|The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports|
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1. EDUCATIONFOR-ALL OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
Objectives and targets of the National Education - For - All have been defined on the basis of six "target dimensions" described in the "Action Framework for Meeting the Basic Learning Needs". Accordingly;
The six targets mentioned above have been classified in compliance with the national standards. Definitions, descriptions and analyses from this point onwards shall be specified along the lines of the related targets of these units.
1.1. Pre-school Education
Pre-school education is a deliberate and systematic process of education covering the children in the age group 0-to-72 months, compatible with their characteristics and level of development, providing an environment rich in stimulants, guiding the children's physical, mental, emotional and social development in the best way along the lines of the society's cultural values.
The pre-school period is one in which the development of the child accelerates. Education provided during this period affects the development of the child in his later years.
Research over long years has shown that a large part of the attitudes gained during childhood shape the individual's personality, attitudes, habits, convictions and value judgments in his or her adult years.
The child who happens to be in intensive emotional interaction with the family members during the period following birth feels the need, towards the age of three, to be together with other children of the same age and join playgroups. The peer groups present an environment in which the child gets to know self. The child learns through these playgroups to gain acceptance, share with others, accept others, defend his or her rights and have respect for others. Thus the child moves from an egocentric world to a state of socially oriented sensitivity.
The Objectives of Pre-school Education
The objectives of pre-school education, in compliance with the general objectives and fundamental principles of national education, are:
The Targets of Pre-school Education
Included among the targets of pre-school education are:
In this context, the importance on pre-school education is increasing day by day. The following matters are targeted for developing and expanding pre-school education in our country:
Ş Opening kindergarten classes under the existing schools of all types and at all levels, making use of their physical capacities.
Ş By affecting the necessary revisions in the architectural projects for the school buildings to be constructed -- all types of schools at all levels , implementing renovations at ground floors to permit pre-school education.
Ş Preparing projects concerning education of children who did not benefit from pre-school education, expanding early childhood development and education and preparing television education programs for raising public awareness.
Ş Formation of "Multi-purpose Pre-school Education Research Centers" for developing and implementing alternative models for more economical ways of reaching down to children and families of where there is immigration and slum areas.
Ş Preparing package programs for developing and expanding (Development, Education and Care) the activities in early childhood care.
Ş Developing common legislation concerning development, care and education of the children in their period of early childhood.
1.2. Primary Education
Primary education covers education and training of children in the 6-14 age group. Primary education is compulsory for all citizens, regardless of gender, and is offered free at State schools.
The institutions of primary education cover primary education schools, teaching and make-up classes, as well as schools and classes established for children who need special education.
Objectives of Primary Education
In accordance with the general objectives and the fundamental principles of national education, the objectives of primary education are:
The general objectives of Turkish National education are pursued, at the level of primary education, within the framework of the following objectives.
The Targets of Primary Education
1.3. Non-formal Education
The Objective of Non-formal Education
The objective of non-formal education, in accordance with the general objectives and fundamental principles of national education, is to provide, those citizens who have never entered the formal education system, or are currently at some level of it, or have left it, with the following:
The Targets of Non-formal Education and Training
The Targets of Apprenticeship Training
Apprenticeship training covers education of children and youngster in the secondary education age group who had completed primary education but failed to continue with the higher level of education, or happen to be outside of formal education for various reasons. Those who had completed primary education and are older than 14 but younger than 19 can proceed with apprenticeship training. The duration of apprenticeship training is 3-to-4 years. Journeymen's certificates are awarded to those who complete this training. The apprentices attend the apprenticeship training centers one day each week, receiving 8-to-10 hours of theoretical training.
Those who work at an enterprise under an apprenticeship contract in an occupation covered by the law fully benefit from the privileges of pupilship and their insurance premiums are incurred by our Ministry during apprenticeship training. To the extent the budgets allow, lunch is also provided to these pupils by the Ministry. Those who get their journeymen's certificates move on with their foreman training, which lasts three years. In accordance with the provisions of Law No: 3308, opening an independent place of business or being employed as a foreman requires a master's certificate.
