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PART III — An outlook.

10. Future political directions.

Tajikistan was a rather poor country of the Soviet Union with a distinctive geographic position and relief. Today it, though it does not belong to the category of the underdeveloped countries, is among twenty poorest countries of the world with the revenue about 300 US dollars per capita (data UNDP in the REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN, 1998). Nowadays Tajikistan experiences the moment of the historically important events for the life of the country. June 27th, 1997 forever will remain in the memory of every citizen and all people as a day of achievement of the peace. After five years of political, economical and social instability, caused by the civil war, the opposing parties have agreed upon a conclusion of peace agreement and on this day they have signed the General agreement on establishment of peace and national consent. June 27th, 1997 is officially marked in the calendar as a national holiday of Tajikistan ‘Day of peace’. Civil confrontations have remained once and for all times behind, the time of peace development has begun. Now the sides of the former opposing parties gain the experience of joint state governing, corrections to the Constitution of the country are made, the prohibition of political parties of the opposition has been abolished, the presidential and new parliamentary elections are being prepared. The reintegration of the refugees and former fighters is carried out, the recovery of families is going on. Barriers of distrust are gradually disappearing, people began to heal the wounds of the war. Thus strong peace is being established in Tajikistan, despite difficulties on the way of promoting peace process. This historical event has allowed to concentrate efforts of the Government on the solution of socially - economic problems and implementation of reforms. An overall objective of economic reforms is the transition to socially - oriented market economy, which creates conditions for growth.

Together with other problems, the restoration of the basic social services education, in particular, is considered in the development strategy of the Government. The government is well informed about worsening of the system of educational services, and also about that that the expenditures on public sector have dramatically decreased both in real and in comparative terms. The government is now working on strategic measures of improvement of the scope, access and quality of education.

The authors have considered problems of EFA in Tajikistan from different points in this Report. Strong confidence unites them even with all differences of their views that the purposes of EFA can be reached in Tajikistan under political stabilization, strengthening of sustainable peace conditions, growth of economic parameters, decrease of the level of poverty. All the facts stated in the previous Parts and Sections of the National Report of EFA and the process of Estimation allow to make some conclusions, which could be a basis for possible and necessary changes into the policy and strategy of Education For Everyone in Tajikistan:

a) At the Government level:

— Despite economical difficulties in the state policy, the Education should remain as one of budgetary priorities. Also state policy in the field of education should take into account the following criteria: accessibility, involvement and consistency;

—Elaboration and introduction of the long-term government Program on stabilization and development of education in the REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN for the period till the year 2010;

Probably, restricted financial resources of the state will stay unchanged for a long time. That's why the Government should look for the ways of reallocating of financial burden, involving means of other interested participants of the EFA process:

— Family, concerning secondary education, by introduction of partial fees for studying at state educational institutions;

— Or by supporting development of the private sector in education;

The situation, when a definite part in percentage terms to each age group of those who leave the levels of the elementary and secondary education, not having the bases of any qualification, requires taking government measures on mobilization of necessary means for vocational training of the youths.

b) At the level of the Ministry of education:

— First of all it is necessary to systematize reform measures carried out nowadays and planned for the future in connection with approaching peace and stabilization of the situation in the country, to define the well-grounded stages of their implementation in view of real possibilities, resource availability and anticipated results;

— Elaboration of the conceptual approaches to designing and updating of the contents of education, constructing of the new generation of educational-program documentation, textbooks, training materials, other education - methodical and didactic materials, including the use of new information technologies;

— Improvement of the system of training of pedagogical staff for preschool institutions, including opening of new occupations; modification of the structure and contents psychology- pedagogical training;

—Preparation and conducting of national campaign on revival of the prestige of teacher profession and increase of interest to this field, with consideration of broad aspects of social image, professional status and respect;

— It is necessary to elaborate measures on decentralizing the liability and granting more autonomy to educational institutions, but before doing this it is necessary to determine the main directions of the curricula and ability to control and to assess the results. The latter is important because the development of methodology of estimation and control (knowledge of the pupils, policy in the field of teaching, quality of teachers, results of progress at school etc.) is a necessary prerequisite of successful decentralization;

— Researches in the field of pedagogics and base education and reorganization of the a system of retraining of teachers are of a great importance;

— It is necessary to undertake serious efforts in adapting the contents, methods of education and conditions of training in order to effectively train the youth in national cultural heritage and universal values, fulfillment of their civil duties;

— Elaboration, approbation and implementation of the new system of control and estimation of the knowledge of pupils.

c) Recommendations for taking international measures:

Though each state determines the policy in the field of education itself, e international measures can create favorable conditions for implementation of the policy, directed on achievement of the purposes and objectives of EFA. They can be summed up to the following:

— To assist in introducing the system of uniform parameters (for example, like the offered indicators), which would allow to study education systems better and to conduct the comparative analysis in time and space terms. At the same time help, if possible, the countries of transition period in consulting and technical spheres;

—It would be useful to organize approbation and implementation of the international methodology of estimation of knowledge of pupils, efficiency o the policy in the field of education, quality of teachers and educational institutions etc. in countries historically close to each other, regions (for example, CIS or region of Central Asia);

— To fund the education Programs on training of the teachers in those fields, in which an acute deficit is seen in some countries, and also to organize training of personnel for central bodies of government administration. First of all pay attention to young independent states with transition economies.


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