|The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports|
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: School of Facilities
Table:2 Tanzania Mainland: Number of classrooms in primary education and sources of construction funds 1989/90 1997/98
Table 3:Enrolment in Pre-schools under MoEC
Table 4: Enrolment of Pre-primary pupils
Table 5: Indicator 3 Evolution of the apparent intake rate (AIR) by gender 1990 -1998
Table 6: Indicator 4: Evolution of AIR by geographical location and by gender
Table 7 indicator 4: Evolution of net intake rate (NIR) by gender 1990-1998
Table 8 indicator 5: Trends in total enrolment by gender 1980-1998
Table 9 indicator 5: Trends in GER by gender 1990 - 1998
Table 10 indicator 5: Trends in Enrolment by Geographical location and by Gender, 1991 & 1998
Table 11 indicator 5: Evolution of GER by geographical location and by gender
Table 12 indicator 5: Trends enrolment b y geographical location and by type of institution 1991and 1998
Table 13 indicator 6: Evolution of NER by gender
Table 14 indicator 6: Evolution of Net Enrolment by by Geographical Location and by Gender
Table 15 indicator 6: Age specific enrolment ratio and/or age-grade enrolment ratio 1998
Table 16 indicator 7: : Analysis of the Resource Envelope 1994/95-1997/98 and Expenditure for the Education Sector (Amount in Millions T.shillings)
Table 18 indicator 7: Unit spending and costs by sub-sector budgeted vs actual per pupil
Table 19 indicator 7: Sub-Sector Shares of Education Sector in the Resources Envelop. (In millions Tsh.)
Table 20 indicator 8: Analysis of PE and OC by Sub-sector, 1995/96 1998/99
Table 21: Priotization in the sector
Table 22 indicator 9: Evolution of teaching staff by geographical location and by gender 1991 1998
Table 23: indicator 9: Percentage of primary school teacher having the required academic qualifications
Table 24 indicator 10: Percentage of primary school teacher who are certified to teach according to national standards
Table 25 indicator 11: Evolution of the pupil/teacher ratio by region 1991-1998
Table 26 indicator 12: Evolution of the repetition rates by geographical location and by gender
Table 27 indicator 13: Average pupil-flows rates (Promotion, repetition and drop-out rates) 1997- 1998
Table 28 indicator 13: Survival by grade and by gender
Table 29 indicator 14: Survival rate to Grade 5
Table 30: Non enrollees Dropouts in Lisekese Division, 1997
Table 31 indicator 14: Evolution of results of national assessment 1990-1998
Table 32 indicator 15: Percentage of pupils succeeded in national examination by region and by gender, 1997 & 1998
Table 33 1995 PSLE results analyzed by region and by gender
Table 34: Overall and subject performance in PSLE by sex, 1996, Percent
Table 35: Overall and subject performance in PSLE by Sex, 1997, Percent
Table 36: Literacy Rates as Depicted by the National Literacy Tests, 1975 1992
Table 37: Literacy Rates by Region, Sex and Female/Male Gap, 1995.
Table 38: Number of times specific topics related to children occurred in news items in Dar es Salaam media during the week 1 7 September, 1997
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Evolution of Net Enrolment Ratio by Gender, 1991-1998
Figure 2: Age Specific Enrolment Ratio by Gender and Grade, 1991 - 98
Figure 3: Total Distribution of Teaching Staff in Primary Schools by Grade and Geographical Location, 1991 & 1998
Figure 4: pupils teacher ratio by region 1991 - 1998
Figure 5: Survival Rates by Grade
The United Republic of Tanzania, which includes the mainland (the former Tanganyika territory) and the Unguja and Pemba Isles of Zanzibar, is the largest country in East Africa, located on the Indian Ocean and covering 945,085 sq. km. It borders Burundi, Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda and Uganda. Of the 882,200 sq. kms landmass of mainland Tanzania, some 487,100 sq. kms (42.1 percent) is arable, although land under actual cultivation is minimal (only 15 percent). Land is public property; or state owned, with land users controlling development activities on their allocated land. The country is divided into 25 administrative regions, 20 for the mainland and 5 for Zanzibar. These regions are sub-divided into 113 districts which are further sub-divided into divisions, wards and villages, the later being the basic structure for local government.