3. EFA DECISION MAKING MECHANISMS AND MANAGEMENT
"EDUCATION-FOR-ALL YEAR 2000 ASSESSMENT TÜRKIYE REPORT" was prepared by the relevant units and the Technical Commission formed by these units, under the coordination of MEB General Directorate for Primary Education, and this report was presented to the members of the High Council.
Members of the Technical Commission:
The Section Chiefs from the relevant units and teachers assigned have completed their work in
Ş preparation of work program
Ş organization of meetings for preparation of work program
Ş submission of work done to members of the High Council,
The names and positions of the staff assigned are listed below:
Name, Last Name :
Section Chief, General Directorate for Primary Education
Section Chief, General Directorate for Primary Education
Section Chief, General Directorate for Primary Education
Section Chief, General Directorate for Primary Education
Specialist, Research, Planning and Coordination Council (APK)
Section Chief, General Directorate for Pre-school Education
Section Chief, General Directorate for Apprenticeship and Non-formal Education
|Fatma Nurhan BAYKAL||
Section Chief, General Directorate for Foreign Relations
Members of the High Commission
The High Commission consists of the Department Heads from the relevant General Directorates. Its duties and responsibilities are:
Ş Reviewing the draft report forwarded by the Technical Commission.
Ş Reviewing and endorsing the final version of the report.
Names and positions of the staff assigned:
|Name, Last Name :||Job Title|
|Assoc. Dr. Ata TEZBASARAN||Director General, Primary Education|
|Kamil ZENGIN||Deputy Director General, Primary Education|
|Aydin PARLAK||Department Head, Research, Planning and Coordination Council (APK)|
|Nahide YILMAZ||Department Head, General Directorate for Pre-school Education|
|Osman AKKUS||Department Head, General Directorate for Apprenticeship and Non-formal Education|
4. PROJECTS DEVELOPED IN LINE WITH EFA OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
There are independent projects comprising the education-for-all objectives and targets, and there are national and international organizations participating in these projects. Ministry of National Education is executing the basic education services. Described in this part are the investments made by the participating organizations and the private sector, within the framework of the Laws enacted and programs and projects organized under such main targets as expanding basic education and providing high quality education.
4.1. Pre-school Projects
"Early Childhood Development and Pre-school Education Project" has been placed under implementation through the 1991-1995-1996 transition program of cooperation between the Turkish Government and UNICEF, for the purposes of improving the childrens standards of living and for addressing "the principle of children priority".
The results described below have been achieved under this Project, in the way of expanding more economic and effective programs that would respond to the needs related to development of pre-school children and assure active participation of the family and community, and assure expansion and continuity of pre-school education.
Ş The Nursery Program for education of 0-36 months olds, the Kindergarten Program for education of the 37-60 months olds and the Pre-school Class Program for education of the 61-72 months olds have been prepared and placed under implementation at institutions of pre-school education, beginning with the academic year 1994-1995.
Ş Education video cassettes for the parents of 0-3, 3-5, and 5-7 age groups have been prepared and put in service, for the purpose of disseminating the activities in early childhood development and education throughout the society, via mass communication channels if necessary. These cassettes cover the following subjects of early childhood development:
Sense of aesthetics and creativity
Ş The Multi-purpose Pre-school Education Center was established, in 1995, at the Kindergarten of Istanbul Büyükçekmece Municipality, with consulting support of the Pre-school Education Department of the Education Faculty at Marmara University, to serve the purposes of expanding pre-school education services and developing more economic models of targeting children and families. The Center pursues the following specific objectives:
In line with these objectives, a needs assessment survey was conducted by the Early Childhood Education Department of Marmara Univesity on 875 local residents, to lay the foundation for the work involved.
Accordingly, a toy manufacturing shop was built, geared to making low-cost toys out of scrap materials. A bus and a midi-bus donated to the Center were modified to serve as mobile pre-school classrooms, to provide these services to children who can not get institutional education.
