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5. BASIC EDUCATION INVESTMENTS

5.1. Primary Education Investments

With the enactment of Law No: 4306, the resources of our country were mobilized and an investment drive was initiated in order to build up the education infrastructure needed.

Alongside the use of the resources allocated to primary education investments under the 1997 budget, additional allotment of TL 11 trillion from the fund for accelerating investments and the education contributions under Law No: 4306 were used, and thus the physical capacity originally planned for 1997 increased by 80 percent and 12,103 classrooms were put in service by the end of the same year.

Table –1 The Number of Primary Education Classrooms Built in the Last Five Years

Years

Number of Classrooms

1994

8230

1995

6282

1996

7279

1997

12620

1998

21620

Keeping in view the flow of funds to MEB budget from the revenues of education contributions under Law No: 4306, priority was given to completion of investments under construction and adding classrooms and floors to existing schools. Also, funds were transferred to provincial governing bodies in accordance with payment plans and construction programs. Consequently, along with 21,620 classrooms put in service at primary schools by the end of year 1998, boarding opportunities shall be provided to 38,900 pupils through 61 YIBOs (Primary Regional Boarding Schools) and 26 PIOs (Primary Schools withPension).

In addition, 343 primary education schools contracted through the Ministry headquarters shall be in service within the year of 1999.

5.2. Primary Education Investments of the Private Sector

Besides the schools for eight year continuous compulsory education that are under construction with financing solely from MEB and provincial administrations; 2,924 classrooms were built in 1998 with funding entirely from the public. Still other 2,937 classrooms are being built through cooperation between MEB, provincial administrations and the public. In addition, IMKB (Istanbul Stock Exchange), TOBB (Turkish Union of Chambers and Bourses), Koç Group and Vehbi Koç Foundation are having 75 schools built with a total pupil capacity of 43,080.

  1. A protocol was signed between IMKB and MEB on September 5, 1998 in connection with building 47 schools in 31 provinces and 44 districts with a total pupil capacity of 29,760. Plans are to build 24 primary education schools along with 24 IO, 16 YIBO and 7 PIO. The land needed for building the schools have been allocated to IMKB. Once built, these school buildings shall be transferred to MEB and the schools shall be named as"75th Anniversary IMKB Primary Education School", preceded by the name of city or district where the school is located.
  2. 14 schools are under construction in 10 provinces in the Eastern Anatolia Region; 7 YIBO, 2 PIO and 5 IO (Primary Education School). 14 schools are under construction in 7 provinces in the Southeastern Anatolia Region; 5 YIBO, 2 PIO and 7 IO. 9 schools are under construction in 8 provinces in the Black Sea Region; 3 YIBO, 3 PIO and 3 IO. 5 IO are under construction in 4 provinces in the Central Anatolia Region, 4 IO in one province in the Mediterranean Region and 1 YIBO in the Aegean Region.

