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   Tanzania (Mainland)
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2.0 STRATEGY AND/OR PLAN OF ACTION

The Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) incoporates EFA goals and targets including the six target dimensions in EFA Assessment Guidelines. The implementation of the Education Framework of Action is a cooperative and collaborative effort of various actors and stakeholders of education. As the achievement of EFA goals preceed from the initiative of many actors (public, private, associations or non-governmental) and also due to the great variety of the aspects of the elaborated strategies, their implementation have been shared between the main groups of actors.

In practice, there was no operational mechanism to monitor the implementation of the strategies due to real difficulty on the ground to bring together the priorities, the official status of certain institutions or their needs for institutional independence. Therefore, one of the valuable actions taken by the government has been to publish and distribute the ETP and BEMP to all the partners involved in the development of basic education as reference documents and guidelines. In consideration of their own priorities and their capacity each of the partners went through the fulfilment of their strategy of intervention taking into account their constraints while still sharing the major goals and objectives of the BEMP which have been reviewed formally from time to time to accommodate the latest changes in the education sector.

2.1 Expansion of Early Childhood Care and Development Activities

The quality of inputs into education in terms of children determines its outputs. Thus the health of the mother before the child is born is just as important as the care of the child after birth as well as its mental stimulation before he/she is enrolled for basic education. As a way forward to attain EFA goals, efforts to reduce child mortality and improve children’s nutritional status put in place in the 1980s were strengthened in the 1990s almost in all regions under MCH, UMATI, CSPD and related programmes.

On the policy level, the pre-primary education (years 5-6) is under the control of Ministry of Education and Culture (Education and Training Policy, 1995) whereas Day Care Centres (years 2-4) fall under the authority of the Ministry of Labour, Youth and Social Welfare bases on the Act regulating the establishment of Day Care Centres, Govt. Gazette No: 17 of 1981. The Ministry of Health is responsible for the provision of health services to pre-school centres.

Given the government’s intention to formalise pre-primary education, efficient delivery requires trained/qualified and competent teachers who master the use of participatory methodologies of teaching to ensure quality to be matched appropriately with the demands necessitated by liberalization, national curriculum guidelines and expansion measures of pre-primary enrolments. It is the MOEC’s intention to attach one pre-primary class to each primary school, and involve NGOs/CBOs in the pre-primary education provision.

The plan objectives were to:

improve the quality of pre-school teachers through in service training in Teacher Resource Centres (TRCs), community Based Resource Centres (CBRCs) and established private institutions in participatory and practical child centred methodologies;

ensure orphan children access to pre-schooling;

collaborate with the Ministry of Health on Child Health indicators (immunisation, prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea and other diseases) among children under age 5;

collaborate with the Ministry of Labour, Youth and Social Welfare in locating the environment suitable for establishment of Day Care Centres).

2.2 Universal access to, and completion of, primary educationT

The Government is firmly committed in providing primary education to all school age children. The plan objective is:

To achieve universal access to basic education and enrolment of all school-age going children (7 year olds) by the year 2000. At least 80% of these children should complete primary education by the age of 15 and should be able to read, write and live independently. Specifically, the strategic objectives were as follows:

2.3 Reduction of adult literacy rates especially the disparity between male and female illiteracy rate.

The plan objective as it is reflected in the EFA Framework of action is by the year 2000, to reduce adult illiteracy to at least half of the 1990 level with special emphasis on female literacy. According to MoEC, (Statistics for 1989), adult literacy rates were 93% per cent for men and 88 for women. These rates were planned to reach 96% and 94% for men and women respectively by the year 2000. The specific strategic objectives were as follows:

2.4 Expansion of provision of basic education and training in other essential skills required by youth and adults.

Vocational education programmes include apprenticeship training, skill up-grading, informal education training, technical and communication, industrial programmes, home economics and health education programmes. They are offered in different institutions including post-primary technical centres, new curriculum and special adult education training centres and Folk Development Colleges with skills.

The strategies which were suggested to realize the objective in this EFA dimension include:

( progress towards achieving this EFA dimension required the following action to ensure effective dissemination of information.

3.0 EFA DECISION MAKING AND MANAGEMENT

The management of the implementation of EFA plan of Action is both centralized and decentralized. Centrally, the Education Sector Coordination Committee (ESCC) coordinates the EFA plan of Action. ESCC is the Technical Committee of the Inter-Ministerial Technical Committee (IMTC) which comprises all Permanent Secretaries. This is the highest decision-making body whose role is to approve all operational policy decisions regarding EFA implementation, and other education plans and strategies. The ESSC, periodically reports to IMTC which in turn reports such matters to the Cabinet. Before EFA plans, recommendations and programmes are forwarded to ESSC for approval. They are first reviewed by the Sector Management Committee whose membership comprises both the Ministry of Education and Culture and that of Science, Technology and Higher Education as well as Directors of Planning from other ministries Stakeholders of Education.

