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    1. Expansion of basic education and training in other essential skills
    2. acquired by youth and adults.

      For this thematic area, Government set its strategies for the development of primary curriculum and instructional materials that emphasise basic learning needs; training and retraining of teachers on essential skills; promotion of co-curricular activities and basic primary science, mathematics and technology; and to provide UPE by 2000; and assess educational progress in the area.

      The monitoring of implementation of strategies will be done by MOES Commissioner, pre-primary and primary units at district levels, local authorities/Education committees, NGOs, and Governments (MGLSD, MOH).

      Learning needs identified were: learning to live together and share, encourage play and interaction so as to develop imagination, self reliance and thinking power, appreciation of using one’s hands to do simple tasks, and language and communication skills with mother tongue, and will involve a target group of age 3 – 5 years. Major review strategy so far has been the education supplement in Print Media. For the age group 6-13, learning needs identified embody basic knowledge, skills (social life, problem solving and vocational), attitude and values in addition to numeracy and literacy as well as communication.

      Other strategies reviewed involved: establishment of a National Council for Non- formal and Adult Education, setting up a Directorate of Non-formal and Adult Education within the Ministry of Education and Sports headed by a Director, establishment of Community Polytechnics and other vocational centres by government, private sector and local communities, provision of village libraries and information centres, and multi-purpose centres to promote skills acquisition among marginalized youth such as street children, National Gender Policy 1996, APT/USSIA 1993, USAID study 1994, Needs assessment of small scale industries 1995, GTZ study of manufacturing and service enterprises 1996.

    3. Increased acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge, skills and values required for better living, made through education channels.

The strategies identified in this area were that: Government would take full responsibility of continuing education, tertiary institutions to expand activities for continuing education, to establish open school and open University, to transform community centres for Youth and Adult programmes, to improve and strengthen public libraries and set up new ones throughout the country, mobilise all forms of mass media for educational purposes, set up radio and UTV channels for educational programmes, to set up and promote rural press, to train staff for educational programmes, and to develop Kiswahili press by 1993.

The National Council for Non-formal and Adult Education (NCNAE), National Council for Higher Education (NCHE), Ministry of Information and Broadcasting and the Ministry of Education and Sports were the main bodies to monitor the implementation of the strategies identified.The major learning needs identified included social, civic, vocational, life and problem solving skills and continuing life – long education.

The main beneficiaries of this education would mainly be school going children, school leavers/drop-outs, youth, adults in the world of work and the masses including the uneducated. There was also need for giving education to the masses in rural areas in order to improve on their life skills.

There has not been any major review of these strategies because NCNAE & NCHE are not instituted. Neither have the Ministries of Information and Broadcasting and Ministry of Education & Sports done any review in this area


The Ministry of Education and Sports Top Management decides upon policy matters and generally directs activities related to Education for All 2000 Assessment.

The inter-agency Steering Committee of the international Consultative Forum on EFA agreed on the broad outlines of the assessment process, and the Forum's five Conveyors (UNDP, UNFPA, UNESCO, UNICEF and World Bank) designated staff to constitute an adhoc Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to advise and assist the EFA Forum Secretariat, based at UNESCO headquarters in Paris, to plan and co-ordinate the assessment at the global level. In Uganda the National Technical Committee co-ordinates the EFA activities. The membership of this committee include Commissioner for Pre- and Primary Education as Chairman, Commissioner for Education Planning as Deputy Chairperson, the Head of Research, Monitoring and Evaluation as the National Assessment Co-ordinator, Funding Agencies, NGO's, Teachers, Planners, Statisticians, Universities etc. Their responsibility is to prepare the country's EFA assessment report.


Government and Private Schools provide the formal basic education services in Uganda. Non-formal education, including adult education, is imparted through the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Services and NGO's. The UNESCO, UNICEF, GTZ, DFID, DANIDA, World Bank, CIDA, USAID, Dutch, Irish Aid and European Union are major external agencies that are co-operating with the Ministry of Education and Sports.


5.1 Expansion of Early Childhood and Development Activities.

Investment in Early Childhood Development Programmes (ECP) has been mainly done through the support of donors such as UNICEF and other collaborative agencies and donors. However these investment programmes also cover the adolescents. It is not easy to isolate the investment which is only specific to Early Childhood because only one budget is made for both Early Childhood Care and Adolescent Development.

An Early Childhood Development networking workshop was held for all the stakeholders in the Ministry of Education and Sports. It was attended by MOES officials, district education officials, ITEK, NCDC, NCC key NGOs and donors. There were about 65 participants in attendance.