    Table –2 Schools IMKB is Financing and their Pupil Capacities

    Province- District

    School Type and Pupil Capacity

    Province- District

    School Type and Pupil Capacity

    Adiyaman – Merkez

    YIBO-720

    Konya – Eregli

    IO-480

    Adiyaman – Gölbasi

    PIO-480

    Malatya – Merkez

    PIO-720

    Amasya – Merkez

    IO-480

    Malatya – Hekimhan

    PIO-720

    Bitlis – Hizan

    YIBO-720

    Mardin - Merkez

    IO-480

    Diyarbakir – Merkez

    IO-720

    Mardin – Midyat

    IO-480

    Diyarbakir – Merkez

    YIBO-720

    Mus – Merkez

    IO-720

    Diyarbakir – Çüngüs

    PIO-720

    Ordu – Akkus

    YIBO-720

    Diyarbakir – Ergani

    IO-720

    Rize – Çayeli

    YIBO-720

    Elazig – Merkez

    IO-480

    Rize – Pazar

    IO-720

    Elazig – Merkez

    YIBO-720

    Samsun - Bafra

    IO-720

    Erzincan – Merkez

    IO-480

    Siirt – Merkez

    IO-720

    Erzurum – Hinis

    YIBO-720

    Siirt – Kurtalan

    YIBO-720

    Erzurum – Senkaya

    YIBO-720

    Sivas – Merkez

    IO-480

    Gaziantep-Islahiye

    PIO-720

    Sivas – Merkez

    IO-720

    Gümüshane – Kelkit

    IO-480

    Tokat – Yesilyurt

    YIBO-720

    Isparta – Merkez

    IO-480

    Trabzon - Maçka

    PIO-720

    Isparta – Keçiborlu

    IO-480

    Sanliurfa – Harran

    YIBO-720

    Isparta – Sarkikaraagaç

    IO-480

    Sanliurfa – Siverek

    IO-480

    Isparta – Yalvaç

    YIBO-720

    Van – Merkez

    IO-720

    Izmir – Seferihisar

    YIBO-720

    Van – Gürpinar

    YIBO-720

    Kars – Susuz

    YIBO-720

    Bayburt – Aydintepe

    PIO-720

    Kayseri – Melikgazi

    IO-480

    Batman – Merkez

    IO-480

    Kirsehir – Merkez

    IO-720

    Ardahan – Göle

    YIBO-720

    Igdir- Merkez

    IO-720

       

    13 schools, the locations of which have been determined by the Provincial Directorates for National Education and the officials of the local chambers of commerce are being built with financing from TOBB. These schools have been planned in 13 provinces with one YIBO, 12 IO and a total capacity of 6,120 pupils.

    These 13 schools under construction are; one YiBO and 3 IO in 4 provinces in the Eastern Anatolia Region, 4 IO in 4 provinces in the Black Sea Region; 2 IO in 2 provinces in the Central Anatolia Region; and one IO in each of the Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean and Aegean Regions.

    Table –3 Schools TOBB is Financing and their Pupil Capacities

    Province- District

    School Type and Pupil Capacity

    Province- District

    School Type and Pupil Capacity

    Bitlis – Merkez

    IO-360

    Kütahya – Merkez

    IO-480

    Burdur- Merkez

    IO-360

    Rize – Merkez

    IO-720

    Çankiri – Merkez

    IO-480

    Sinop – Merkez

    IO-360

    Elazig – Merkez

    IO-360

    Tokat – Merkez

    IO-360

    Erzurum – Merkez

    IO-360

    Zonguldak – Merkez

    IO-480

    Kars – Merkez

    YIBO-720

    Aksaray – Merkez

    YIBO-720

    Batman –Merkez

    IO-360

       
  3. A protocol between MEB and Koç Group with Vehbi Koç Foundation was signed on April 21, 1998, in connection with construction of 15 primary education schools. These schools are planned to be in service in the academic year 1999-2000.

Construction of these 15 primary education schools in 11 provinces and 14 districts, with a total pupil capacity of 7,200, is underway.

Under construction are 2 schools in 2 provinces in the Eastern Anatolia Region, one school in the Southeastern Anatolia Region, one school in the Black Sea Region, 3 schools in 3 provinces in the Central Anatolia Region and 8 schools in 8 provinces in the Marmara Region.

Table –3 Schools Koç Group and Vehbi Koç Foundation are financing and their Pupil Capacities

Province- District

School Type and Pupil Capacity

Province- District

School Type and Pupil Capacity

Ankara – Sincan

IO-480

Sirnak – Merkez

IO-480

Bolu – Merkez

IO-480

Istanbul - B.Çekmece

IO-480

Bursa – Nilüfer

IO-480

Istanbul- B.Çekmece

IO-480

Bursa – Yenisehir

IO-480

Kocaeli – Gebze

IO-480

Bursa – Inegöl

IO-480

Sakarya – Adapazari

IO-480

Bursa – Orhangazi

IO-480

Sivas – Kangal

IO-480

Elazig – Merkez

IO-480

Sanliurfa – Merkez

IO-480

Eskisehir – Inönü

IO-480

   

PART III

  1. DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS THE SCOPES AND OBJECTIVES
    1. Indicators related to early childhood care and development

Indicator 1. Gross enrolment in early childhood development programmes, including public, private and community programmes

The countrywide enrolment rate of pre-school for the academic year 1998-1999 is 6.9 percent, for females and males combined. The enrolment rate is 6.5 percent for females and 7.0 percent for males. But the gender-based enrolment rates do not include the children in the Mother-Child Education Programs, since gender-based statistics have not been collected in these programs.

To the number of children at the public institutions of pre-school education, the number of children at the child care centers, that have been opened at the Social Services Institution for Children Care for the purpose of providing pre-school education to children in need of care and in accordance with Article.191, have been added.

Social services are provided for a fee at day care centers opened by the Social Services Advisory Council and Social Services Institution for Children Care for the purpose of providing care to children in need of care in the 0-6 age group, preserving their physical and mental health and imparting basic values, attitudes and habits.

Child care centers and social facilities have been established at the institutions where they are needed, for providing pre-school education to children whose parents are employed at public agencies and organizations. Article 191 of Public Servants Law: 657 is as follows:

"Child care centers and social facilities may be established for public servants where need and necessity is determined to exist."

