in Tajikistan, related to poverty of the population.

In extremely unfavorable financial-economic conditions of a transition period the education system of Tajikistan doomed on «survival» in a forthcoming decade, to stay alive at all costs in a such unfavorable situation. In this period the introduction of a system of allocation of financial transfers to subsidized rural areas should be conceived, which have a weak financial base.

The government should take all possible measures on limitation of the tendency of reduction of a percentage of the aggregate state expenditures on the purposes of education. Thus it is necessary to define, what kinds of expenditures should be protected from smashing. First of all it is necessary to find fundings for increasing the interest of teachers, on what in many respects the efficiency of education depends. Despite all these difficulties, it is not possible to reduce expenditures on publishing the textbooks, educational - methodical literature and acquisition of technical means of training. The investments on these purposes are needed. Undoubtedly, the definitive part should be stipulated for improvement of physical condition of school buildings in state and non-state expenses.

7. Efficiency of policy, plans and programs of education.

New unexpected problems in sphere of education and difficulties and objectives of the new order have appeared with the dissolution of the Soviet Union and formation of the independent states on its territory. In this connection the problem of transformation of education system on a mode of independent functioning took objectively an important place in the strategy of education of the Republic of Tajikistan. First of all problems of juridical design of functioning of national education system were esteemed and resolved. The appropriate laws, normative - legal acts, the normative documents, curricula and programs and others were adopted or renewed. These measures were realistic and justified, and the obtained results are comparable with efforts made. At the same time now the imperfection of the laws and legislative acts adopted at the dawn of Independence is seen, what is an objective process and the measures on their perfecting are accordingly planned.

During the reporting period the perspective plans of reforming the national education system were drawn. The problems of reforming were connected to updating of the contents of education, training and retraining of pedagogical staff, structural changes in the system, maintenance of stable functioning of educational institutions in all regions. The reforming was conducted in all respects under the slogan of nationalization, as such notions as history, culture, state language, national traditions, national historical values, national pedagogics etc., had to be introduced into the educational-training process. Considerable progress is achieved in updating the contents of education during this period if considering updating of the curricula, programs, introduction of new technologies of education. Development was achieved also by new types of educational institutions using advanced ways of training and education of pupils. However considerable lagging is seen in publishing and distribution of the textbooks, educational - program materials, in improvement of professional skill of the teachers. It is connected to consequences of the civil war and economic crisis. The civil war has not only slowed down the pace of reforming of the education system, but also aggravated a problem of giving education to children of school age. The Ministry of education especially was engaged in problems of stabilization of functioning of educational institutions in regions, where the fightings took place. In 1993 the situation in Kurgan-Tube zone and in Khatlon region was studied with this purpose and was discussed on the general meeting of the Ministry, as a result particular measures were taken in this respect. Since 1995 the activity has been conducted on giving education to the children-refugees who were coming back to Tajikistan, joint measures have been undertaken with administrative bodies of the local authorities, UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees), Ministry of labor and employment and with juridical bodies. In 1995 - 96 academic years the Ministry of education together with UNICEF has elaborated the Project « Training of peacefulness and managing the conflicts peacefully» and experimental activity was conducted at the schools Vakhsh and Kolkhozobad districts of the region of Khatlon area, where bitter civil war’s battles took place. Then in 1996 - 97 and 1997 - 98 academic years the above mentioned Project was implemented in other regions of the country. In October 1998 the results of the almost three-year activity on implementation of the given Project were analyzed in Kurgan - Tube on the republican meeting «Training of peacefulness- results, problems, the outlooks » and it was decided to go on in broadening and deepening the implementation of the program of training of peacefulness, and to give it a long-term nature. Really, continuation and deepening of the given program in the Republic of Tajikistan is very important for the peaceful future of the country. Now such activity is being carried out together with UNICEF at the schools of the country. As a result of taken measures the reintegration of children - refugees in schools at the place of residence goes normally and painlessly. In 1997 - 1998 the Ministry of education has taken necessary measures on stabilization of the sphere of education in the Karategin zone. During these years the Ministry mobilized all material and intellectual resources for these regions, having organized «Caravans of help», conducted seminars, external general meetings and rendered scientific - methodical and practical help to schools, local bodies of by education.