Three MoES officials and an official from a local NGO-Feed the Children were sponsored to attend ECD international workshops in Mauritius, Namibia and South Africa by UNICEF, Van de Leer and Agha Khan Foundation

Pre - primary has been a private business. However, development of curriculum was supported by Government and Government personnel are currently involved in the implementation of Early Childhood Education. There are specialists at NCDC for ECE curriculum and about 2000 copies were produced and distributed.

Data to show what has been invested in this area are not available for years since 1990 apart from 1998 and even for the available data, it may not be possible to desegregate it to give what specifically went to Early Childhood Development.

Ownership of Nursery Schools

Data related to Early Childhood Education affairs since 1990 are not available. Statistics in the table below are indicative of the status today.

Table 1 Number of Primary Schoos by Ownership, 1998

Nursery School owners


1. Company or Corporation

2. NGOs and Other Organizations

3. Parents or Community

4. Individuals or families

5. Church or Mosque

6. Not stated









Nursery Schools with Primary


1. Attached

2. Not Attached



Source: Education Census 1998.

Some NGOs have given support to Early Childhood Development but on limited scope. There are community based programmes for ECD managed by NGOs e.g Madarasa Resource Centre, Feed the Children, World Vision, Plan International, Children Christian Fund, Redd Barna, Mother Child Day Care Centres, Sunday School programmes managed by churches etc. Government recognises the important role of Early Childhood and Development and plans to invest more in pre-primary education.

    1. Universal Access to, and Completion of, Primary Education by the Year 2000 Goals and Targets.

5.2.1 Investments to ensure universal access to primary education.

To ensure universal access to primary education, substantial investment in this sector is required to cope with the increased enrolments since the introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE). Government has recognized the demands of UPE and of recent, there has occurred a steady rise in Government’s investment to fulfill its obligations in respect of UPE provision.

A quick glance at the investment in Universal Primary Education key activities in the above prioritization tells a clear story of the emphasis put on UPE. For example, to fulfill the Education Strategic Investment Plan (ESIP) target for the Textbook:-Pupil ratio of 1:1 requires the investment of Uganda shillings 24 billion in 1998/99 and 1999/00. This investment in Primary Educational Instructional Materials is far beyond the one before UPE.

Early in 1995/96, US $3m worth of textbooks for P5-P7 (4 core subjects) namely (English, Mathematics, Science and Social studies) were distributed throughout the country. A further US $4.5m worth of textbooks and supplementary readers for p1-p4 were received for distribution to schools (Background to the Budget 1996-1997 and National Development Strategy 1996/97 - 1998/99).

The ESIP requirements for classroom construction and completion have been established at a total cost of Uganda shs of 246 bn, including supervision costs, to build 41,000 new classrooms required ; of which 15,000 are replacements.

In addition, during fiscal year 98/99, expenditure focused on roofing uncompleted structures as a matter of priority for both practical and cost-effectiveness reasons. The total cost of Uganda Shillings 15 billion (current prices), which came as an additional financial requirement, was funded through donor sector budget support.

Existing and anticipated earmarked donor commitments plus Government of Uganda funds cover UShs.171bn of the plan for new construction. Much of the funding for FY 2001/2 and 2002/3 is from the Government of Uganda budget.

There is some investment in curriculum development for UPE. Funding of Ug. Shs 0.5 bn for 1990/00 has been directed towards NCDC to allow the finalization of the review of primary curriculum, a project which has been underway for a considerable period. Also, PTCs and NTCs have increased investment allocations to teacher education.

5.2.2 Recurrent expenditure on primary education.

Similar to the increased investment expenditure on primary education, there have been substantial increases in recurrent expenditure towards the sector. As a percentage of total expenditure, primary education has jumped from 6.4% in 1994/95, to 7.1% in 1995/96, and currently stands at 12.7%. The increase in expenditure to the primary education sub-sector is attributed to Universal Primary Education, which was introduced in 1997. Financing for the education sector as a whole has jumped from 20% of total expenditure in 1994/95 to 25% of total expenditure in 1997/98.

Expenditure on primary education as a percentage of GDP has jumped from 0.94% in 1995/96 to over 2.0% in 1999. Once again, an increase in expenditure (recurrent) towards primary education is a result of an increase in enrolments, which have jumped from 2.6 Million pupils in 1995/96 to 6.59 million pupils in 1999.