The pre-school education activities of MEB General Directorate for Apprenticeship and Non-formal Education are carried out under two different programs, namely, the Mother-Child Education Program and Trainer Mothers’ Education Program. The number of pupils in these programs have been entered in the column titled "others" for the number of pre-school children in the indicator. The definition and progress of these activities are briefly described below:

Mother-Child Education Programs

The purpose of the program is to support comprehensive development and growth of the child through the mother. The program is implemented by means of the courses held at the public training centers of the General Directorate for Apprenticeship and Non-formal education. Mothers of children in the 0-6 age group attend these courses, which are organized separately for mothers of children in the age groups 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6. Mothers are informed in the subjects of child care, child development, nourishment, protection from child diseases, prevention of accidents, first aid, women’s reproductive health care and family planning, and parent-child relationships, in order to help the mothers become more self-confident and successful in child development and education and tackle problems more easily.

The program serves to help develop those families and children who do not have access to pre-school education services and are at risk due to their social and economic circumstances. Despite their disadvantaged environment and circumstances, the children’s cognitive, social and emotional development as well as their school achievement levels improve, due to such home-based education they receive.

Research has shown that the mothers who attend these programs become more sensitive to the matter of the development of their children, they build better relationships with their children and develop higher expectations and aspirations concerning the future of their children.

This activity is important in terms of contributing to the matter of equal opportunity in education, along with its support to pre-school education.

Table 5 - Statistics related to enhancing the programme for Mother-Child Education

Academic Year

Number of Provinces

The Number of Public Training Centers (HEM)

Number of Teachers

Number of Couples Trained

1993-1994

9

27

40

2,866

1994-1995

11

42

79

5,534

1995-1996

23

93

148

8,640

1996-1997

34

133

207

11,196

1997-1998

51

164

232

14,796

1998-1999

60

184

325

19,188

Trainer Mother’s Education Program

The purpose of the program is to produce professionals who understand the children’s physical, mental, emotional and social development and are able to act competently in caring for and educating children, in order to provide child care services to working mothers in their own homes.

The program having been started at 20 provinces in 1994-1995, was implemented at 26 provinces in 1997-1998. A total of 6,403 trainer mothers have been trained between 1994-1998.

Indicator 2. Percentage of new entrants to primary grade 1 who have attended some form of organised early childhood development programme

The definition of data required for this indicator is (a) the number of new first grade entrants having attended pre-school education and the total new first grade entrants. Because the number of children who have attended pre-school education among the new first grade entrants was not known, this indicator was built by using the number of age- five pre-school children in the academic year 1997-1998, instead of the number of children who have attended pre-school education among the new 1998 first grade entrants. Therefore this indicator is a rough indicator but it can provide an idea.

Accordingly, the countrywide percentage of children who have attended some form of pre-school program among the new first grade entrants is 13.6 percent. This percentage was determined to be 13 percent for the public institutions, and 47.4 percent for private institutions. By the result of the gender parity index, the percentages of females and males who had received pre-school education among the new first grade entrants are equal to each other.

1.2. Indicators on Primary Education /Basic Education

Indicator 3-4 - The gross and net intake rates

The ratio of the newly intaken at the official age for entering the first grade, which is necessary for the 4th indicator, could not be calculated, as the data on distribution of new intakes on the basis of age did not exist.. Countrywide gross new intake rate was 97.9 percent in the academic year 1998-99. If one is to interpret this result; the fact that this ratio is very high, access to primary education is close to the targeted value of 100 percent. This indicates that the net intake rates are not very far from this target either.

Indicator 5-6 Gross and net enrolment ratio

The total enrolment ratio throughout Türkiye on the data for the academic year 1998-99 is 92.2 percent, 98.3 percent for males and 85.8 percent for females. The countrywide net enrolment ratio is 87.5 percent total, 92.6 percent for males and 82.3 percent for females. Before 1997, the enrolment ratio in five years primary education was %99.8. Following the law for eight years compulsory education, which means the unification of five years primary education and lower secondary education (3 years), the enrolment ratio decreased in eight years primary education in accordance with the low enrolment ratio in lower secondary education (%69.6). Through the eight-year continuous education, a massive initiative was undertaken in a decisive manner, for increasing attendance in primary education, for increasing primary education capacity, in short, for raising the enrolment ratio.