This project has been prepared for the purposes of expanding pre-school education, increasing enrolment rates and assuring that children in the 5-6 age group who do not benefit from pre-school education services, and are being raised in disadvantaged environment and family conditions, can, after all, benefit free of charge from pre-school education services at the nearest locations to where they live.
The project was implemented in the academic years 1993 through 1996, providing free pre-school education to 41,628 children in 2,165 newly opened pre-school classes, employing 2,400 teachers.
13 programs of televised education (titled "Tomurcuklar") have been produced through cooperation between General Directorate for pre-school Education and General Directorate for Turkish Radio and Television, for the purposes of contributing to linguistic development in pre-school age group children, thus promoting better use of the Turkish language, and building awareness of patriotism in light of Atatürks reforms and principles. This program is on air through the public TV channels TRT1, TRT INT and TRT GAP, since October, 1998.
This project in effect provides pre-school distant education services to children and their parents who do not have access to institutional education in this area.
"The Multi-purpose Pre-school Education Research Project Center" was established in 1998 at Sevgi Kindergarten of Keçiören High school in Ankara, with consulting support from the Department of Child Development and Home Economics of the Vocational Education Faculty at Gazi Univesity, under the child Development and Education Project initiated in the framework of 1997-2000 MEB-UNICEF cooperation program. The purpose of the Center is to develop alternative models for targeting children and families more quickly and more economically.
Under the Project, a situation and needs assessment survey was undertaken, covering 1,850 families in neighborhoods representing three different socio-economic levels, determining education needs of children in the 0-6 age group and their families.
34 pre-school class teachers stationed at the primary education schools in Keçiören district of Ankara have received training from the faculty of the Department of Child Development and Home Economics at Ankara Univesity, through trainers education seminars. These teachers have then been assigned the task of providing education to the parents of the children in their own classes. This education activity is still continuing.
The Department of Child Development and Home Economics of Ankara Univesity implemented seminars in "Toy and Game Materials Production", covering 27 "technical teachers" at the primary education schools in Ankara-Keçiören district. These teachers volunteered to help enrich home environments for pre-school children and provide relevant guidance to pre-school education teachers and mothers in the community. As the result of this seminar, the technical teachers are cooperating with the pre-school education teachers in their school in developing and making toys out of scrap materials, thus providing an economic contribution to families with children in the pre-school age group. Also, "Child-to-Child Education Programs" have been prepared, now under implementation covering the 5th grade pupils of Ibn-i Sina Primary Education School, who have sisters or brothers in the pre-school age group. This particular school was selected due to its proximity to the project center.
4.2. Primary Education Projects
Introduction of primary education in the form of eight-year compulsory basic education in all regions of our country have been envisaged way back in the third five-year plan and onwards. This principle was accepted at the 15th National Education Council). With Law No: 4306 having rendered primary education compulsory in the form of continuous eight year education, transition was made to countrywide implementation.
After the enactment of this law "The Basic Education Program" was initiated. Also introduced was "the Contemporary Education Project 2000", to help assure achievement of primary education objectives. Many other projects were also initiated and their continuity was assured. Private organizations also contributed in means of investment.
The Basic Education Program involves a wide spectrum of activities aimed at increasing coverage and quality of primary education, increasing public interest in primary education and bringing the primary education schools up to becoming learning centers for their community. The fundamental targets of the Basic Education Program can be summarized as follows:
Activities to Be Carried Out Under the Basic Education Program
These activities can be summarized as follows:
The Activities That Are Being Carried Out Under the Basic Education Program.
Under TEP (Basic Education Program), the Education Unit carries out the work related to providing educational material to rural schools and pupils from indigent families, as well as in-service training of teachers, inspectors and managers.
The purpose of the effort that is coordinated by the Education Unit for providing educational material to 30,700 rural schools, is to help "increase the quality of education" -- one of the targets of the Basic Education Program.