On a per pupil basis, per pupil expenditure as a percentage of GDP, has averaged 7.9% over a 5 year period from 1995/96 to 1999/2000.

Owing to the tremendous increase in enrolments between 1998 and 1999, from 5.3 million pupils to 6.59 million pupils, per pupil expenditure as a percentage of GDP has slightly decreased because proportionately, enrolments increased much more than expenditures.

Although allocations towards the primary education sub-sector increased by 6.12%, between 1998 and 1999, enrolments increased by 24% over the same period.

On the whole, however, the primary education sub-sector has received considerable amount of funding. This underlines Government commitment to Universal Primary education, in line with EFA goals and targets. This is shown in table 2.

Table 2 Recurrent Expenditure on Primary Education (millions of Uganda shillings :

1 US $ = 1500 Uganda Shillings).







Primary Education (recurrent)






Total Primary

(GoU + Donors)












Total GDP






GDP per Capita






Total expenditure on education






(Indicator 8)

Public Expenditure on Primary Education (% of total expenditure on Education)






(Indicator 7)

Primary Expenditure as a percentage of GDP







(Indicator 7)

Per pupil expenditure as

a percentage of GDP

per capita.











Source Background to the Budget, 1998

Table 2 clearly shows that recurrent budgetary allocation to the education sector have continued to increase year by year with UPE topping in the priority list in Government efforts to provide education to its citizens.

Capitation Grants at an average of Ushs 3.4 bn/- per month have continuously been disbursed to the districts and ultimately to the schools to facilitate implementation of UPE programme. Overall, priority is maintained towards primary education that currently receives a share of 62% of the total recurrent allocation to the sector, throughout the plan period (including primary school teacher development). Priorities that have been identified for allocating Government own resources and donor flexible sector budget support funds are: primary classroom construction, primary instructional materials, examination and assessment, primary curriculum development and primary school teacher training.

5.3 Improvement in Learning Achievement

Since 1990, government has mobilized its own resources through taxation and has received donations, grants and loans from the World Bank, and other Funding agencies for investment in basic education so as to improve pupils achievement in learning and hence improve the quality of education.

Government has expended public funds on basic education mainly in areas of curriculum development (books and scholastic materials). In the wake of UPE, much more funds will be required to accomplish the tasks and realize EFA vision. The government will take over the responsibility of paying Primary Leaving Examination fees beginning the year 2000.

The community and the family incur expenditure on tuition for pupils in excess of four (4) officially permitted per family for UPE. They also pay examination fees, school uniform, pens, pencils, etc.

Government budget ceiling for basic education is surely finite despite hard efforts to mobilize resources by taxation. The budget itself has not kept pace with increases in educational costs in the event of Universal Primary Education. Before UPE there were 2.5million pupils in primary schools. Now there are 6,591,429 pupils in these schools. The need to improve on pupils’ achievement in learning therefore looms large yet the education budget is constrained. Due to the high demands that UPE placed on the limited national resources, Government sought foreign assistance from Funding Agencies such as World Bank, USAID, DFID, DANIDA, IDA, Netherlands IRISH AID, EU, ADRA. Most of the foreign assistance is for classroom construction, provision of learning materials, and teacher training to enable Government fulfil the UPE mission and hence the EFA vision.

New investments since 1990 were: distance education programmes for primary teachers (1993), the primary teacher education (PTE) curriculum (1996), the National Assessment of Progress in Education (NAPE) (1996, 1997), curriculum for special needs education for primary teachers (1998), as well as the Improving Educational Quality (IEQ), and the National Primary Curriculum (1999),

5.4 Reduction of the adult illiteracy rates.

Since 1990 investments in Educational broadcasting have been made in the purchase of recording, printing and transmitting equipment. There has been recurrent expenditure on consumables like tapes and print. These are essentials of distance Education. Other investments were in development of teaching manuals and radio programmes, external degree programme which was started in 1990 by the Institute of Adult and Continuing Education, at Makerere University. The programme was supported by Commonwealth of Learning (COL) which purchased course books and radio cassettes for the students. The African Virtual Universities (AVU) were recently introduced in Uganda using internet for teleconference. The AVU invests basically in the development of course books, video vignettes, audio cassettes, TVs, public address system, overhead projectors and air programmes and posters, as well as training on the use of video vignettes (US $1,983,719 vehicles inclusive).

The Government through the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Service has spent on items shown in table 3 in collaboration with UNICEF, UNESCO and the German Adult Education association D.V.V.