At the national level, a Task Force was established in 1991 and its membership reviewed during the Mid-Decade Review of EFA (1995 – 1996) and in November 1998 when it was assigned to prepare the country’s EFA Assessment Report. Its members have been selected on programmatic basis with representatives from several Ministries involved directly and indirectly in the provision of basic education and actors outside the government. They include representatives from:

At the district level, power and authority to make decisions rests with District Councils as well as School Boards and Committees. The District Councils are responsible for effective management of funds; discussing and endorsing district education plans. At the district level there are established District Education Committee with membership from various departments at the District Council, NGOs/CBOs, religious institutions and private individuals who own schools. The committees provide technical advice to the District Council on all matters pertaining to education to development of education and EFA plans, in particular.

4.0 MAIN EFA EVENTS AND ACTIONS SINCE 1990

Main EFA Events include:

5.0 COOPERATION IN EFA

5.1 Provision/Management and Financing of Basic Education

5.1.1 Local financing of Basic Education

The major EFA financing source has been the central Government, followed by donor community. Other EFA financing sources include Local Governments, parents, pupils, adult learners and local communities. Private contribution has been mainly in terms of infrastructure and running costs of private primary schools, vocational education centres, adult education centres and private, publicity and mass media channels including radio, newspapers and TV . Parents contributed through labour work (building of classrooms), UPE fees, exercise books, and other pupil direct expenses such as uniforms.

Basic education will also benefit from the Education Levy which became effective in September 1999. Pre-Primary education is organized and financed mainly by private individuals and religious institutions on commercial basis.

5.1.2 Co operation with external donors.

The Inter-Agency Group in Education (IAGE) was established following the Mid-Decade Review of EFA implementation (1995 – 1996). The IAGE is tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that interests of all major stakeholders are represented and funds for the implementation of EFA Action Plan are mobilized.

UNICEF is involved in number of Basic Education programmes including establishment of ward clusters, TRCs and studies on basic education delivery. UNICEF also provides support to the: Education Sector Development and Reform; planning and policy; Curriculum and training materials development; integration of issues on HIV/AIDS; gender and rights in to the curriculum strengthening of districts based planning and management of education; strengthening of ward based management of Education; development of Child-friendly schools; education for child labour prevention and reintegration of working children into education. UNICEF is also supporting GOT to develop a complementary learning for basic education targeting poor children.

The Royal Danish Embassy (RDE), Royal Netherlands Embassy (RNE) and the Republic of Finland support the GOT through the District Based Support to primary Education (DBSPE) developed by MOEC in 1994 to facilitate the implementation of the major components of the Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) within the framework of the Education Sector Development Programme (Ed-SDP). The DBSPE creates in each district, a system of Teachers’ Resource Centres (TRCs) and school clusters to carry out in-service teacher training close to school.

The World Bank is financing the Human Resource Development Programme (HRDP) established in 1998 through International Development Agency. The Project is supporting 263 primary schools under the Community Education Fund (CEF). The World Bank also supports Community Based Education for Girls (CBEG) established by the Government in September, 1996 to support the World Declaration of EFA and to the commitment to serve the Basic Learning needs of all. This project is also financed by CIDA

The African Development Bank (ADB) is financing the Integrated Community Based Adult Education (ICBAE) and the Complementary Basic Education in Tanzania COBET) programme linked to credit schemes, health, nutrition, environment sanitation family life skills and self-help income generating projects to programmes are directly linked to poverty alleviation at community level.

NORAD supports the implementations of Primary Education Project (PEP) which is a major entry-point for disseminating essential and sustainable knowledge and life skills related to early childhood care, nutrition, hygiene, health, environmental education and child rights. Established in 1994, the overall objective of PEP is to increase educational achievement of children rates from 70% in 1994 to 85% for girls and boys. This project is also supported by UNICEF.

The International Labour Organization (ILO) supports the implementation of the International Programme for Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). The aim of this programme is to stop poor school enrollment, poor attendance and drop-outs due to child labour. The programme was established in 1995.

The Irish Aid, EU, and DFID supports the Ed-SDP process initiated in 1997 in an attempt to combine policy aspirations and intentions with financial resources and human capacity within a structure that ensures coherence, coordination and commitment from all parties involved. The objectives of Ed-SDP are as follows:

The UNFPA supports the Family life Education (FLE) Project whose main focus is on the in-school youth in primary and secondary schools as well as teachers Training College students. The project uses inquiry approach, demostration, role play, case study and dramatisation in training youth for skills development. Curriculum Guides’ teachers manuals and textbooks have been developed to facilitate the training.

5..1.3 COOPERATION WITH NGOS/CBOS

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) co-operate diversely with the central government, donor community, parents, pupils, adult learners and local community in the management of Education for All. The major focus of NGOs and CBOs intervention and activities include:

Based on their experiences in the field, various NGOs/CBOs develop a number of activities to perform with the view to promoting education for all at the community level.

Organizational and Institutional Capacity to increase access and improve the quality of basic education. NGOs such as CARE Tanzania develop organizational and institutional capacity thereby enabling CBOs to manage their day-to-day operations of delivering educational services to education institutions, and strengthen the legitimacy and accountability of CBOs. Also long term financial sustainability of the organizations are facilitated.