The education materials to be provided have been prepared in six packages:
Through coordinated work, General Directorate for Primary Education and the Education Unit have sent needs assessment forms, related to the aforementioned education materials, to 80 provinces. These forms shall be filled out along the lines of the needs of Rural Primary Education Schools and Rural Bussing Central Primary Schools, and forwarded to General Directorate for Primary Education by March 22, 1999. Also planned is a campaign activity to generate donations of materials for pupils. Negotiations on this subject are going on, with the public agencies that have shown interest.
Another activity the Education Unit is carrying out relates to in-service training under the Basic Education Program. An in-service training seminar has been planned in this area to render 2,856 primary education inspectors computer-literate. The timing of this activity at specific locations has been left up to the provinces, and the relevant communication of programs and lists relevant to the completion of the program by the end of April, are forwarded to the Department of In-service Training.
In addition, again through the coordinated studies of General Directorate for Primary Education and the Education Unit; program preparation activities are continuing in connection with the Instruction Materials Users Guide Course, covering Teachers Guide Books and pupils workbooks.
Finance of Basic Education Program
While keeping up with the plans for the target achievement of Basic Education Program, the studies on financial sources have also been made. The required finance for achieving the target is fixed as $ 11.7 billion. However, as the profits, contributes and fees born from Law No.4306 did not meet the requirement, application for World Bank Credit became essential.
The duration of compulsory primary education having been extended to eight years in order to realize compliance with the national education line, the "Contemporary Education 2000 Project" has been put into effect along with Law No: 4306.
The following fundamental principles have been adopted with this Project, to be realized by the academic year 2000-2001:
This Project was started in the academic year 1995-1999 at 10 primary education schools in seven provinces, through cooperation with WHO, European Council, EU Commission and Ministry of Health. The purpose of the Project is to teach our children the healthy way of life and have them gain the knowledge and attitudes towards it, sensitize them to health risks, develop their decision making abilities in connection with their own health, and help them develop better personalities.
At the beginning of the academic year 1998-1999, the number of schools under the Project was increased to 25 by adding 15 primary education schools from 15 provinces.
The Social Assistance project was put under implementation by our Ministry in the academic year 1997-1998 in order to help assure that the primary education targets would be achieved and the transition period would be completed as smoothly as possible, with minimum problems.
Through this project, school uniforms, textbooks and other education materials as well as lunch are provided to pupils in the bussing programs.
Staff from our Ministry headquarters have been dispatched to serve as trainer of trainers at the "Trainers Seminar for Implementing the Convention on Childrens Rights", held in Antalya. This seminar was included in the 1999-2000 joint work program of Government of Türkiye and UNICEF, for conveying the subject of childrens rights to pupils in formal and non-formal education programs in a healthy manner.
Work is in progress for putting this Project under implementation, jointly with ILO, under IPECL (International Program for Ending Child Labor).
Meetings and studies are going on in connection with the "National Road Security Project", covering the present situation and recommendations as regards traffic security education in our schools, under the "Road Improvement and Traffic Security Project", partly financed by a World Bank loan.
This Project has been initiated as pilots at 13 provincial governing body, with the Approval of the Office of the Minister (No:2220 of March 17,1999). The purpose of the Project, in accordance with the spirit of Law No: 4306, is to develop the knowledge and skills of the pupils at the primary education boarding and pension schools, having them gain a culture of technology, familiarizing them with occupations and preparing them for the next higher level of education as well as employment ("life").
The Project will be under implementation during the 1999 summer interim. Work is underway at the provinces for planning implementation.
The purpose of the project is to complete education and training within the classroom, for the first to third graders in primary education, thus assuring physical development of these children in a healthy manner. The Project was put under implementation as pilots at 42 primary education schools in 15 provinces in the academic year 1995-1996. In the academic year 1997-1998, the Project scope reached 1,875 schools in 66 provinces.
Implementation is expanding countrywide in the academic year of 1998-1999, at primary education schools with suitable class size and physical means.