Tanzania mainland (Tanganyika) became independent from Britain in 1961, and united with Zanzibar in 1964 to create the United Republic of Tanzania. The country adopted the development policy of Socialism and Self-reliance in 1967. Politically, Tanzania operated under a single-party democratic system from 1961 until 1992 when a transition to multi-party democracy was effected. Now Tanzania has a multi-party democratic system with more than 14 registered political parties. The first multi-party elections were held in 1995 when the former ruling party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) won the majority of parliamentary seats and formed the current national government.
Tanzania is multi-lingual, multi-ethnic and multi-religious; but despite having all these differences, has maintained communal peace. This peaceful environment, both in terms of sound foreign policy and tolerant national policies made Tanzania one of the major contributors to the African liberation struggles. Tanzanias first president, the late Mwalimu Julius Nyerere (passed away on the 14th October 1999) chaired the Frontline States (FS) grouping which opposed apartheid, and Tanzania hosted the liberation committee of the OAU.
Today, Tanzania still hosts large members of refugees (over 800,000) from war stricken countries (Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Somalia and Mozambique) and also ranks high on the list of countries aspiring for social equity and sustainable development. The Tanzanian Constitution emphasizes equity in distribution of basic services (health, education and water) access to, which is considered a basic human right.
Tanzanias current population is estimated to be 31.8 million. Female comprise 51 percent of the total population although in some age groups there are more males than female. The general trend, which has persisted for a few decades, shows the national average rate of 104 females for every 100 males in rural areas, the ratio is 106:100 for females and males respectively. In urban areas the ratio noted in the 1988 population census was 101 females per 100 males.
Tanzanias current Long Term Perspective Plan (1981 2000) aims at consolidating and expanding national economy at an average annual GDP growth rate of 6 percent. The socio-economic and political direction of Tanzanias development is guided by various macro policies. The major policy adopted in the late 1960s was the policy of socialism and self-reliance which was the reference point for most of the subsequent sectoral policies adopted between 1967 and the early 1980s. Achievements of this policy before the adoption of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) in the 1980s include:
Tanzanias economic crisis of the last decade brought in more socio-economic and political challenges which necessitated the formulation of various policies including the SAPs of the 1980s which has both positive and negative effects. Of particular significance was lowering inflation, raising productivity and improving government efficiency through reforms effected in the Civil Service. However, the SAPs also contributed to aggravate of various social ills and economic imbalances including drug abuse, violence, and increased indebtedness for Tanzania. The size of debt compared to GNP is 25 per cent, while debt servicing above accounts for 14.2 percent of exports earnings.
One major critique of SAP, is the glaring marginalization of,and the negative impact on the majority of people who live under poverty-line. The SAPs emphasis on reduction of inflation, raising productivity efficiency, reduction of public expenditure, removal of subsidies, civil service reforms, cost-sharing in the social service sector and removal of price controls, affects the poor, especially women in reducing their purchasing power and increasing the burden of home-based unpaid labour. Women spend more time and energy in providing care to the sick, the old and the children amidst increased deaths and malnutrition aggravated by peoples low purchasing power and inadequate drugs, medicine and food.
Priority areas of concern
Tanzania is just recovering from a prolonged period of economic decline and social imbalance. With the SAPs of the 1980s, Tanzania has been transformed into a market economy in a seeming state of growth. The GDP growth rates have been above the population growth rate of 2.8 percent, sustained at 3.3 percent in 1997. Growth of per capita income in real terms has been modest at 0.5 per cent during 1997. The inflation target of a single digit has not been achieved though it is close to it at 12.1 percent in November 1998, from close to 30% in 1990. But despite the few economic and political successes realized in the last two decades, Tanzania still remains one of the poorest countries in the world with per capita income of USD 240 1998 estimates. Poverty is more pronounced in the rural areas, where 60 per cent of the people are classified as poor, compared to only 39 percent of the urban people.