During the reporting period the Ministry of education whenever possible regularly executed checking of quality knowledge of the pupils in native language, mathematics in elementary classes and in the basic subjects in high classes. The checkings, on one hand, have demonstrated digesting of the curricula by the pupils in the whole and mastering of basic education on the other, have determined the tendencies of decrease of the level of knowledge of the schoolboys in some regions because of instability of situation, lack of skilled teachers and textbooks, and other training materials. In spite of difficulties, modern methods of training are widely used at schools of the country. Methods of the integrated training of subjects are introduced and give positive results in elementary classes, in high classes - the differentiated and detailed analysis of subjects. In the whole the reporting period is characterized by us as completion of the first stage of reforming the national education system and as a beginning of the next stage.

Taking into consideration particular features of the Republic of Tajikistan distinguishing it from other young independent states of Central Asia, the following is referred to as the main achievements in the field of Education For Everyone:

a) Main achievement is that despite the civil war and difficult economic crisis, the national education system is saved from destruction and perishing, the teacher's staff and achievements of the past years are saved (though there are losses);

b) Basically the possibility of having education for children of school age is provided, gender equaling and obtaining quality education are ensured;

c) There were noticeable changes in the technique of teaching, the integrated and differentiated training forms at schools were widely introduced and the new technologies of teaching are designed on this basis; new types of educational institutions and non-state sector of educational services have received development.

All this serves a powerful background for further transformations in the field of Education For All.

8. Main problems and anticipated difficulties in achievement of the purposes of EFA.

The analysis of the reporting period (1990 - 1999) demonstrates, that achievement of main purposes of EFA in Tajikistan to the full extent has been slowed and hampered by military events, continuous instability of situation and economic crisis. Transition from plan - centralized management system, financing and material – technical provision towards market economical relations and democratization of society have put the social sphere as a whole and education, in particular in a very difficult situation. Besides imperfection of market economic relations and not understanding of the population and teachers the peculiarities of transition period, growth of the level of poverty of families hinder the overcoming of difficulties on the way of implementation of the purposes of EFA. Before stabilization of a national economy there will be difficulties in the expansion of activity, directed on childhood protection and development of children of lower age, accessibility and actual obtaining of compulsory education for all. This can also be hindered by the level of poverty of families.

Lack of the teachers, textbooks and poor conditions at schools, i. e. financially - technical base can be also the constraining factor in the extension of base education and training skills necessary for young people and adults. However removal of these constraining factors depends on capabilities of financing of the sphere of education both from state and from non-state sources.

9. Public understanding, political will and national possibilities.

Despite objective difficulties in achievement of the purposes of EFA, public support and the needs for basic education in the country are strong, though in the last years the life difficulties and impairment of economic situation of the people to some extent destroy the fundamentals of this tradition.

Sociological interviewing of the parents conducted during preparing of the present Report (July, 1999) with the purpose of finding - out their attitude to study of their children, judgement on quality of training at schools and definition of a degree of the scope of children getting education in Varzob region has shown, that almost all of the interviewed parents are convinced that their children want to study and basically want to. They spoke with the special sympathy that the schools, despite instability and economic crisis, regularly functioned and they are sure, that they can give their children worthy education being helped constantly. This fact testifies that attitude of the public as a whole is positive. The public understanding of necessity of obtaining education by everyone was confirmed also by researches of the World Bank. The data of the research demonstrate, that the public of Tajikistan is concerned with impairment of educational services and the improvement of education is the second priority of the population – staying next only to the concern with situation with security.

The apparent evidences of the adherence of Government to achievement of the national purposes and problems of EFA show the political will in the new period of history of the country, strengthening of state independence. It is the present time that more political appeals are made about revival of history of the people, language, culture, about necessity of increasing of the intellectual potential of the nation and training of local personnel. The president of the country I. Sh. Rahmonov and Government pay constantly attention to the problems of education.

The experience of the decade convinces us that governmental bodies, local authorities, the chiefs of firms and organizations, as before, see the sphere of education as one of the priorities of development and react to needs of education respectively. However their weak side, in our mind, is not being accustomed to new economic conditions, underestimating the capabilities of the private sector, non-governmental organizations and international partners, which could support the sphere of education and introduce innovations.

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