Table 3 shows some Expenditures on Adult Education.



Amount US.$


Preparation for a proper scheme



Continued preparation



Recruitment of Gender Specialist



Sensitization of community leaders



Conducting Needs assessment survey






Development of functional literacy curriculum

Development and production of functional literacy


Development of the functional literacy Teaching and

Learning materials.

Development of the Functional Adult literacy Trading









Training Trainers.

Training literacy supervisors

Training literacy instructors

Establishment of functional

Literacy class on 8 Districts

Launching a pilot Functional

Literacy programme on 8 Districts



Continuous monitoring.



Provision of follow up readers and testing learners.



Process Review of the Pilot Project



Expansion of the Functional adult Literacy Programme to 18 more Districts



Providing Teaching and Learning Materials in Ateso ie.

primary curriculum and follow up materials




Launching the functional literacy programmes in 18 more Districts to bring the number to 26 Districts.



Annual Review of the functional literacy programme.



Grand Total U.S.$


(Source: Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development Report June 1999).

N.B: The above amount includes administrative costs, provision of vehicles, fuel and running costs of the vehicles.

Other NGOs have invested in functional literacy programmes. Notable among them are Action-Aid, Uganda Community Based Association for Child-welfare (UCOBAC), National Adult Education Association of Uganda, Literacy and Basic Education, Kiiru Adult Education Association and Karamoja Adult Education Association. Makerere University Institute of Adult and Continuing Education is playing a unique role of training professional adult educators at certificate, diploma and degree levels.

5.5 Expansion of basic education and training in other essential skills required by youth and adults.

Government support for apprenticeship schemes is premised on the belief that a large number of those who enter the labour market will not find wage-employment in the modern sector, even if they are educated. Young people will increasingly have to create their own jobs. It is an important issue whether they can be assisted in doing so and, in particular, whether training of one sort or another can help them to earn a decent income.

At present, apprenticeship programmes are carried out in: the government supported Vocational Training Centers, the privately run vocational centers; and the enterprises in the private and informal sectors. Apprenticeship training activities in the government vocational training centers are financed by annual budgets of government, fees paid by trainees and enterprises, and funds from income-generating activities and donor financing.

Table 4 Government’s investment in the vocational training centres.




Cuts on Approved













1 us $ = 1300 Ug. Shs

Source: Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development.

At present the resources available are insufficient. Table 4 above shows a progressive decline in the amount of funds released during the period (1995-1997. It is however hoped that the introduction of a training levy as laid down in the Technical, Vocational Education and Training policy will help in reducing financial difficulties experienced by these centers. One major concern however, is that the largest portion of the education and training budget to the Vocational Training Centers (about 60%) goes towards paying salaries, travelling and toward costs for instructors, leaving a small portion for consumable materials, textbooks, equipment and tools, which also significantly contribute to learning achievement.

    1. Increased acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge, skills and values required for better living, made through education channels.

Having recognised the role educational channels play in accessing education to the people other than the direct school instructional approach, Government and the private sector have made investments in these channels commonly known as the media.

There have been many investments in Media Education since 1952 when Radio Uganda began transmission followed by Uganda Television in 1964.

More investments in Educational broadcasting were made at the establishment of Educational Radio and TV (ERTV) in 1963. During the same period, Makerere University extra-murals department was giving distance education using print media.

The investment was made in the purchase of recording, printing and transmitting equipment. There was recurrent expenditure on consumables like tapes and print. These are essentials of distance Education. Types of distance education programmes are distinguished by types of media they employ. Between 1990 and 1999 investments have been made on the following types of distance Learning Programmes.

Resources from Funding Agencies were mainly used for development of teaching manuals and audio programmes.

  • Adult and Continuing Education, at Makerere University. The programme was supported by Common Wealth of Learning (COL) which purchased course books and audio cassettes for the students.

  • Through contribution from the students, the Institute at Makerere University was able to meet administrative expenses involved in running course work, paying lecturers and administration of Examination. The institute has been holding workshops for writing course books. Now a viable resource centre is established which both internal and external students are using. Furthermore, the following investments have been made in increasing acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge and skills:

    The Government of Uganda with the assistance of USAID and the World Bank have invested in in-service training of untrained teachers and primary school managers. Table 5 below shows the estimated investment.

    Table 5 shows the estimated investment in equipment and materials (by TDMS).


    COST (US $)

    Television sets, VCRS, Public

    Address systems, overhead projectors, Instructional materials, books sets of teacher training videos.



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