Poverty is largely a rural phenomenon with 51% of the population being considered poor where their average income falls 16 percent below the poverty line. The long spell of drought experienced nationwide from 1993 running to 1996 has added more strain on socio-economic capacities, household food security and increased malnutrition. Increased rate of unemployment and under employment, especially for youth, has reduced purchasing power of most families and increased the number of poverty stricken families. The health of an increasing number of Tanzanians is being threatened by diseases such as malaria, typhoid and HIV/AIDS. These are a few indicators of poverty in Tanzania.
Poverty eradication is considered the top priority in Tanzania. Suggested measures as outlined in the Development Vision 2025 include optiomal mobilisation, utilization and control of both local and international resources (land, labour, technology, finance, etc), greater democracy and more political maturity among Tanzanians for assurance of national peace, security and participatory development initiatives.
Education is clearly identified as one of the strategies for combating poverty. This has been anticulated in the Development Vision 2025 and Poverty Eradication Strategy 2015: Specifically, the poverty eradication agenda in education include:
The present report is a collective work done by National EFA Assessment Group (TSG) set up by a decree of the Minister of National Education and Culture. The membership of this committee consist of senior officers from various government departments (education and culture, vocational training, development planning, finance, social affairs, health, labour and youth, publicity and mass media, community development) with the help of representatives from institutions such as NGOs/CBOs, Teachers Trade Union, and other resource persons.
Under the supervision of the National Co-ordinator, the assessment process has gone through the formation of a Technical Sub Group and small Task Groups (TSG) by field of interest and by technical capabilities first for documentation and data gathering, then for document analysis and/or data processing, finally for synthesis of different reports of Task Forces. Also this report has benefited from the skills of some national experts and researchers who designed instruments for data/information collection and undertook complementary specific surveys that helped the TSG to have extend coverage onto the areas where there were no relevant information or tangible instruments from an appropriate evaluation.
The National Education for All: The 2000 Assessment Report was completed with
the generous assistance of the EFA Convenors (UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA
and The World Bank). The national Assessment group would like to extend their appreciation to all for their assistance.
Our thanks must go to the Permanent Secretary of Ministry Education and Culture
and the Director of Planning in the Ministry of Education and Culture for their continued logistical and administrative support to the completion of this report: and to many colleagues of the main Technical Sub-Group and small Task Groups for documentation and data gathering analysis and data processing. The senior statisticians of the MoEC worked long days in putting data and producing creative statistical presentations from dry statistics for which we are very grateful. The National EFA Assessment would like to express warm gratitude to all colleagues for their technical and creative inputs.
1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Education for All (EFA) Assessment Country Report provides a critical review of the overall major decisions and actions undertaken by Tanzania since the World Conference on EFA held in Jomtien in 1990. The report addresses the six "target dimensions" advanced in paragraph 8 of the Framework of Action, delineating the status of the policy measures and initiatives implemented to date, by public and private sectors, in attempt to improve basic education initiatives for all. The report is guided by 18 core indicators developed by EfA Forum and recommended by the Technical sub-Group of the EFA National Assessment Group.
The report draws on experiences of various key actors, partners and support institutions involved in basic education as well as recommendations of various national workshops and conferences on basic education. Surveys/studies were also carried out to complement data generated through document analysis.
1.2 EFA Policy Framework and Goals
The assessment shows that the government has been firmly committed to policy measures aimed at achieving EFA since 1990. These include:
1.3 Strategic Objectives and Targets
Consistent with the broad policy goals, the following strategic objectives and targets were, interalia, developed to guide the implementation process:
1.4 Current Status and Progress
The EFA 2000 Assessment exercise in Tanzania has shown quite clearly that the government has been striving to achieve EFA goals. The government has put in place several measures and used various strategies to accomplish the commitments. Several actions have been taken which have contributed to substantive progress in the expansion of ECCD, ICBAE, CSPD, Family Life Education and capacity building programmes for efficient and effective management of schools, improvement of in-service courses for teachers and formation and training of participatory committees for effective community based as well as school planning.