Ş The Government has defined the new basic education strategy for expanding the eight-year primary education up to achieving universal coverage, for increasing the quality of basic education, and for increasing interest in primary education schools in order to turn these institutions into learning centers. Accordingly, preparation of a Basic Education Program within the Ministry of National Education and successful execution of this program were rendered imperative. The Basic Education Program is described in details under The Primary Education Projects in Part II.

Ş Boarding schools and schools with pensions have been opened for purposes of assuring access to primary education services in rural areas, in villages and sub-village settlements that do not have schools, and for the children of poor families. All expenditures of the pupils at these schools are incurred by the State.

Ş The General Directorate for Primary Education is expanding "Bussing in Primary Education" countrywide, for purposes of assuring access to better quality of education for the age group pupils living in the sparsely populated large areas and the pupils in schools where multi-grade education is practiced, for assuring opportunity of equality in education, and for expanding eight-year primary education.

Regional Boarding Primary Schools (YIBO) and Primary Schools with Pension (PIO)

Regional Boarding Primary Schools and Primary Schools With Pension were planned and opened beginning in 1962, in accordance with Article 1 of the "Regional Primary Schools Regulation" under Primary Education and Training Law No: 222. This Article stipulated that "regional schools with day care and pension shall be opened where there are several villages close to each other, or in villages with houses or house groups spread over large areas, with no schools yet opened for various reasons".

Opening of YIBO and PIO continued later on in accordance with Article 25 of National Education Basic Law No: 1739 and Article 9 of Primary Education and Training Law No: 222.

Boarding schools and pension schools of primary education have been opened for assuring access to primary education services for the age group pupils living in the rural areas, in villages and sub-village settlements that do not have schools, and for the children of poor families. All expenditures of the pupils at these schools are covered by the State.

Education continued at 184 Regional Boarding Primary Schools and 117 Primary Schools with pension in the academic year 1998-99. In addition, 105 Primary Education Regional Boarding Schools, 11 Primary Schools With Pension, and 39 pension buildings are under construction.

Tables below show the status of the Regional Boarding Primary Schools and Primary Schools with Pension.

Table –6. Statistics on Regional Boarding Primary Schools and Primary Schools with Pension

School Type

Capacity

Total Number of Boarding Pupils

Total Number of Day-care Pupils

Grand Total

YIBO

91588

77372

13419

90791

PIO

20511

10150

48279

58429

9 of the Regional Boarding Primary Schools and 10 of the Primary Schools With Pension have been allocated to females in order to assure females’ school attendance especially in settlement units with no schools.

Table – 7. Statistics on Regional Boarding Primary Schools

For Females

Province

Capacity

Total Number of Boarding Pupils

Total Number of Day-care Pupils

Grand Total

BINGÖL

1000

     

DIYARBAKIR

4000

871

126

997

HAKKARI

520

649

11

660

MUS

520

127

 

127

SIIRT

520

166

56

242

SIVAS

300

70

 

70

VAN

300

363

 

363

BATMAN

800

902

20

922

SIRNAK

520

     

GRAND TOTAL

4880

3168

213

3381

Table – 8. Statistics on Primary Schools with Pension for Females

Province

Capacity

Total Number of Boarding Pupils

Total Number of Day-care Pupils

Grand Total

ADANA

140

   

0

BINGÖL

300

   

0

ÇANKIRI

200

21

197

218

ÇORUM

48

40

383

423

GÜMÜSHANE

200

68

805

873

KAYSERI

300

178

202

385

ORDU

100

 

935

935

ORDU

104

33

387

420

TUNCELI

50

77

1285

1362

ARDAHAN

150

75

511

586

GRAND TOTAL

1592

492

4710

5202

Construction of YIBO and PIO were accelerated after Law No: 4306 became effective, as these schools are commissioned for providing means of better quality education to pupils who live in sparsely populated areas with settlement units spread over large areas. Also the capacities of existing YIBO and PIO were increased and the pupils who could not be covered by the bussing program were placed in YIBO and PIO, exempt from entry tests.

Bussing in Primary Education

  1. Assuring Equal Opportunity and Means of Education and Increasing Quality in Education: The fact that many small settlement units are spread over large areas throughout the country makes expanding education services difficult. While providing education services (such as school buildings and facilities and teachers) to a large number of small settlement units spread over large areas comes expensive from the angle of education economics, the efforts to reduce costs lead to decreases in quality of education.
  2. Schools with very small numbers of pupils that are deprived of sufficient building, facilities and teachers are opened in rural areas in response to demands from the citizens. These schools not only make it difficult to bring up in a desirable manner the qualified people that are needed for development; they also do away with equality in the means of education. This state of affairs in turn decreases the quality of education and increases the cost of education. Consequently, the efforts for assuring equal opportunity and means of education and for increasing the quality of education have been important reasons that called for bussing in primary education.