CARE operates in partnership with other government institutions such as: Tanzania Mozambique Friendship Association (TAMOFA) in Dar es Salaam, Tarime Development Trust Fund in Tarime (TDTFT), Tanzania Teachers Union (TTU) in Maswa District, the Tanzania Women’s Association(T.W.A) in Kwimba, Taaluma Women Group (TWG) in Songea, Tanga, Lindi and Dar es Salaam, Bagamoyo Education Trust (BET) in Coast Region, Tanzania Home Economics Association (TAHEA), AMBIT and COMMUREDES in Mbeya Region.

Strengthening the Capacity of School Committees and School Heads

A great deal of such work is done at community level through work with school committees.

The organizations which are responsible with effective and efficient management of schools are: Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) in Dar es Salaam, Aide et Action, Save the Children Fund (UK) and Oxfam Tanzania Education Project. The organizations mainly employ community participatory interventions to realise the main objectives.

Teachers Development

Significant investment is being made in teacher development. Aide et Action in Magu, Mwanza Region, Action Aid Tanzania, Prime Education Network (PEN) in Singida Region, Save the Children Fund (UK) in Mtwara Rural District, CARE in Musoma Diocese Mara Region and Oxfam, play an important role in the following:

(facilitating upgrading teachers grade B/C to grade A;

(providing upgrading materials, question and answer pamphlets;

(conducting on the job teacher training and continuing education programme;

(improving teacher/leaner interaction such as gender awareness, alternatives to corporal punishment, etc;

(proving relevant academic and professional training within locality of the clients, based on research results;

(supporting and developing Teachers Resource Centres (TRCs).

Advocacy

Advocacy in education aims at influencing changes in policies and practices that inhibit educational achievement in the communities. For example:

5.1.4 PROVISION OF SCHOOL LEARNING MATERIALS AND IMPROVING SCHOOL INFRASTRUCTURE.

As a strategy to improve quality of education, NGOs/CBOs supply schools with teaching-learning materials to facilitate teacher training and classroom teaching. Also NGO/CBOs are involved in construction, renovation and rehabilitation of classrooms, teachers houses, toilets, stores, teachers offices, provision of furniture and supports community capacity to meet needs of children in environmental conservation.

The main NGOs/CBOs responsible are:

Action Aid Tanzania which work in Lindi and Kigoma;

SCF (Mtwara Rural), CARE (Musoma Diocese); World Vision delivering services in (Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Kagera, Shinyanga, Singida, Tanga, Morogoro, Dodoma and Tabora);

Save Children Fund (UK) in (Mtwara, Rural District and Zanzibar);

Plan International provide financial assistance for improving school infrastructure and learning environment in Ilala District – Dar es Salaam Region;

Oxfam also provide teaching materials and equipment to primary schools;

CODE deals with the construction / establishment the CBRCs, provision of books and library furniture. CODE also supports the Mzumbe Book Project and a number of CBRCs in Ruvuma, Lindi and Mtwara regions.

6.0 INVESTMENT IN EFA SINCE 1990

The Government is the main funding agency of basic education. In 1990, the total recurrent educational expenditure allocated to primary education was 46% after dropping from 58% in 1982/83. The figure has now been recovered to 65% (1998) following Government determination to improve the resourcing of basic education.

Parents contribution has been increasing over the years from Tshs. 20 (equivalent of US$2.7) to 2000/= (equivalent of US$ 2.9) during the second half of 1998. However the prices of instructional materials and equipment as well as transportation costs have increased over time such that in real terms the increased fees do not take unit cost into account. However, parents have been meeting other substantial costs in terms of construction of classrooms, uniforms, desks, sports equipment, food, exercise books and learning materials

Despite all these efforts the Primary School physical facilities in the primary schools are inadequate as table I below shows.

Table 1: School Of Facilities

Facilities Shortages
Classrooms 38.122
Teachers Houses 87,117
Toilets 106,795
Desks 851,290
Tables 119,879
Chairs 135,223
Cupboards 90,940

Source: Compiled from Best 1997 Regional Data.

Table:2 Tanzania Mainland: Number of classrooms in primary education and sources of construction funds 1989/90 – 1997/98

Region

Number of classrooms

Annual Additional number of classrooms

1989/90

1997/98

Arusha

2331

3709

1378

Dar es Salaam

2886

2275

-611

Dodoma

2129

2456

327

Iringa

4670

5055

385

Kagera

3134

3735

601

Kigoma

1798

1709

-89

Kilimanjaro

4637

4612

-25

Lindi

1401

1249

-152

Mara

2453

2993

540

Mbeya

4352

4635

283

Morogoro

3384

3300

-84

Mtwara

1231

1406

175

Mwanza

3840

3542

-298

Pwani

1560

1465

-95

Rukwa

1884

1981

97

Ruvuma

3333

2774

-559

Shinyanga

1445

2378

933

Singida

1864

2231

367

Tabora

1650

1226

-424

Tanga

2507

3453

946

Source: Compiled from BEST 1997 regional Data.


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