The purpose of the Project is to prepare a teachers manual to guide the teachers in implementing pupil-centric approaches that make the pupils active in the teaching-learning environment.
UNICEF has allocated USD 28,943 to this Project under "Program and Manuals Development for In-Service Training of Inspectors and Teachers" in the 1999 MEB-UNICEF cooperation program.
With additional USD 4,400 transferred by MEB Fund for Development and Expansion of Apprenticeship and Vocational and Technical Education (from the "39/b" revenues under Law No: 3418), the project was put under implementation with at total budget of USD 33,343.
A protocol was signed with Burdur Education Faculty of Süleyman Demirel University for preparation of teachers manual.
The plans are that writing of the manual would be completed in June-July, 1999, and it would be introduced to teachers through the seminars in July-August 1999, and their views would be solicited.
4.3. Non-formal Education Projects
This Project was prepared as a permanent solution to the problem of illiteracy, while having the participants in the literacy development activities gain income-generating skills or occupations. The Project was put under implementation through comprehensive promotion activities in May 1997.
Project implementation councils have been formed at central, provincial and district levels to assure that project targets would be achieved by realizing information flow and multi-directional support. Participation of public, private, local and voluntary organizations was taken as the fundamental principle in forming these councils.
Securing support from NGOs has become a basic policy of our Ministry and we are continuing to expand our cooperative activities in this area.
An informative meeting was held with approximately 70 womens voluntary organizations headquartered in Ankara, in order to help expand the Projects coverage.
As a result of this meeting, "Courses for Raising Volunteer Literacy Trainers" were organized in order to make maximum use of the human resources born by these organizations. 168 voluntary trainers were trained in Ankara. These organizations contributed significantly to developing public awareness, attracting pupils and securing rooms for training activities.
A protocol between Mother-Child Education Foundation and our Ministry was signed for implementation of "Functional Literacy Programs for Adults", as an alternative program developed by the said foundation. Implementation of IYOPs began in 1995 and is continuing notably in Istanbul and also in Izmir and Gaziantep.
IYOPs are being implemented at Public Education Centers by volunteers who are at least high school graduates and have received the three week program of relevant training. 512 volunteers have been trained since 1995, and 9,024 adults participated in 624 IYOP courses.
SGE activities have been initiated through Government-UNICEF cooperation in order to facilitate sharing of information between all institutions and organizations for improving status of women and children in Türkiye, and assure that best practices reach down to target populations through fastest, most effective and most economic ways.
The Project aims to contribute to improving status of children through better services in health, education, nutrition, drinking water, sewerage and environmental protection. The approach taken in the Project for realizing improvement in these areas is to strengthen the existing communication sources and social infrastructure by training volunteers. The Project was initiated in 1995 as pilot implementations in the provinces of Antalya, Karaman and Nigde, with favorable results.
The Project is currently being implemented in the provinces of Van and Yozgat in cooperation with UNICEF.
Two separate projects were undertaken through cooperation between our Ministry and ILO under IPEC. Activities under these projects aim at increasing sensitivity to the problem of child labor on the part of the administrators and teachers at the apprenticeship training centers.
Cooperation between ILO and our Ministrys General Directorate for Apprenticeship and Non-formal Education in the area of improving the status of children at work began in 1995.
Under a protocol of cooperation signed with ILO on May 22, 1999, seminars were organized on the problem of child labor, involving 26 motor instructors at the apprenticeship training centers in Istanbul. Also, research was conducted with the participation of the same teachers. The research report was duplicated in the form of a book and distributed to relevant parties.
With favorable results having come out of the cooperation through Project-I, a new protocol of cooperation was signed by our Ministry and ILO on April 12, 1999. Cooperation under the new protocol provides for raising awareness of childrens rights on the part of the administrators and teachers at the apprenticeship training centers and also on the part of the foremen, trainer foremen, and employers involved in on-the-job training of apprentices.
The project activities involve education and social activities aimed at increasing sensitivity towards the subject of protecting childrens rights, on the part of children, employers and foremen.
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