However, although government and its partners have managed to set in motion the processes of addressing the challenges facing basic education and training, the progress towards EFA has been much slower than anticipated. The implementation of the SAP, servicing of international debt combined with significant problems facing the national economy are interalia the factors which have constrained the implementation of the EFA goals.
Although basic educational opportunities have been expanded in the last ten years, many eligible school age children are still out of school. The primary school GER dropped from 98% in 1981 to 76.4% in 1998 and NER from 69.7% to 56.7% in the same period. This shows a steady decline in primary school enrolment. The decline is attributable to various factors including poor learning environment and the lack of confidence among parents in the relevancy and quality of primary education.
The problems facing primary education includes variation of regional enrolment patterns, shortage of essential resources, irrelevant curriculum, late school enrolment, and lack of qualified teachers.
With regard to training skills, the centres which train for essential skills are characterized by decreasing enrolment, shortage of operational funds and trained teachers, management problems and limited social acceptance. Most of the vocational trades offered do not match the current demands for technical skills for the new economic and industrial policies.
Overall, education for better living has been hampered by the lack of high investment in terms of fiscal, physical and human resources and cannot respond to demands of the youths and adults who need it. Many instructional facilities (Radio, Newspapers, Television channels etc.) benefit mainly the urban population and hardly reach the hard to reach communities in the rural areas.
The adult literacy rate which reached almost 90% in 1986 has dropped to 84% in 1992, and has been dropping at the rate of 2% annually. The literacy rate is currently estimated to be 68%. Insufficient supply of permanent teachers, low morale among voluntary teachers, high dropout rates among primary school children combined with competing priorities of survival due to poverty are among the major factors which have contributed to the government inability to achieve EFA goals and targets.
1.5 Policy Directions for the future
1.5.1 Expansion of ECCD Activities
Policy directions for the future will include:
Universal Access and Completion of Primary Education
Policy directions will include:
1.5.3 Adult Literacy and NFE
Policy directions include:
1.5.4 Training in other Essential Skills required by youth and Adults Policy directions include:
1.5.5 Improvement in Learning Achievement
Policy directions include:
1.5.6 Education for Better Living
Background (Jomtien EFA Conference 1990)
The actual report aims at drawing up a critical review of the overall major decisions taken and actions undertaken by our country since the World Conference on Education For All (Jomtien 1990) up to now. It purports to be as exhaustive as possible and takes into account the "expanded vision" like it has been proclaimed by the World Declaration. Thus, in respect of the six "target dimensions" defined in paragraph 8 of the Framework of Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs, this report draws up the status of measures and initiatives implemented whether by the public or private sector, in and out of school, to improve basic education for all (children, youth, adults) as well as the real impact of these different measures and initiatives. Finally it tries to assess the ins and the outs of the whole EFA policy as it has been conducted during the decade as well as the inherent strategies so as to withdraw the major lessons that guided the countrys new EFA policy.
Brief Description of review Process in Tanzania
The Education For All 2000 Assessment Country Report analyses the progress achieved since the World Conference on Education For All held in Jomtien in 1990. The analyses is guided by the 18 core indicators in the Jomtien Framework for Action, ranging from early childhood development, through primary schooling, to educational activities for youth and adults.
The assessment exercise has not only enabled the Government to monitor and measure closely and comprehensively the progress in the delivery of basic education in the country since 1990 but also has produced a broad picture of the challenges that the country faces, the various solutions found and the partnerships between the Government, NGOs, CBOs, donor community and other education stakeholders that have developed in the provision of basic education. The assessment has also been an excellent opportunity for Tanzania to examine how well the basic learning needs are being met and to revise our policies and long term and medium term strategic plans as necessary.
This country report is a product of collaborative efforts involving policy makers, education planners and researchers from within and outside Tanzania. The assessment also involved district authorities, the media, and voluntary and private organizations concerned with basic education.