  3. Regular Inter-migrations: Another important factor of transmission to bussing in primary education is inter-migrations. Since 1980, migrations from rural locations to central provinces started. The main province people migrate to be; Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Bursa, Içel, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli and recently Diyarbakir and Batman. The provinces migrated from are; Artvin, Çankiri, Erzurum, Kars, Rize, Sivas, Tunceli.
  4. The migration especially from rural locations to central provinces, decreased he number of pupils and caused the schools to function below their capacities.

  5. Large Numbers of Small Settlement Units Spread over Large Areas: While there are 35,000 villages throughout Turkiye (as of 1990), there are 44,319 sub-village settlements under these villages. The great majority of these settlements have very small populations. Taking education services to each and every one of these settlements requires recruitment of larger numbers of staff and lead to very high costs. By covering the pupils in these small settlements with the bussing programs for primary education, large savings were realized in manpower along with costs.
  6. Furthermore the infrastructure services provided in the central villages under the bussing program would help these villages develop in time into larger, leading to elimination of small settlements spread over large areas.

  7. The Importance of Bussing in view of Eight-year Continuous Education: Pursuant to Basic National Education Law No: 1739 and primary Education and Training Law No: 222, primary education covering education and training of the 6-to-14 age group is compulsory for all citizens, female or male, and is free of tuition at state schools. Nevertheless, only five years of compulsory education has been in practice on the basis of the provisional clauses in both Laws. Coverage of the second stage of primary education under compulsory education had been postponed until the sufficient physical capacity was created.

In today’s constantly changing and advancing world, it is impossible to meet the manpower needs of our country with only five years of compulsory education. As our country is undergoing the industrialization stage of development, our children’s receiving an education inferior to that in the rest of the world is inconceivable.

For these reasons, increasing the duration of compulsory education to eight years is a matter, which we heavily emphasize and we are decisive about it. In pursuit of this objective, the existing primary schools and secondary schools are being converted to primary education schools by adding to these schools the classrooms, workshops and other facilities as necessary.

Nevertheless, it is impossible to take the eight-year compulsory education to all settlement units in our country, where the number of small units of settlement is very large. Taking the eight-year education to each and every one of the 79.000 villages and sub-village settlements would cause the cost of education to rise and the quality of education to fall.

Then, how are we going to provide the eight-year compulsory education to our children who live in these settlement units?

It is at this point where the practice of "Bussing in Primary Education" asserts itself as an alternative solution.

The practice of bussing in primary education is absolutely necessary for providing the children who live in small settlement units with better means of education, for expanding the primary education services in a balanced way countrywide, for assuring equality in opportunity and means of education, and for increasing the quality of education. At the same time, savings in view of education economics would be realized to a large extent through the practice of bussing.

Where bussing cannot be practiced, the boarding schools and the pension schools are introduced as another alternative.

Table –9. Bussing Statistics in Terms of Years

Academic Year

Number of Provinces

Number of Districts

Number of Central Schools

Number Schools Bussed

Number of Pupils Bussed

1989-1990

2

 

5

12

305

1990-1991

9

35

78

258

3,289

1991-1992

29

160

408

1,094

18,256

1992-1993

43

325

938

2,371

53,676

1993-1994

56

537

1,653

4,416

84,263

1994-1995

57

493

1,630

4,683

74,981

1995-1996

62

557

2,182

5,994

95,554

1996-1997

64

576

2,336

7,502

120,998

1997-1998

72

740

4,803

18,213

281,833

1998-1999

75

810

5,697

27,081

521,218

Indicator 7-8 - Public current expenditure in Primary Education and a) as a percentage of GNP and b) Per pupil, as a percentage of GNP Per capita and public expenditure on primary education as a percentage of total public expenditure

The total public current expenditures in education in this indicator belong to the Ministry of National Education. Furthermore, the pre-school education expenditures under the primary education schools along with the primary education expenditures under the secondary education schools are not included in the primary education expenditures. Accordingly, the share of primary education in public current expenditures in education stayed around 70 percent up until 1997. At 78.6 percent in 1990, this figure has consistently decreased thereafter down to 71.8 percent in 1997.

Graphic - 1 The Share of Primary Education in the Public Current Expenditures in Education

While the proportion of per capita GNP allocated to primary education was 1.7 percent in 1990; this figure has increased in the subsequent years to reach 2.1 percent in 1992. Thereafter the share of primary education in per capita GNP decreased down to 1.4 percent in 1997.


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