The other Ministries involved in the provision of basic education (Ministry of Regional Administration and Local Government, Ministry of Community Development, Women and Children, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Ministry of Labour and Youth, Civil Service Department and Planning Commission) were also involved in drafting the report. The EFA Forum convenors, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNFPA, and the World Bank, and other Multi-lateral and bilateral cooperation agencies assisted the assessment process by some of the activities as outlined in the countrys EFA Assessment Workplan.
The report also draws from various National Workshops/Conferences on Education improvement conducted since 1990, Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) developed since 1993, the Education Sector Development programme Pre-appraisal and Appraisal exercises conducted in 1997 and 1998 respectively, and the long and Medium Term Strategic Plans developed in May, 1999. Furthermore, the work draws on the work of the Technical Sub-Group of the EFA National Assessment Group, which considered the 18 core indicators recommended to guide the preparation of the current report with a view to determining on which of the data is available. Surveys/studies were also carried out to update the available information and data and bridge the gap where comprehensive data and information was not available.
1.0 EFA GOALS AND TARGETS
1.1 The World Summit and National Summit for Children
In September 1990, the World Summit for Children was held in New York. The summit adopted the World Declaration for Survival, Protection and Development of Children and the achievement of the global goals for the year 2000. As a follow up to the world Summit, Tanzania held a National Summit for Children in Dar es Salaam in June 1991. This summit was attended by members of the National Assembly. It approved, endorsed and adopted the seven major goals which had been adopted by the World Summit. Of these goals, two are educational. These are:
1.1.1 To achieve universal access to basic education and enrolment of all school-age going children (7 year old) by the year 2000. At least 80% of these children should complete primary education at the age of 15 and should be able to read, write and to live independently.
1.1.2 By the year 2000, to reduce adult illiteracy to at least half the 1990 level, with special emphasis on female literacy. According to MoECs statistics of 1989, adult literacy rates were 93% for men and 88% for women. These rates should reach 96% and 94% for men and women respectively by the year 2000.
In November 1991, the Government appointed a Task Force to study and propose a desired education system for the 21st century. The Task Force made several recommendations, among them being:
In practical terms, it means that by the year 2000, about 95% of the school age going children must be in school. Going by the projections of the Task Force on Education System for the 21st Century, children aged 7 years in the population will be about 923,000 by the year 2000. Therefore, we shall need to enrol 876,850 children in order to achieve the 95% target. In 1995, the total Standard I enrolment was 712,593 meaning that 164,257 new places have to be created over the five year period (1995-2000). However, in order to ensure that 95% of children aged 7 years (876,850) are enrolled into Standard I by the year 2000, four conditions must be met:
1.2 Education and Training Policy, 1995
The process of formulating this policy started in 1993, and the policy was eventually adopted by Government in February, 1995. This policy, which has a total of 149 policy statements is the most comprehensive statement on education ever issued by the Tanzania Government since independence. The main policy thrusts are:
1.3 Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) and the Education Sector Development Programme (Ed-SDP)
Based on the Education and Training Policy the Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) was developed years later (1996). Related to these developments, the Education Sector Development Programme (Ed SDP) was established in 1997 revolving around issues of systems, structures, management and administration, quality, access, participation, equity and finance.
The development of above policies and evolution of education reforms as well as the 1991, 1993 and 1996 National Conferences on Education followed by a number of advocacy workshops were to provide a national framework for the attainment of the EFA goals and targets. The education management structure. The Education Sector Co-ordination Committee (ESCC) now Education Sector Steering Committee (ESSC), the Sector Management Committee (SMC), the Sector Management Team (SMT) were established in 1996 by strengthening and incorporating members outside the government stakeholder ministries, NGOs/CBOs, Institutions and donors supporting basic education. Since they were established they have been very instrumental in designing, developing the programmes and implementing decisions on national education policies and ensuring that the EFA goals and targets are consistent with the broader government policies. The Inter-Agency Group and the Government Donor Six Member Committee also have been very instrumental in spearheading the process to date.